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Section !^..^-^C-^ 









REGINALD    SCOT,    Esquire 

PUBLISHED    IN    1584 









This  ediiuni  of  Scoi's  DiscovERlE  avis/s/s 
of  2jo  copies  only. —  E.  S. 


The  Royal  Library,  Windsor  Castle. 

W.  Aldis  Wright,  LL.D.,  Cambridge. 

Fabyan  Amery,  Esq.,  Ashburton. 

J.  E.  Bailey,  Esq.,  Stratford,  Manchester. 

W.  W.  Baynes,  Esq.,  London. 

Ernest  Blacker,  Esq.,  Midsomer  Norton. 

D,  Brodie,  Esq.,  Canterbury. 

A.  H.  BULLEN,  Esq.,  West  Hampstead. 

Miss  BURSILL,  London. 

J.  Patterson  Cassells,  M.D.,  Glasgow. 

Prof.  Chrystal,  Edinburgh. 

Sir  Andrew  Clark,  Bart.,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  etc.,  London. 

The  Lord  Chief  Justice  Coleridge,  London. 

C.  W.  Shirley  Deakin,  Esq.,  Allahabad. 

K.  Deighton,  Esq.,  Agra. 

Edw.  Denham,  Esq.,  New  Bedford,  U.S.A. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Derby,  Knowsley  Hall. 

The  Duke  of  Devonshire,  Devonshire  House. 

R.  Dill,  M.D,,  Brighton. 

Dr.  J.  Matthews  Duncan,  A.M.,  F.R.S.,  etc.,  London. 

Mrs.  D.  P.  Evans,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

P.  F.  Sparke  Evans,  Esq.,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

Prof.  John  Ferguson,  Glasgow. 

Alex.  Forsyth,  M.D.,  Greenwich. 

Francis  F.  Fox,  J. P.,  Chipping  Sodbury,  Bristol. 

Prof.  T.  R.  Fraser,  M.D.,  Edinburgh. 

H.  H.  FURNESS,  Esq.,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A. 

James  Gairdner,  Esq.,  London. 

Prof.  W.  T.  Gairdner,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  Glasgow, 

Edm.  Goldsmid,  F.S.A.  (Scot.),  Edinburgh. 

The  Rev.  A.  B.  Grosart,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  Blackburn. 

C.  O.  Halliwell-Phillipps,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  etc.,  Brighton. 

Henry  Hucks  Gibbs,  Esq.,  London. 

The  Rev.  W.  A.  HARRISON,  South  Lambeth. 

W.  A.  Hammond,  Esq.,  New  York. 

C.  M.  Ingleby,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Essex. 

Sir  Wm.  Jenner,  Bart.,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  etc.,  London. 

W.  Oscar  Jennings,  M.D.,  Paris. 

Day.  a.  King,  M.B.,  London. 

F.  de  M.  Leathes,  Esq.,  London, 

Library,  British  Museum. 

Exeter  College,  Oxford, 

Harvard  Coll.,  Cambridge,  U.S.A. 

Royal  Institution,  London. 


McGill  University,  Montreal. 

National,  of  Ireland. 

Society  of  Antiquaries,  Scotland. 

St.  Andrew's  University,  Aberdeen, 

Free,  Sydney. 

Louis  Leisler,  Esq.,  Frankfort-on-the-Main. 
The  Marquis  of  Lothian,  Newbattle  Abbey. 
Dove  MacColman,  M.D.,  Argyleshire. 
Prof  Douglas  Maclagan,  M.D.,  Edinburgh. 
J.  D.  Marwick,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Glasgow. 
Prof  David  Masson,  Edinburgh. 
John  Morison,  Esq.,  Glasgow. 
Prof  H.  MORLEY,  LL.D.,  London. 

Sir  JAS.  Paget,  Bart.,  F.R.S.,  LL.D.,  etc.,  London. 

Cornelius  Payne,  Esq.,  Kemp  Town,  Brighton. 

Miss  E.  Phipson,  London. 

The  Earl  of  Powis,  Berkeley  Square. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Rosebery,  Dalmeney  Castle. 

Jos.  Carne  Ross,  M.D.,  Penzance. 

The  Rev.  E.  E.  Baylee  Salisbury,  B.D.,  Horncastle. 

Alex.  Stewart,  M.D.,  Pendleton,  Manchester. 

W.  G.  Stone,  Esq.,  Walditch,  Bridport. 

Lawson  Tait,  F.R.C.S.,  Birmingham. 

Samuel  Timmins,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Arley,  Coventry. 

D.  Hack  Tuke,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  London. 

G.  H.  White,  Esq.,  Torquay. 

Walter  G.  Whittingham,  Esq.,  London. 

W.  Wilson,  Esq.,  Berwick-on-Tweed. 

A.  J.  Young,  Esq.,  Edinburgh. 


(To  tf)p  iHnnor? 


H.R.H.    PRINCE    LEOPOLD,    DUKE    OF   ALBAN\', 












'"T^HIS  reprint  is  not  a  facsimile  of  the  edition  of  1584,  for  that  was 
in  black  letter,  and  its  page  smaller  and  of  quarto  size.  Being 
also  for  modern  readers,  and  for  use,  the  /  of  the  original  has  become, 
where  necessary,  the  j  of  the  second  edition  ;  the  u  and  v  have  been 
altered  according  to  modern  usage,  that  is,  generally  interchanged  ; 
while  the  short  s  replaces  theyl  Such  modernisations  render  it  more 
readable  by  the  historical  and  philosophical  student,  by  the  man  of 
science,  and  by  the  psychological  physician,  willing  to  learn  all  that 
may  instruct  himself  and  benefit  others.  Neither  would  this  reprint 
have  been  undertaken,  unless  the  work  itself  had  appeared  to  my 
friend  and  fellow-student,  W.  T.  Gairdner,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  Professor 
of  Medicine  in  the  University  of  Glagow, — and  led  by  him — to  myself 
and  others,  worthy  on  the  above-mentioned  grounds,  of  being  repro- 
duced, and  as  being  both  in  matter  and  style  a  valuable  English 

While,  however,  it  is  not  a  facsimile,  yet,  excepting  such  variations 
as  are  above  noticed,  and  allowing  for  the  few  and  trifling  errors  from 
which  no  copy  can  expect  to  be  free,  not  even  a  photographic  one,  as 
experts  in  these  matters  well  know,  this  will,  I  believe,  be  found  a 
correct  reprint.  Every  proof  has  been  thrice,  and  sometimes  oftener, 
read  over  with  the  original  by  myself,  and  these  efforts  have  been 
well  supplemented  by  the  intelligence  and  care  of  its  printers. 
Even  the  word-errors  of  the  original,  where  not  in  its  list  of 
errata,  have  been  retained,  though  the  true  or  conjectural  readings 
have  been  given  in  the  margin,  or  in  two  or  three  instances  in 
the  Notings  at  the  end.  Except  also  in  two  instances,  where 
for  necessity's  sake  alterations  have  been  introduced  within  [  ]s, 
and  the  original  given  in  the  margin,  the  old  punctuation  has  been 
retained,  it  being,  as  a  rule,  very  good,  while  any  slight  slips  are 

2>iji  Preface. 

readily  observed,  and  do  not  affect  the  sense.  For  such  other  differ- 
ences as  are  due  to  the  black  letter,  and  for  others  like  these,  I  would 
refer  the  print-studying  reader  to  the  Introduction. 

In  the  biographical  portion  of  this  Introduction,  besides  a  supposi- 
tion or  two  of  my  own,  which  from  his  writings  seem  to  me  highly 
probable,  there  have  been  given  notices  of  his  pedigree,  age,  and 
marriages,  matters  hitherto  unknown  or  misstated,  and  for  which  I 
would  at  once  record  my  indebtedness  to  Edmund  Ward  Oliver,  Esq. 
This  gentleman  having  taken  an  interest  in  investigating  these  ques- 
tions, and  being  a  perfect  stranger  to  me,  wrote  and  offered  the  results 
of  his  inquiries  so  soon  as  he  had  learnt  that  I  was  engaged  with  this 
reprint,  and  has  since  most  obligingly  answered  the  various  questions 
that  I  have  had  occasion  to  put  to  him.  A  copy  of  Scot's  Will  has 
been  also  for  the  first  time  published,  and  some  Notes  and  a  Glossary 
added.  Were  I  to  have  imitated  the  learned  editors  of  former  days, 
I  should  have  added,  not  some,  but  exhaustive  notes  on  every  point, 
gathered  from  every  known  and  unknown  source  ;  but  I  have  con- 
fined myself  to  explanation,  or  to  making  a  few  remarks  on  the 
text,  giving  also  the  author's  agreement  with,  or  obligations  to  Wier, 
so  far  as  I  knew  them,  and  Shakespeare's  and  Middleton's  obligations 
to  himself ;  my  reason  for  not  entering  into  greater  details  being 
that  I  am  no  student  of  the  pseudo-science  of  witchcraft,  but  a  student 
only  of  what  is  useful,  and  true,  and  good. 

It  would  be  unseemly,  especially  after  mentioning  Mr.  Oliver's 
name,  were  I  to  close  this  without  acknowledging  the  kind  assistance 
of  my  well-known  friend,  James  Gairdner,  Esq.,  of  the  Public  Record 
Office  ;  of  my  Shakespearian  friends,  W.  Aldis  Wright,  LL.D.,  and 
P.  A.  Daniel,  Esq.  ;  of  that  given  me  by  the  Very  Reverend  Father 
W.  H,  Eyre,  lately  Superior  of  Stonyhurst;  by  Mrs.  Amelia  Green;  as 
also  by  Prof.  W.  W.  Skeat,  and  Dr.  J.  A.  H.  Murray,  in  my  Glossary; 
though  all  were,  and  personally  are,  strangers;  as  are  Miss  Kath.  P. 
Woolrych,  Oare  Vicarage,  Kent,  and  Miss  Ayscough,  of  Brabourne 
Vicarage  ;  and  especially  that  given  me  by  my  other  Shakespearian 
friends,  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Harrison,  of  St.  Anne's,  South  Lambeth,  and 
W\  G.  Stone,  Esq.  My  best  thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  J.  J.  Jervis 
for  the  use,  for  the  printer,  of  a  partially  incomplete  copy  of  the  first 

Preface.  i% 

edition  ;  to  the  University  of  Glasgow  for  the  loan,  for  my  own  use, 
for  the  greater  part  of  a  year,  of  another  copy  of  this  first  edition ; 
and  for  the  use  for  the  same  period  of  a  copy  of  the  third  edition 
to  my  Alma  Mater  of  Edinburgh,  endeared  to  me  by  the  teachings, 
remembrances,  and  kindnesses  of  Sir  William  Hamilton,  Allan 
Thomson,  Christison,  Traill,  Jamieson,  that  most  sagacious  of 
surgeons  and  teachers,  Syme,  and  the  ever-to-be-revered  physician 
and  man,  W.  Pulteney  Alison. 

Br.  Nicholson. 


The  pagings,  as  usual.,  are  those  of  the  first  edition. 

P.  20,  heading,  ch.  ii,  '■^  inqtiistor^\  read  '■'inquisitors". 
P.  92, 1.  5,  6,  "Ulyffes"  {bis\  read  "Ulysses". 
P.  169, 1.  9,  "obsevation",  read  "observation". 

P.  192,  1.  3.  "taiav'\  read  "«(TTja;/". 

P.  334, 1.  2,  from  end,  "three,"  read  "three  ;" 
P.  347,  1.  6,  from  end,  "  left  it",  read  "  left  in", 
P.  522, 1.  6,  from  end,  ''Silyllce",  read  "Sibylla". 



EXCEPT  that  they  add  the  names  of  some  who  have  opposed  his 
views,  or  some  such  trifling  matters,  all  the  writers  of  biographi- 
cal notices  of  Scot  have  drawn  their  information  from  the  account 
given  of  him  in  Wood's  AtJietice  Oxoti.  Nor,  indeed,  until  lately,  un- 
less original  search  had  been  made,  were  other  sources  available. 
Hence  I,  in  the  first  place,  give  his  words  verbatim  from  the  edition 
of  1691. 

"  Reynolde  Scot,  a  younger  Son  of  Sir  /ohn  Scot  of  Scots-hall^ 
near  to  Smeeth  in  Kent,  by  his  Wife,  Daughter  of  Reynolde  Pimp  of 
Pimps-court  Knight,  was  born  in  that  County,  and  at  about  17  years 
of  age  was  sent  to  Oxon,  particularly,  as  it  seems,  to  Hart  hall,  where 
several  of  his  Country-men  and  name  studied  in  the  latter  end  of  K. 
Hen.  8.  and  in  the  Reign  oi  Ed.  6.  &^c.  Afterwards  he  retired  to  his 
native  Country  without  the  honour  of  a  degree,  and  settled  at  Sineetli, 
where  he  found  great  incouragement  in  his  studies  from  his  kinsman 
Sir  Thos.  Scot.  About  which  time  taking  to  him  a  Wife,  he  gave 
himself  up  solely  to  solid  reading,  to  the  perusing  of  obscure  authors 
that  had  by  the  generality  of  Scholars  been  neglected,  and  at  times 
of  leisure  to  husbandry  and  gardening,  as  it  may  partly  appear  from 
these  books  following. 

"A  perfect  platform  of  a  Hop-garden,  and  necessary  instructions  for 
the  making  and  maintenance  thereof,  with  notes  and  rules  for  refor- 
mation of  all  abuses,  &c.     Lond.  1576.  qu.  the  2.  edit,  as  it  seems. 

"The  discovery  of  Witchcraft;  wherein  the  leud  dealing  of  Witches, 
and  Witchmongers  is  notably  detected,  the  knavery  of  Conjurers, 
the  impiety  of  Inchantors,  the  folly  of  Southsayers,  &c.  With  many 
other  things  are  opened,  which  have  long  been  hidden,  howbeit  very 
necessary  to  be  known.     Lond.  1584.  qu.  in  16  books. 

"Discourse  upon  Devils  and  Spirits. — In  this,  and  the  former,  both 
printed  together,  it  plainly  appears  that  the  author  was  very  well 
versed  in  many  choice  books,  and  that  his  search  into  them  was  so 
profound,  that  nothing  slip'd  his  Pen  that  might  make  for  his  purpose. 
Further  also  in  the  said  Discovery  and  Discourse.,  though  he  holds 
that  Witches  are  not  such  that  were  in  his  time  and  before,  commonly 
executed  for  Witches  ;  or  that  Witches  were,  or  are  not  ;  yet  they, 
which  were  written  for  the  instruction  of  all  Judges  and  Justices  of 
that  age,  (being  the  first  of  that  nature  that  were  published  in  the 
Mother  tongue,)  did  for  a  time  make  great  impressions  in  the  Magis- 

Inti'-oduction.  xi 

tracy  and  Clergy,  tho  afterwards  condemned  by  James  King  of 
Scots  (the  same  who  succeeded  Ou.  Elisabeth  in  the  Monarchy  of 
England)  in  his  Preface  to  Dcemonology,  printed  under  his  Name  at 
Edinburgh  in  1597.  cju.  and  by  several  others  since,  among  whom 
was  Rich.  Bernard  of  Batcomb,  in  his  Epist.  Ded.  before  his 
Guide  to  Grand  Jury-men.,  &c.  Lond.  1627.  in  oct.  What  else  our 
author  Scot  hath  written,  I  cannot  yet  tell,  nor  anything  else  of  him, 
only  but  that  he  dyed  in  Sept.  or  Oct.  in  fifteen  hundred  ninety  and 
nine,  and  was  buried  among  his  Ancestors  in  the  Church  at  Smeeth 

"  In  the  time  of  the  said  Reynold  Scot  and  before,  have  been  con- 
versant among  the  Muses  in  Hart  hall,  the  Sackviles  of  Sussex,  the 
Colepepers  of  Kent  and  Sussex,  the  Sedlies  of  Kent,  and  the  Scots 
before  mentioned,  with  others  of  inferiour  note  of  the  said  Counties." 

Notes  added  in  Bliss's  Reprint. 

"  7.  The  learned  author  in  his  Discovery  is  as  vehement  against 
Popery  as  against  witchcraft,  and  quite  indecent  in  his  abuse  of  the 
saints  of  the  Romish  church." — Cole.  [His  indecency  being  for  the 
most  part  a  narrative  of,  and  obvious  reflections  on,  their  indecency. 
And  this  I  say  understanding  the  sense  in  which  he  uses  the  word.] 

"  8.  See  a  full  account  of  this  curious  book,  as  Mr.  Oldys  calls  it,  in 
his  British  Librarian,  p.  213.  All  the  copies  of  the  first  edit.  1584, 
that  could  be  found  were  burnt  by  order  of  K.  James  I.  an  author  on 
the  other  side  of  the  question." — Vid.  Hist.  Dictionary,  sub  voce  "  Scot". 

["Reginaldus  Scotus,  Afiglus,  tractatum  de  Incantamentis  scrip- 
sit,  in  quo  plerasque  traditiones  de  Magia  Melancholia;,  &  morbis 
variis,  aut  artibus  histrionicis  adscribit."]  "  Hunc  in  Anglia  publica 
auctoritate  combustum,  sibi  autem  nunquam  fuisse  visum  refert 
Thomasius  de  crimine  magiae  §  3." — Vide  [j.  v.]  Vogt.,  Cat.  Libr.  rar., 
p.  6(7  [1713]- 

"  Liber  in  folio  scriptus  Anglica  lingua  a  Reginaldo  Scoto  in  quo 
plurima  occurrunt  contra  magiaa  existentiam  argumenta.  Est  ille 
etiam  in  Belgicam  linguam  conversus  :  sed  plenior  editio  est  ultima 
Anglica." — Morhof.,  ii,  459. 

[Then  a  short  note  on  the  three  editions.] 

In  1874  there  were  privately  ^rmitd,  Afe?norials  oj the  Scot  Family., 
by  Jas.  Renat  Scott,  Esq.,  and  from  them  I  extract  the  following  tables: 

Rich.  Scott=f=Mary  Whetenhall. 

Reginald        Richard  ancestor  oj  the       Edvvard=j=May,  d.  of     [2  d.] 
author.  Scotts  of  Shrewsbury  I    JohnWar- 

and  elseiuhere.  \    ren. 

.   j 
A  quo  the  Scotts  of  Glemsford  Suffolk  and  afterwards  of 
Ohio  and  Massachusetts  in  America. 

xii  Introduction.  * 

Reg.   Scott,  b,    1541,  =Alice  Cobbe,   d.  of  Th.  Cobbe  of  Cobbes 

mar.  11  Oct.  1568, 
died  Oct.  1599. 

Place,  Aldington,  Kent. 

Collyar=Marie.  Elizabeth=Sackville  Tumor  of  Tablehurst, 


But  as  the  first  part  of  the  ancestry  given  in  this  book  is  not  sup- 
ported by  anything  beyond  possibility  and  legend,  so  this  latter 
portion  is  incorrect  in  various  particulars.  Instead,  however,  of 
taking  each  inaccuracy  item  by  item,  it  will  be  simpler  to  give  a 
consecutive  account  of  such  facts  as  to  his  ancestry,  and  as  to 
Reginald  Scott  himself,  as  can  be  proved  by  documentary  evidence 
or  rendered  probable  by  deductions  therefrom. 

John  Philipot,  Rouge  Dragon  and  Somerset  Herald,  who  died  in 
1645,  set  forth  the  pleasant  and  picturesque,  but  slightly  supported 
origin  of  the  family.  I  say  pleasant,  because  the  Scotts  in  the  times 
of  EHzabeth,  James,  and  Charles,  were  a  family  of  large  possessions, 
wealth,  and  influence,  influence  so  great  that  it  is  said  that  Elizabeth 
refused  the  request  made  by  Lord  Buckhurst,  or  the  Earl  of  Leicester, 
that  Sir  Thomas  Scott  should  be  ennobled,  saying  that  he  had  already 
more  influence  in  Kent  than  she  had.  She  seems  also  to  have  had  from 
this,  or  from  some  other  reason,  a  personal  dislike  to  them,  for  in  her 
Progress  in  1573,  she  having  passed  three  days  at  his  father-in-law's. 
Sir  John  Baker,  of  Sissinghurst  Castle,  declined  to  visit  Scotts-hall, 
saying  she  wished  to  proceed  to  her  own  house,  though  on  her  way 
thither  she  had  to  pass  Sir  Thomas's  gates.  In  his  Villare  Canti- 
anum,  p.  313,  Philipot  has  these  words  :  *^  Scotts-hall,  which  is  now 
and  hath  been  for  divers  Descents  the  Inheritance  of  eminent  Gentle- 
men of  that  Sirname,  whom  I  dare  aver  upon  probable  Grounds 
were  originally  called  BaliolL  William  Balioll,  second  brother  to 
Alexander  de  Balioll,  frequently  writ  his  Name  William  de  Balioll 
le  Scot^  and  it  is  probable,  that  upon  the  Tragedy  of  JoJm,  Earl  of 
At  ho  II,  who  was  made  prisoner  hy  Edward  the  first,  and  barbarously 
executed,  in  the  year  1307.  (whilst  he  endeavoured  more  nobly  than 
successfully  to  defend  the  gasping  Liberty  of  Scotland  against  the 
Eruption  of  that  Prince  ;)  this  Family  to  decline  the  Fury  of  that 
Monarch,  who  was  a  man  of  violent  passions,  altered  the  name  of 

Introduction.  xiii 

Balioll  to  that  of  their  Extraction  and  Country,  and  assumed  for  the 
future  the  Name  of  Scot.  That  the  Sirname  of  this  Family  was 
originally  Balioll^  I  farther  upon  these  Reasons  assert.  First,  the 
ancient  Arms  of  Balioll  Colledge  in  Oxford,  which  was  founded  by 
John  Balioll,  and  dedicated  to  St.  Katharine  was  a  Katherin-Wheele, 
being  still  part  of  the  paternal  Coat  of  this  Family.  Secondly,  David 
de  Strabogie-i  who  was  Son  and  Heir  to  the  unfortunate  Earl  above- 
said,  astonished  with  an  Example  of  so  much  Terror,  altered  his  name 
from  Balioll  to  Strabogie,  which  was  a  Signory  which  accrued  to  him 
the  Right  of  his  Wife,  who  was  Daughter  and  Heir  io  John  Cof/tin,  Earl 
of  Badzenoth  and  Strabogie,  and  by  this  Name  King  Edward  the 
second,  omitting  that  of  Balioll  restored  Chilham- castle  to  him  for 
Life,  in  the  fifteenth  year  of  his  reign.  Thirdly,  the  Earls  oi  Buccletigh, 
and  the  Barons  of  Burley  in  Scotland,  who  derive  themselves  origin- 
ally from  Balioll,  are  known  at  this  instant  by  no  other  Sirname,  but 
Scot,  and  bear  with  some  inconsiderable  Difference,  those  very  Arms 
which  are  at  present  the  paternal  Coat  of  the  Family  of  Scots-hall." 

This  tradition  excluded,  we  find  that  Sir  William  Scot  of  Braberne, 
now  Brabourne,  in  Kent,  is  the  first  of  whom  we  have  historical 
mention.  He  was  knighted  in  1336,  when  the  Black  Prince  was 
created  Duke  of  Cornwall,  and  died  in  1350  :  a  brass  to  his  memory, 
being  in  Weever's  time  (1631),  the  first  of  the  memorials  of  the  Scot 
family  in  Brabourne  church.  According  to  Philipot,  this  Sir  William 
was  the  same  with  Sir  William  Scot,  then  Chief  Justice  of  England ; 
but  if  Mr.  Foss  be  right  in  stating  that  this  latter  died  in  1346,  the 
year  of  the  Black  Death,  this  view  cannot  be  upheld. 

Another  Sir  William,  apparently  a  grandson  of  the  above,  acquired 
through  his  mother  the  manor  of  Combe  in  Brabourne,  and  through 
his  first  wife  and  her  relations — modes  of  increase  in  which  the 
family  seem  to  have  been  fortunate — that  of  Orlestone,  as  well  as 
other  places;  and  in  1420  he  built  Scotshall,  in  the  manor  of  Hall  in 
Smeeth,  and  was  in  1428  sheriff  of  the  county,  and  in  1430  knight  of 
the  shire  in  parliament.  He  died  1433.  Scotshall,  from  time  to 
time  enlarged  or  rebuilt,  and  especially  so  by  Sir  Edward  Scot,  in 
the  reign  of  Charles  I,  became  the  family  seat  for  twelve  generations. 
Evelyn,  under  date  August  2,  1663,  records  his  visit  to  it  (soon  after 
the  young  knight's  marriage),  and    calls  it   "a   right   noble   seate, 

xiv  Introduction. 

uniformely  built,  with  a  handsome  gallery.  It  stands  in  a  park  well 
stor'd,  the  land  fat  and  good.  We  were  exceedingly  feasted  by  the 
young  knight,  and  in  his  pretty  chapell  heard  an  excellent  sermon  by 
his  chaplaine."  It  was  sold,  with  the  remaining  possessions  of  the 
family,  at  the  close  of  the  last  century,  and  destroyed  in  1808.  Some 
undulations  in  a  field  on  the  north  side  of  the  road  from  Ashford  to 
Hythe,  about  half  a  mile  to  the  east  of  Smeeth  church,  alone  mark 
its  site. 

The  son  of  this  second  Sir  William,  named  Sir  John,  being  con- 
nected with  the  Woodvilles,  and  therefore  with  the  wife  of  Edward  IV, 
and  being  a  staunch  Yorkist,  and  apparently  a  man  of  intelligence, 
was  employed  in  special  embassies  to  Charles,  Duke  of  Burgundy, 
especially  in  1467,  when  he  went  to  treat  of  the  marriage  of  the  king's 
sister  with  the  duke.  He  had  also  various  other  and  more  substantial 
favours  conferred  upon  him  from  time  to  time,  from  1461  onwards, 
including  that  of  Chilham  Castle  for  life,  as  somewhat  oddly,  and 
I  think  wrongly,  noted  in  the  extract  from  Philipot.  He  died  in  1485, 
and  probably  intestate,  as  no  will  is  recorded. 

To  him  succeeded  his  son,  the  third  Sir  William  in  this  account, 
and  he  dying  in  1524,  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  a  second  Sir  John. 
This  last,  by  his  marriage  with  Anne,  daughter  of  Reginald  Pympe, 
had  three  sons,  and  died  on  the  7th  October  1533.  The  eldest, 
William,  followed  his  father  on  the  5th  June  1536,  and  leaving  no 
offspring,  his  next  brother,  Sir  Reginald,  took  his  place.  Of  the  third 
brother,  Richard,  the  father  of  our  Reginald,  I  shall  speak  presently. 
Meanwhile,  returning  to  the  main  line,  I  would  say  that  Sir  Reginald, 
dying  on  the  i6th  October  1554,  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Sir 
Thomas,  the  "cousin"  to  whom  Reginald  was  much  indebted,  and 
one  of  the  four  to  whom  he  dedicated  his  Witchcraft.  He  was,  in 
his  day,  a  man  of  note,  intelligence,  and  action.  Finding  his  estate 
in  debt,  he  yet  kept  one  hundred  at  his  table,  was  most  hospitable, 
and  died  owing  nothing,  though,  of  course,  to  provide  for  the 
younger  of  his  very  numerous  progeny,  various  portions  of  his  estate 
were  by  his  will  sold  after  his  death.  He  was  deputy-lieutenant  of 
his  county,  sheriff  of  Kent  in  1576,  knight  of  the  shire  for  the 
Parliaments  of  13  and  28  Elizabeth,  chief  of  the  Kentish  forces  at 
Northbourne  Downs,  where  they  were  assembled  to  repel  any  landing 

Introduction.  xv 

from  the  Armnda ;  and  it  may  be  added,  as  showing  his  promptness, 
readiness,  and  decision,  that  4,000  of  these  were  there,  equipped  for  the 
field,  the  day  after  he  received  his  orders  from  the  Privy  Council. 
He  was  one  of  the  Commissioners  to  report  on  the  advisability  of 
improving  the  breed  of  horses  in  this  country,  and  either  before  or 
after  this,  is  said  to  have  published  a  book  on  the  subject.  He  was  a 
Commissioner  for  draining  and  improving  Romney  Marsh,  and  after- 
wards Superintendent  of  the  improvements  of  Dover  harbour.  Various 
letters  to  and  from  him  in  reference  to  Dover  harbour,  as  well  as  to  the 
Kentish  forces,  are  to  be  found  in  the  State  Calendars.  Having  been 
the  parent  of  seventeen  children  by  his  first  wife,  Emmeline  Kempe,  a 
relative  by  maternal  descent,  he  died  on  the  30th  December  1594,  and 
Ashford  parish  offered  to  pay  the  expenses  of  his  funeral  if  only  they 
were  allowed  to  bury  him  in  their  church.  Most  of  these  facts  are 
noted  in  the  following  verses,  which  I  give,  chiefly  because  there  are 
some  probabilities  that  they  were  by  Reginald.  A  copy  of  them  seems 
to  have  been  found  among  the  family  papers,  in  his  handwriting. 
That  he  made  some  of  the  verse  translations  given  in  his  Witchcraft 
is  extremely  probable,  from  the  want  in  these  cases  of  marginal 
references  to  the  translator's  name;  hence  a  second  probability.  The 
verses  themselves  render  it  likely  that  they  were  one  of  those 
memorial  elegies  then  affixed  tiri  ra^oi/  by  affectionate  friends  and 
relatives,  and  not  what  we  now  call  an  epitaph ;  and  the  third  verse 
clearly  shows  that  they  were  written  at  least  some  little  time  after  Sir 
Thomas's  decease,  and  therefore  were  not  improbably  written  to  be 
affixed  to  the  handsome  tomb  erected  over  his  remains.  Hence  a  third 
probability ;  but  beyond  the  accumulated  force  of  these  we  cannot  go. 

Epitaph  on  Sir  Thomas  Scott,  as  given  in  the  "  Memorials  of  the 
Scott  Family",  and  also  in  Pick's  "  Collectio7t  of  Curious  Pieces 
in  the  World",  vol.  3. 

Here  lyes  Sir  Thomas  Scott  by  name  ; 

Uh  happie  Kempe  that  bore  him  ! 
Sir  Raynold,  with  four  knights  of  fame, 

Lyv'd  lyneally  before  him. 

His  wieves  were  Baker,  Heyman,  Beere  ; 

His  love  to  them  unfayned. 
He  lyved  nyne  and  fiftie  yeare, 
And  seventeen  soules  he  gayned. 

xvi  Inti^odiiction. 

His  first  wief  bore  them  every  one  ; 

The  world  might  not  have  myst  her  !* 
She  was  a  very  paragon 

The  Lady  Buckherst's  syster. 

His  widow  lyves  in  sober  sort, 
No  matron  more  discreeter  ; 

She  still  reteiynes  a  good  report, 
And  is  a  great  housekeeper. 

He  (being  called  to  special  place) 
Did  what  might  best  behove  him. 

The  Queen  of  England  gave  him  grace, 
The  King  of  Heav'n  did  love  him. 

His  men  and  tenants  wail'd  the  daye, 
His  Kinne  and  countrie+  cryed  ; 

Both  young  and  old  in  Kent  may  saye, 
Woe  worth  the  day  he  dyed. 

He  made  his  porter  shut  his  gate 
To  sycophants  and  briebors, 

And  ope  it  v/ide  to  great  estates. 
And  also  to  his  neighbours. 

His  House  was  rightly  termed  Hall 
Whose  bred  and  beefe  was  redie  ; 

It  was  a  very  hospitall 

And  refuge  for  the  needie. 

From  whence  he  never  stept  aside. 
In  winter  nor  in  summer  ; 

In  Christmas  time  he  did  provide 
Good  cheer  for  every  comer. 

When  any  service  shold  be  doun, 
He  lyked  not  to  lyngar  ; 

The  rich  would  ride,  the  poor  wold  runn, 
If  he  held  up  his  fingar. 

He  kept  tall  men,  he  rydd  great  hors. 
He  did  write  most  finely  ; 

He  used  fewe  words,  but  cold  discours 
Both  wysely  and  dyvinely. 

His  lyving  meane,t  his  charges  greate. 
His  daughters  well  bestowed  ; 

Although  that  he  were  left  in  debt. 
In  fine  he  nothing  owed. 

*  Though  a  paragon,  she  lived,  he  would  say,  a  quiet,  retired  life,  obedient 
and  loving  to  her  husband. 

+  "  Countrie",  seems  not  unlikely  to  be  used  here,  as  in  the  Discoverie  not 
unfrequently,  and  twice  in  Wood's  notice  just  given,  and,  as  then,  for  county. 

X  "Meane",  that  is,  moderate,  midway  between  the  very  rich  and  the  poor. 

Introduction.  xvii 

But  dyed  in  rich  and  happie  state, 

Beloved  of  man  and  woman 
And  (what  is  yeate  much  more  than  that) 

He  was  envied*  of  no  man. 

In  justice  he  did  much  excell, 

In  law  he  never  wrangled  : 
He  loved  rellygion  wondrous  well, 

But  he  was  not  new-fangled. 

Let  Romney  Marsh  and  Dover  saye  ; 

Ask  Norborne  camp  at  leyseur  ; 
If  he  were  woont  to  make  delaye 

To  doe  his  countrie  pleasure. 

But  Ashford's  proffer  passeth  all  — 

It  was  both  rare  and  gentle  ; 
They  would  have  pay'd  his  funerall 

T'  have  toomb'd  him  in  their  temple. 

Before  returning  to  Richard  and  Reginald,  we  may  conclude  this 
short  notice  of  their  ancestors  by  mentioning  the  very  probable  cir- 
cumstance that  the  former  were,  by  the  female  line,  descendants  of 
John  Gower,  the  poet,  as  explained  in  the  following  table  : 

Sir  John  Pashell=f=Elizabeth,  d.  of  Richard  Wydeville,  sister  of  Earl 
I       Rivers,  aunt  of  Edward  IV's  wife. 

John  Pashell,—  !.  Ludovic  (Lowys),  d.  of  Th.  Gower,  ob.  circa  1458. 
ob.  circa  1472.  | 

I  i 

William,  Elizabeth,  or  Isabel,=|=Reg.  Pympe. 

ob.  fl«/^  1485,  J./.  ob.  ««/<?  1485.        I 

Anne=Sir  John  Scot,  father  of  Richard  Scot. 

The  Pashells,  or  Pashleys,  were  descended  from  Sir  Edmund  de 
Passelege,  a  Baron  of  the  Exchequer,  who  purchased  a  manor  in 
Smeeth  in  1319  ;  he  died  1327.  The  family  resided  at  Iden,  Sussex  ; 
and  the  house  there,  and  the  manor  in  Smeeth,  devolved  on  the 
Scots,  Anne  Pympe  being  her  father's  only  child.  It  is  true  that  John 
Gower,  the  poet,  does  not  mention  any  children  in  his  extant  will, 
but  he  was  probably  seventy-eight  when  he  died  ;  and,  what  is 
more  to  the  purpose,  his  published  will  was  probably  only  his  testa- 
ment, the  will  or  declaration  of  uses  of  the  land  being  commonly  at 

*  "Envied",  most  probably  in  its  then  frequent  sense  of  hated. 

c  c 

xviii  Introduction. 

that  time  a  separate  instrument.  Th.  Gower,  of  Clapham,  given  above 
as  the  father  of  Lowys,  was  probably  the  son  or  grandson  of  John 
Gower  (see  Sir  Harris  Nicolas  in  T/ie  Ret?-osp.  Rev.,  2  Sen,  ii,  103-17). 
Also  Gower  the  poet  is  known  to  have  had  property  in  Southwark;  and 
Th.  Gower,  of  Clapham,  refers  in  his  will  (1458)  to  his  tenement  called 
The  Falcon,  in  Southwark,  near  the  hospital ;  and  in  Manning  and 
Bray's  Surrey,  iii,  623,  there  is  noticed  a  deed  of  conveyance  dated 
22nd  November  1506,  of  part  of  the  site  of  St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  in 
Southwark,  made  by  John  Scot,  of  Iden,  and  Anne  his  wife,  daughter 
and  heir  of  John  Pashley,  who  was  cousin  and  heir  of  John  Gower. 
It  may  be  added  as  curious  that  Sir  Robert  Gower,  who  is  believed 
to  have  been  uncle  to  the  poet,  was  buried  in  Brabourne  church  in 
1349  ;  his  monument,  now  destroyed,  being  noticed  in  Weever. 

On  p.  500,  Scot  speaks  of  "  his  kinseman  M.  Deering",  Edw.  Bering 
the  divine,  a  writer  on  theological  subjects  and  chaplain  to  her 
Majesty;  but  in  what  way  they  were  kin  I  have  been  unable  to  dis- 

Returning  now  to  Reginald's  father,  Richard,  the  youngest  of  the 
three  sons  of  that  Sir  John  who  died  in  1533,  we  find  that  he  married 
Mary,  daughter  of  Geo.  Whetenall,  whose  father  was  sheriff  of  Kent 
in  1527,  and  whose  family  had  lived  for  three  centuries  at  Hextall's 
Place,  near  Maidstone.  She  survived  her  husband  ;  and  being  re- 
married to  Fulke  Onslow,  Clerk  of  the  Parliaments,  died  before  him, 
8th  October  1582,  and  was  buried,  as  he  afterwards  was,  in  Hatfield 
church,  Herts,  where  a  brass  to  their  memory  is  fixed  in  the  north 
wall  of  the  chancel.  Of  Richard  himself  nothing  more  is  known. 
He  probably  died  young,  and  certainly  before  December  1554,  his 
death  being  mentioned  in  the  will  of  his  brother  Sir  Reginald,  who  died 
on  the  1 6th  of  that  month.  In  this  will,  failing  his  own  issue — a  lapse 
which  did  not  occur — he  left  his  real  estate  "  unto  Rainolde  Scotte, 

*  My  mother  being  a  Bering,  a  daughter  of  the  Thomas  that  was  drowned 
in  the  West  Indies,  when  trying  to  reach  his  vessel  H.M.S.  Circe,  induces 
me  to  add,  through  the  courtesy  of  Sir  Edw.  C.  Bering,  that  a  portrait  of 
this  worthy  is  still  to  be  seen  at  Surrenden  Bering,  and  that  a  family  tradition 
has  it,  that  preaching  before  her  Majesty,  he  had  the  boldness  to  tell  her,  "that 
she  had  no  more  controul  over  her  passions  than  an  untamed  heifer."  He 
was  speedily  unfrocked,  and  is  said  to  have  emigrated  to  America,  where  an 
Edw.  Bering  is  at  this  moment  the  head  of  that  branch,  and  a  laVge  land- 
owner in  Maine. 

Introduction.  xix 

son  and  heire  of  my  brother  Richard  Scotte,  dec^",  and  Rainolde's 
issue  failing,  it  was  devised  to  a  more  distant  branch.  Hence,  con- 
trary to  the  table  given  on  page  xi,  from  "The  Memorials",  "  Rainolde" 
was  either  the  only  son  of  Richard,  or  the  only  son  then  living.  The 
same  conclusion  follows  from  the  Inquis.  post  mortem  of  Lady 
Wynifred  Rainsfoord,  taken  the  20th  March  1575/6,  where  Sir  Thomas 
Scot  and  his  brothers  are  said  to  be  co-heirs  with  Reynold  of  the  lands 
held  by  her  in  gavelkind,  the  sons  having  one  moiety,  and  Reynold 
the  other. 

This  Inquisition  also  gives  Reynold's  then  age  as  thirty-eight  or 
more,  the  words  "  et  amplius"  being,  as  was,  usually  at  least,  done  in 
these  documents,  attached  to  all  the  other  ages  mentioned.  Hence 
he  was  born  in  or  before  1538  (not  in  1541),  and  as,  according  to 
Wood,  he  entered  Hart  Hall,  Oxford,  when  about  seventeen,  he 
entered  it  circa  1555  ;  the  intention  that  he  should  do  so  having  been 
probably  entertained  by  Sir  Reginald,  his  uncle,  who  died  i6th 
December  1554,  and  his  expenses  borne  by  his  cousin,  Sir  Thomas. 
I  say  probably,  because  we  have  seen  that,  failing  his  own  issue,  he 
was  named  by  Sir  Reginald  as  the  next  heir  to  the  estate,  and  also 
because  we  know  nothing  of  the  circumstances  in  which  his  widowed 
mother  was  left,  nor  as  yet  of  the  date  at  which  she  was  re-married 
to  Onslow. 

On  the  nth  of  October  he  married  Jane— not,  as  stated  in  "The 
Memorials",  Alice — Cobbe,  the  daughter  of  an  old  yeoman  family 
long  resident  at  Cobbe's  Place,  in  the  adjoining  parish  of  Aldington. 
The  entry  in  the  Registers  of  Brabourne  is — 

.   "  M*  Reignold  Scott  and  Jane  Cobbe 
were  maryed  the  xi*  of  October  1658." 

The  only  issue  of  this  marriage,  the  only  issue  (that  at  least  survived) 
of  both  his  marriages — for  the  IMaria  in  the  table  of  "The  Memorials" 
was  the  daugher  of  his  second  wife  by  her  first  husband— was  Eliza- 
beth, afterwards  married  to  Sackville  Turnor  ;  and  the  only  issue  of 
that  marriage,  prior  at  least  to  Reynold's  death  in  1599,  was  Cicely. 
Elizabeth's  birth  must  have  been  in  or  before  1574,  for  in  the  Inquis. 

*  To  this  upper  portion  of  the  "M"  is  added  a  character  which  may  make 
it  "  Mr."  or  "  Married";  but  I  have  not  myself  yet  seen  the  entry. 

XX  Introduction. 

post  mortem  of  Reg.  Scot  generosus  in  1602,  she  is  said  to  be  "  28  et 
amplius".  The  Holy  Maid  of  Kent  (mentioned  by  Scot,  p.  26)  was 
servant  to  one  of  her  maternal  progenitors,  probably  to  her  grand- 

In  this  year,  1574,  was  also  published  the  first  issue  of  his  brain, 
his  tractate  on  The  Hopfie-Garden,  the  first  work,  I  believe,  in  which 
not  only  was  the  culture  of  the  hop  in  England  advocated,  both  as 
having  been  successfully  tried  by  him,  and  as  against  its  importation 
from  Peppering,  in  Flanders,  where  its  mode  of  culture,  etc.,  was  en- 
deavoured to  be  kept  secret  ;  but  the  whole  subject  of  its  growth, 
culture,  drying,  and  preservation  was  gone  into  in  a  practical  manner, 
and  further  explained  by  woodcuts.  And  here  it  may  be  worth  noting 
that  in  this  year  Reynold  was  necessarily  absent  so  far  from  London 
that  the  publisher  inserted  this  apologetic  note  :  "  Forasmuch  as  M. 
Scot  could  not  be  present  at  the  printing  of  this  his  Booke,  whereby 
I  might  have  used  his  advise  in  the  correction  of  the  same,  and  especi- 
allie  of  the  Figures  and  Portratures  conteyned  therein,  whereof  he 
delivered  unto  me  such  notes  as  I  being  unskilfull  in  the  matter,  could 
not  so  thoroughly  conceyve,  nor  so  perfectly  expresse  as  ...  .  the 
Author,  or  you  ....  the  Reader  might  in  all  poyntes  be  satisfied 
[etc.,  etc.]."  In  the  second  edition,  however,  in  1576,  it  was  :  "Now 
newly  corrected  and  augmented,"  the  augmentations  increasing  the 
book  from  fifty-three  pages,  exclusive  of  the  epilogue,  to  sixty,  and 
the  corrections  including  one  added  and  one  emended  engraving. 
As  a  matter  of  curiosity,  and  as  showing  that  neither  the  publisher 
nor  the  author  expected  a  second  edition,  it  may  be  added  that  though 
only  two  years  had  elapsed,  some  at  least  of  the  wood  engravings 
required  to  be  re- cut  in  almost  exact  facsimile.  A  third  edition  was 
issued  in  1578,  and  from  these  we  can  date  the  commencement  of  the 
hop  harvests  in  Kent. 

In  1575  he  succeeded  to  one  moiety  of  such  part  of  Lady  Winifred 
Rainsford's  estate  as  was  held  in  gavelkind.  Possibly,  indeed,  we  may 
place  his  enjoyment  of  it  earlier,  for  Lady  Rainsford  was  declared 
insane  ;  and  to  this,  by  the  way,  I  am  not  disinclined  to  attribute 
Reynold's  prolonged  absence  from  London  in  1572,  the  attendance 
of  some  one  of  the  family  being  required,  and  he,  being  older  than 
the  sons  of  Sir  Thomas,  and  of  a  junior  branch,  and  a  man  of  busi- 

Introduction.  xxi 

ness,  having  been  chosen  or  requested  to  go.  And  I  think  we  may 
place  his  loss  of  that  estate  between  this  date  and  that  of  1584,  the 
date  of  the  publication  of  the  Witchcraft.  At  least,  in  this  Discoverie 
occur  two  passages  which,  taken  together,  seem  to  point  to  this.  In  his 
dedication  to  Sir  Th.  Scot  he  says:  A  vi,  "  My  foot  being  [not,  having 
been]  under  your  table,  my  hand  in  your  dish,  or  rather  in  your  pursse" 
— and,  A  viii :  "  If  they  will  allow  men  knowledge  and  give  them  no 
leave  to  use  it,  men  were  much  better  be  without  it  than  have  it ; 
....  it  is,  as  .  .  .  .  to  put  a  candle  under  a  bushell  :  or  as  to  have 
a  ship,  and  to  let  hir  lie  alwaies  in  the  docke  :  which  thing  how 
profitable  it  is,  I  can  saie  somewhat  by  experience."  Though  it  may 
be  said  that  Reynold  was  a  man  of  business,  and,  as  appears  from 
his  writings,  a  man  of  decision  and  of  unusual  intelligence,  still 
circumstances  may  combine  to  bring  disaster  as  a  shipowner  on  such 
a  one,  and  more  especially  if  he  be  new  to  the  business.  That  he  did 
in  some  way  lose  his  "  moiety"  is  shown  by  the  words  of  his  will,  for, 
speaking  of  his  second  wife,  he  says,  "whome  yf  I  had  not  matched 
w'h  all  I  had  not  dyed  worth  one  groate."  Not,  improbably,  I  think, 
it  was  to  the  time  of  his  first  marriage,  or  to  his  widovvership,  or  to 
both,  that  Wood  more  especially  refers  when  he  speaks  of  his  giving 
himself  up  to  solid  reading,  etc. 

When  his  first  wife  died  and  when  he  re-married  is  as  yet  unknown 
to  us.  But  this  latter  could  hardly  have  taken  place  until  the  latter 
end,  at  earliest,  of  1584,  since  in  that  year  he,  as  already  quoted,  de- 
scribes himself  as,  "having  his  foot  under  your  [Sir  Th.  Scot's]  table", 
etc.,  or  in  other  words,  as  being  a  dependant  not  worth  one  groat.  Nor 
do  we  know  more  of  this  second  wife  beyond  these  slight  particulars 
that  we  gather  from  Reynold's  will  :  that  her  Christian  name  was 
Alice — given  in  "  The  Memorials"  instead  of  Jane,  to  Cobbe,  the  first 
wife- — that  she  was  a  widow  with  a  daughter  by  her  former  husband  ; 
and  that  she  had  some  land,  either  in  her  own  right  or  derived  from 
her  former  husband.  That  she  was  a  widow  at  the  time  of  her  re- 
marriage is  shown  by  Reynold's  bequest  of  "six  poundes  thirteene 
shillings  foure  pence  to  my  daughter  in  Lawe  Marie  Collyar  for  ap- 
parell  [?  mourning]  desiring  that  her  mother's  hand  be  not  anie  thinge 
the  shorter  towards  her  in  that  respect."  Whether  Collyar  were  this 
daughter's  maiden  name,  and  therefore  the  name  of  her  mother's  first 

xxii  Intyoduction. 

husband,  or  whether  it  were  the  name  of  her  own  husband,  is  doubt- 
ful, though  from  the  words  just  quoted  I  rather  incline  to  this  second 
supposition,  and  that  the  husband  was  not  a  man  of  much  means. 
With  regard  to  what  I  have  said  as  to  the  mother's  possession  of  pro- 
perty, it  has  been  suggested  to  me  by  one  of  good  judgment,  and  a 
solicitor,  that  Reynold's  expression  as  to  not  dying  worth  a  groat  was 
merely  an  excuse  for  leaving  the  bulk  of  his  property  to  his  wife  ;  as 
also  that  these  concluding  words  of  the  will,  and  the  resistance  of  pro- 
bate to  it  made  by  Elizabeth,  his  daughter  by  his  first  wife,  indicate 
the  existence  of  family  differences,  probably  attributable  to  this  second 
marriage  having  been  entered  into  with  one  of  a  social  rank  inferior 
to  his  own.  I  cannot,  however,  deduce  this  latter  supposition  from 
anything  we  know,  neither  can  I  thus  interpret  the  last  words  of  his 
will,  nor  believe  him  guilty  of  such  a  perversion  of  the  truth.  Read- 
ing his  will  attentively,  I  think  we  find  that  Scot,  with  his  usual  fine 
sense  of  justice,  gives  all  the  lands  in  "Aldington,  Ruckinge,  and 
Sellinge",  which  had  become  his  by  his  marriage  with  Alice,  "  to  her 
and  to  her  [not  to  his]  heires",  while  he  only  gives  his  lands  in  Rom- 
ney  Marsh  and  his  lease  of  Brabourne  Rectory  to  her  for  her  life, 
and  then  the  lease  at  least,  which  had  come  to  him  "from  his  Cozen 
Charles",  to  his  daughter  Elizabeth.  Reading  the  last  words  of  his 
will  verbatim,  I  think  it  consistent  with  justice  to  hold,  that  though  he 
may  have  obtained  these  lands  in  Romney  Marsh  through  the  use  of 
what  had  been  his  wife's  former  property,  but  was  during  his  marriage 
his  own,  he  was  entitled  to  leave  them  to  his  wife  only  for  her  life, 
they  then  proceeding  not,  as  did  the  others,  to  her  heirs,  but  to  his. 
I  strongly  suspect,  also,  that  his  casual  omission  of  any  directions 
as  to  whom  these  Romney  Marsh  lands  were  to  go  after  her  death 
was  the  real  cause  of  the  probate  of  the  will  being  resisted  by  his 
daughter  Elizabeth,  so  as  to  definitely  raise  this  point. 

Reserving  all  notice  of  his  Witchcraft  till  I  speak  of  it  under  its 
bibliography,  I  would  say  that  we  know  little  more  of  his  life.  The 
Rev.  Jos.  Hunter,  in  his  Chorus  Vattim^  states  that  he  was  "a  Collector 
of  subsidies  to  Q.  Elizabeth  in  15...,  for  the  county  of  Kent."  Urged 
to  inquiry  by  this,  my  friend,  Jas.  Gairdner,  Esq.,  kindly  examined 
for  me  the  Exchequer  documents  in  the  Public  Record  Offices,  and  it 
appears  from  them  that  he  was  collector  of  subsidies  for  the  lathe  of 

Introduction.  xxiii 

Shepway  in  the  years  28  and  29  of  Elizabeth  (1586-87).  It  may  be 
added  that,  as  appears  from  a  previous  document,  i^^^i  in  the  same 
class  of  papers,  that  Sir  Reynold  Scot  and  other  Commissioners  for  the 
collection  in  the  lathe  of  Shepway,  of  the  first  payment  of  the  subsidy 
granted  by  the  Parliament,  37  Henry  VIII,  had  appointed  a  high 
Collector.  Thus  we  learn  the  mode  of  his  appointment ;  and  on  look- 
ing through  the  lists  we  find  that  many  such  were  "generosi",  though 
the  payment  was  but  small.  For  Scot,  forty  shillings  was  deducted 
from  the  incomings  ;  and  this  not  as  a  percentage,  but  as  salary. 

From  the  same  documents  we  find  that  he  is  twice  designated 
"armiger",  a  word  agreeing  with  his  1584  title-page,  "by  Reginald 
Scot,  Esquire",  though  in  the  editions  of  his  Hoppe  Garden  his  name 
alone  is  given.  This  was  for  myself  an  important  find;  but  it  will 
suffice  here  to  say  that  it  confirms  Hunter's  supposition  that  this 
esquireship  was  due  to  his  having  been  made  a  justice  of  the  peace, 
though  as  to  the  date  it  can  only  as  yet  be  said  that  this  dignity  was 
probably  granted  between  1578  and  1584. 

In  an  Accompt  of  Sir  Th.  Heattage^  knight,  Treasttrer  at  Warr, 
in  the  Public  Record  Offices,  and  printed  by  J.  Renat  Scott  in  the 
Arch.  Canti.j  vol.  xi,  p.  388,  we  find  the  following  entries  : 

"S'- Thomas  Scott  knighte  Collonel  generall  of  the  footemen  in 
Kent  for  his  Entertainment  at  xiij^  iiijd  pr  diem  for  xxij  dayesbegonne 
the  xxix'h  of  Julye  and  endinge  the  xix  of  Auguste  the  summe  of 

xiiijii  xiijs  iiijd." 

"  Reinalde  Scotte  Trench  mayster  for  his  Enterteinment  at  iiijs 
pr  diem,  and  due  to  him  for  the  same  tyme  iiijii  viijs." 

"  S""  Thomas  Scott  knighte  for  Thenterteynem'  of  Ixiij  Wachemen 
&  Carders  appointed  to  watche  &  warde  at  Dongenesse  for  xxij  dayes 
begonne  [etc.,  as  above]  at  viij  the  pece  p''  diem  xlvi''  iiij^.'' 

From  the  Muster-roll  taken  on  the  25th  Jan.  1587-8,  and  now  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Oliver,  it  appears  that  the  county  had  then  furnished 
8,201  footmen  and  711  horsemen,  and  that  Sir  Thomas  was  captain  of 
the  309  trained  foot  raised  in  the  lathe  of  Shepway,  with  four  hundreds 
of  the  lathe  of  Scraye  and  Romney  Marsh.  Hence  his  office  as  Colonel- 
General  was  not  given  him — indeed,  this  is  shown  by  the  Accompt — 
until  the  men  had  been  assembled  in  camp  on  the  29th  July.     In  like 

x.riv  Introduction. 

manner  the  Muster-roll  gives  Sir  Jas.  Hales  as  Captain  of  the 
Lances  ;  but  in  the  pay  list  Th.  Scott  (a  son  of  Sir  Thomas)  is 
Captain  both  of  the  Light  Horse  and  Lances.  With  regard  to 
"Reinalde",  who,  under  the  name  of  Reginald,  appears  in  the  Muster- 
roll  as  one  of  the  thirteen  captains  over  1,499  untrained  foot,  Mr.  J. 
Renat  Scott,  in  a  note,  states  that  he  was  a  son  of  Sir  Thomas  Scott  ; 
but  though  sons  of  Sir  Thomas  were  also  captains,  this  assertion  is  a 
guess,  unsupported  by  any  known  evidence. 

He  made  his  will  on  the  )  5th  September  1599,  and  died  twenty-four 
days  thereafter,  on  the  9th  October.  Some  say  that  he  was  either 
taken  ill  at  Smeeth  or  died  there,  probably  misinterpreting  the  words 
of  his  will ;  some  also  say  that  he  was  buried  there  ;  while  some  think 
that  he  was  buried  by  the  side  of  and  close  to  Sir  Thomas  Scott's  tomb 
in  Brabourne  church;  but  all  these,  like  the  supposition  of  Philipot  in 
his  Kent  Notes,  Harl.  MS.  3917,  fol.  78a,  that  he  erected  that  tomb, 
are  mere  guessings,  and  as  such  we  leave  them. 

To  the  few  particulars  thus  gathered  together  we  are  obliged,  with 
the  exception  of  two  small  points,  one  probable,  and  the  other,  I 
think,  certain,  to  confine  ourselves.  The  first  or  probable  point  is, 
that  as  his  name  appears  five  times  as  a  witness  to  family  business 
documents  between  1566  and  1594,  his  signature  appearing  in  this 
last  year  in  Sir  Thomas's  will,  he  must  have  kept  up  familiar  inter- 
course with  the  latter,  and  was  not  improbably,  in  some  measure  at 
least,  his  man  of  business,  and  possibly  his  steward.  The  second 
point,  which  also  goes  to  confirm  this  first  one,  as  also  to  confirm 
the  belief  that  he  was  made  a  justice  of  the  peace,  as  being  a  person 
whose  attainments,  if  not  his  position,  would  render  him  useful  in 
such  a  post,  is  one  to  which  I  was  independently  led  by  his  writings, 
and  which  is,  I  find,  borne  out  by  almost  contemporary  testimony. 

He  who  in  his  Hoppe  Garden  showed  such  practical  thought  and 
foresight,  and  in  his  Witchcraft  such  independence  of  thought,  was 
not  a  man,  especially  when  married  and  a  father,  to  live  in  dependence 
on  a  cousin.  The  wording,  as  well  as  the  tone  of  his  writings,  agree 
with  this.  We  find  in  them  traces  of  legal  study,  a  habit  of  putting 
things,  as  it  were,  in  a  forensic  form,  and  noteworthy  and  not  unfrequent 
references  to  legal  axioms  or  dicta,  quoted  generally  in  their  original 
Latin.    The  Dedication  before  his  Hoppe  Garden,  and  the  first  before 

Introduction.  xxv 

his  Witchcraft,  are  to  men  of  high  legal  rank,  judges,  in  fact,  to  whom 
he  acknowledges  his  obligations.  Referring  the  reader  to  these,  and 
to  the  ambiguous  sentence  in  the  latter  commencing  "  Finally"  (sig. 
A  ii),  I  would  also  give  the  words  in  the  latter,  where  he  says,  A.\\ 
"But  I  protest  the  contrarie,  and  by  these  presents  I  renounce  all 
protection";  and  in  the  former  the  legal  phraseology  is  carried  on 
throughout  in — "and  be  it  also  knowne  to  all  men  by  these  presentes 
that  your  acceptance  hereof  shall  not  be  any  wyse  prejudiciall  unto 
you,  for  I  delyver  it  as  an  Obligation,  wherein  I  acknowledge  my  selfe 
to  stande  further  bounde  unto  you,  without  that,  that  I  meane  to  re- 
ceyve  your  courtesie  herein,  as  a  release  of  my  further  duties  which  I 
owe,"  A.  iii.  v.  And  in  B.  v. :  "  neither  reproove  me  because  by  these 
presents  I  give  notice  thereof."  So  also  he  would  seem  to  have  been  an 
attendant  at  the  assizes  ;  and  if  we  look  to  the  story,  told  at  page  5,  of 
Marg.  Simons,  we  find  that  he  was  not  only  present  at  the  trial,  but 
busied  himself  actively  in  the  matter,  talking  to  the  vicar,  the  accuser, 
about  it,  advertising  the  poor  woman  as  to  a  certain  accusation,  he 
"  being  desirous  to  heare  what  she  could  saiefor  hir  selfe",  and  inquir- 
ing into  the  truth  of  her  explanation  by  the  relation  of  divers  honest 
men  of  that  parish.  In  like  manner,  his  Will  is  written  "  w*  myne  owne 
hande"  twenty-five  days  before  his  death  ;  and,  on  inquiring  from  a 
lawyer,  I  find  that  it  is  drawn  up  in  due  legal  form,  and  by  one  who 
had  had  a  legal  training.  Lastly,  Thomas  Ady,  M.A.,  in  A  Candle  in 
the  Dark,  1656,  alias,  A  Perfect  Discovery  of  Witches,  1661,  a  book, 
like  Scot's,  against  the  reality  of  witchcraft,  distinctly  tells  us,  p.  87, 
that  Scot  "was  a  student  in  the  laws  and  learned  in  the  Roman  Laws", 
the  latter  being  exactly  what  such  a  man  would  be  if  he  had  turned 
towards  the  law  as  a  profession.  These  considerations  appear  to  me 
conclusive,  even  though  it  be  added  as  an  argument  per  contra  that 
his  name  has  not  been  found  among  the  rolls  of  the  Temple,  Inner 
or  Middle,  or  in  those  of  Lincoln's  or  Gray's  Inn. 

And  in  taking  leave  of  this  portion  of  my  subject,  I  cannot  but 
reiterate  the  obligations  both  the  reader  and  the  literary  world  gene- 
rally are  under  to  Mr.  Edmund  Ward  Oliver.  The  suppositions  as 
to  the  cause  of  Scot's  loss  of  his  moiety  of  the  estates  of  Lady  Winni- 
fred  Rainsford — not,  it  is  believed,  a  large  sum — and  as  to  his  law- 
studentship,  based  as  they  are  on  facts  stated  by  Scot  or  derived  from 


XXVI  Introduction. 

his  writings,  and  those  of  Th. -Ady,  are  my  own  ;  while  in  one  or  two 
instances  I  have  put  forth  opinions  not  quite  in  accord  with  that 
gentleman's.  But  nearly  all  the  biographical  facts  regarding  Scot 
himself  and  his  marriages,  in  contradistinction  to  the  supposed  facts 
hitherto  set  forth,  are  due  to  the  intelligent  research  of  Mr.  Oliver, 
and  are  not  unfrequently  stated  in  his  own  words. 

The  following  table  will  bring  into  one  view  the  pedigree  of  Reginald 
Scot  given  in  the  previous  pages  : 

[The  2nd]  Sir  William  Scott,*  d.  1433.= 

Sir  John  Scott,  d.  1485.= 


Sir  William  Scott,  d.  1524.=;= 

Sir  John  Scott,  d.  7  Oct.  1 533.=i=Anne,  d.  of  Reginald  Pympe. 

!  I                            I 

Wm.  Scott,  Sir  Reginald  Scott,            Richd.  Scott.=rMary  Whete- 

d.  i-.  ^.  5  June  d.  16  Dec.  1554. 

1536.  I 


Sir  Th.  Scot,    (i)  Jane  Cobbe.— Reginald  Scott.=(2)  Alice [Collyar.^]. 
d.  30  Dec.  1594.  I 

Elizabeth.=f=Sackville  Turner. 


*  It  is  noteworthy  that,  notwithstanding  the  memorial  inscription  to  the  first 
Fir  William,  Reginald,  or  whoever  was  the  author  of  the  verses  to  Sir  Thomas, 
only  traces  the  pedigree  to  this  fourth  knight  after  Sir  Reginald.  Either  then 
the  first  Sir  William  was  then  accounted  somewhat  mythical,  or  not  being  a 
knight  of  fame,  he  was  not  recognised  as  the  same  with  Sir  William  Scott, 
the  Chief  Justice  of  England. 

Iiitroductioji.  xxvii 


Extracted  from  the  copy,  not  the  orit^mal,  in  the  Principal  Ref;^istry 
of  the  Probate,  Divorce,  and  Admiralty  Division  of  the  High 
Court  of  fustice. 

S         In  the  Prerogative  Court  of  Canterbury. 

In  the  Name  of  God  Amen.  I  Raynolde  Scott  in  the  Countie  of 
Kent  gent  beinge  of  the  Parish  of  Smeth  Uoe  make  and  ordaine 
and  w"'  myne  owne  hande  doe  write  this  my  Last  will  and  Testament 
on  Saturdaye  the  fyfteenth  of  September  Anno  Dili  a  thousand  fyve 
hundred  nyntie  nyne  and  in  the  fortie  one  yeare  of  the  raigne  of  o"" 
soveraigne  Ladie  Oueene  Elizabeth  Fyrst  1  bequeath  my  Sowle  to 
Almightie  god  and  my  body  to  be  buryed  as  yt  shall  seeme  good  to 
Alice  my  wiefe  whome  I  make  and  ordaine  to  be  myne  onely 
Executrix  Item  I  bequeath  to  mysayde  wief  All  my  goods  and  chattells 
plate  housholde  stuffe  Juelles  and  Chaynes  with  all  my  leases  and 
goods  moveable  and  vnmoveable  savinge  such  as  I  shall  by  this  my 
Will  other  Wise  dispose  of  Item  I  (for  the  trust  I  repose  in  M""- 
Edwarde  Hall  of  Ashforde  and  of  my  neighbou"^  Raynolde  Keale  of 
Smeeth  in  countie  aforesaide  doe  make  them  two  the  overseers  to 
this  my  Last  will  and  gyve  to  eyther  of  the;;^  for  theire  paines  and 
trouble  w^''  they  ar  like  to  sustaine  herebye  fyve  poundes  Item  I 
bequeath  to  S""  John  Scott  my  lease  of  the  banke  or  pond  at  Aldinge 
Item  I  bequeath  to  my  graund  childe  Cisley  Turno^  tenne  poundes 
to  buy  her  a  little  Chaine  It^-m  I  gyve  to  my  daughter  in  Lawe  Marie 
Collyar  six  poundes  thirteene  shillings  foure  pence  to  be  paide  unto 
her  within  one  quarter  after  my  decease,  to  be  bestowed  in  apparell 
upon  her  selfe  as  she  shall  seeme  good  nether  would  I  have  her 
mothers  hand  anie  thinge  the  shorter  towardes  her  in  that  respect 
Item  I  give  to  my  daughter  Turno^  the  Covenant  that  I  have  of  my 
Cozen  Charles  Scott  touchinge  the  renuinge  of  my  lease  when  his 
grace  doth  renne  {read  renue]  his  lease  of  Braborne  Rectorie  pro- 
vided that  my  meaninge  is,  that  my  said  wief  shall  enioye  the  full 
tearme  that  I  nowe  possesse  and  howsoever  yt  shalbe  renued  my 
daughter  shall  have  the  only  renuinge  which  shalbe  in  effecte  after 
the  whole  tearme  w'=^  I  holde  now  be  expired  so  as  by  any  meane 
[intervening]  renuinge  my  saide  wief  be  not  defeated  of  my  true 
meaninge  towardes  her  Item  I  do  bequeath  to  my  saied  wief  and  to 
her  heires  for  ever  All  my  Landes  Lyinge  in  Aldington  and  now  in 
thoccupac/on  of  John   Pollard  and  all   my  Landes   in   Ruckinge    in 

thoccupaczbn  of Diggons  and  all  my  Landes  in  Sellenge  in  the 

occupac/on  of Coakar  All  which  Landes  lye  in  the  9ayd«  sayde* 

Countie  of  Kent  Item  I  gyve  and  bequeath  to  my  said  wief  all  my 
other  Landes  in  Rumney  Marshe  or  els  where  in  the  said  countye 

*  Sic,  first  at  end  of  line.  t  Sic,  to  be  paide  is  interlined  above  this. 

xxviii  Introdiution. 

duringe  her  naturall  lieff  Item  I  doe  gyve  to  my  Servante  Moyll 
Smyth  the  some  of  twentie  shillinges  yearelie  duringe  his  n^/z^rall  Life 
to  be  paide  out  of  all  my  Landes  halfe  yearelie  and  that  for  defaulte 
of  payment  yt  shalbe  LawfuU  for  him  to  distraine  And  so  I  ende 
desyreinge  the  worlde  to  iudge  the  best  hereof  and  of  the  consy- 
deracz'ons  for  greate  is  the  trouble  my  poore  wief  hath  had  with  me, 
and  small  is  the  comforte  she  hath  receyved  at  my  handes  whome  yf 
I  had  not  matched  w''^  all  I  had  not  dyed  worth  one  groate. — 

Ray:  Scott. 

By  a  short  notice  following  the  copy  of  the  will,  it  was  proved  on 
the  22nd  November  1599.  There  is  also  a  document  setting  forth 
that  Alicia  Scott,  relicta,  and  Elizabetha  Turnor,  als  Scott,  filia 
naturalis  et  legitima,  had  disputed,  before  certain  functionaries  named 
regarding  the  will,  and  that  probate  was  granted  as  aforesaid  on  the 
22nd  November  1599.  But  as  the  cause  or  subject  of  the  dispute  is 
not  mentioned,  this,  like  the  short  notice,  is  not  given. 


No.  84. 

Ittqiiisition  taken  at  Maidstone  on  the  death  of  Lady  Wytiifred 
Rainsfoord,  30  March,  18  Eliz.  [1575-6]. 

She  was  seised  of  the  Manors  of  Nettlested  and  Hikes  with 
appurtenances  in  E.  and  W.  Peckham,  Brenchley,  W.  Barmling, 
Merewood,  Marden  ;  also  of  the  Manor  of  Pympe  with  appurtenances 
in  Yaulding,  Marden,  and  Brenchley.  Also  various  other  lands, 
some  of  which,  called  Stockenbury,  Motelands,  and  Souchefields,  are 
in  Brenchley. 

She  died  17  Oct.  last,  at  Chelmsford  in  Essex. 

Th.  Scott,  kt.,  is  her  next  heir,  viz.,  son  and  heir  of  Reginalde 
Scotte,  kt.,  Sonne  and  heir  of  Anne  Scotte,  wife  of  John  Scotte,  kt., 
daughter  and  heir  of  Reginald  Pympe,  brother  of  John  Pympe, 
father  of  said  Lady  Winifred. 

Thomas  Scotte,  kt.,  Charles  Scott,  Henry  Scotte,  George  Scotte, 
and  William  Scotte  [brothers  of  the  tirst-named  Thomas  Scotte,  kt.], 
and  Reginald  Scotte,  are  coheirs  of  the  lands  held  in  gavelkind.  One 
moiety  thereof  descends  to  Thomas,  Charles,  etc.  [as  named  above], 
sons  and  coheirs  of  Reginalde  Scotte,  kt.,  son  and  heir  of  Anne 
Scotte  ;  and  the  other  moiety  to  Reginald,  son  and  heir  of  Richard 
Scotte,  junior,  son  of  the  said  Anne. 

Introduction.  xxix 

Thomas  miles  is  39  et  amplius,  Charles  34  [etc.],  Henry  32  [etc.], 
George  30  [etc.],  William  22  [etc.],  and  Reginald  38  years  of  age  et 

The  exact  words  regarding  the  co-heirs  are:  "  descendebant  et  do 
jure  descendere  debent  prasfato  Thomae  Scotte  militi,  Carolo  Scott, 
Henrico  Scotte,  Georgio  Scotte  et  Will'o  Scotte,  fratribus  dicti 
Thomje  Scotte  militis  et  Reginaldo  Scotte,  consanguineo  pra;dicti 
Thomae  Scotte  militis,  ut  consanguineis  et  coheredibus  prasdictae 
dominae  Winifridae  eo  quod  praedictas  terras  ....  ultimo  recitata 
sunt  de  natura  de  gavelkind."  This  disproves  the  assertion  of  Mr.  J. 
Renat  Scott  in  Arch.  Cant.,  xi,  388,  and  repeated  in  his  genealogy  of 
the  Scott  family,  that  the  Reginald  Scott  mentioned  in  the  former  as 
receiving  pay  among  those  appointed  in  1587-8  was  "a  son  of  Sir 

ABSTRACT  OF  INQUIS.  P.M.,  45  ELIZ.,  pars,  i.  No.  71. 

Inquisition  taken  at  Maidstone.,  2  Dec.  [1602],  after  the  death  oj 
Reginald  Scot,  generosus. 

He  was  seised  of  a  tenement  and  20  acres  of  land  called  Grayne- 
courtte,  held  of  Th.  Scott,  Esq.,  as  of  his  manor  of  Brabourne,  a 
tenement  called  Essex,  and  20  acres  of  land  in  two  parcels  in  Ailing- 
ton  [Aldington],  held  of  Edw.  Hall,  as  of  his  manor  of  Pawlson. 
One  parcel  of  land  called  Haythorne  field,  containing  20  acres  in 
Bonington,  held  of  the  Queen  in  capite,  and  a  tenement  and  one 
parcel  of  land  lying  in  Barefield,  containing  two  acres  in  Brabourne, 
tenure  unknown,  and  one  acre  in  Brabourne  and  5  acres  in  Brabourne, 
and  two  parcels  in  Smeeth,  and  30  acres  of  marsh  called  Gatesleaf, 
in  Newchurch,  held  of  Martin  Barneham,  Esq.,  as  of  his  manor  of 

He  died  9  Oct.,  41  Eliz.  [1599],  at  Smeeth.    . 

Elizabeth,  wife  of  Sackville  Turner,  gent.,  is  his  daughter  and  next 
heir,  and  was  28  years  of  age  and  more  at  his  death. 

Alice,  his  widow,  has  received  the  rents  since  his  death. 

[Elizabeth  was  the  next  heir  to  his  own  property,  but  that  which 
was  his  own  through  his  wife  Alice,  he  specially  devised  "  to  her  and 
to  her  heirs".] 

ji'A'.r  Introduction. 

Tlie  Cause  and  History  of  the  Work. — That  is,  what  induced  Scot 
to  write  it,  and  why  did  he  set  it  forth  as  he  did  ?  inquiries  which  in- 
volve, among  other  matters,  a  short  notice  of  the  position  then  and 
previously  held  by  witchcraft  in  England.  His  Hoppe-g'arden  shows 
him  to  us  as  a  man  of  intelligence,  foresighted  and  reflective  of  thought, 
and  desirous  of  improving  the  state  of  his  country  and  countrymen. 
It  shows  him  also  as  one  who  could  not  only  seize  a  thought  and 
commend  it  to  others,  but  as  one  who  had  perseveringly  put  his  idea 
into  practice,  found  it  feasible,  and  then  so  learnt  the  processes  neces- 
sary for  growing  the  plant,  and  preparing  its  catkins  and  storing  them 
for  use,  that  a  priori  one  would  suppose  that  he  had  done  what  he  did 
not,  namely,  visited  Holland  and  learnt  the  processes  on  the  spot. 
The  same  qualities  are  seen  in  his  Witchcraft,  as  is  also  his  indepen- 
dence of  thought.  No  sooner  had  his  suspicions  been  aroused  than  he 
proceeded,  as  shown  by  the  work  and  its  references,  to  investigate  the 
matter  thoroughly  and  perseveringly.  To  this  also  he  was  encouraged, 
or  rather  led,  by  yet  other  two  qualities,  his  straightforwardness  or 
honesty  of  purpose,  and  his  compassion,  for  these  taught  him  that  he 
was  engaged  in  a  righteous  work,  that  of  rescuing  feeble  and  ignorant, 
though  it  may  be  too  pretentious  and  shrewish,  old  women  from  false 
charges  and  a  violent  death,  and  in  a  noble  work  in  endeavouring  to 
stem  the  torrent  of  superstition  and  cruelty  which  was  then  beginning 
to  overflow  the  land. 

Nor  was  this  the  result  in  any  way  of  a  mind  sceptically  inclined. 
His  book  shows  that  he  accepted  the  opinions  of  his  day,  unless  he 
had  been  led  to  inquire  into  them,  and  either  re-receive  them  as 
facts  or  discard  them.  Led  doubtless  by  his  academic  training,  it  is 
abundantly  clear  that  he  had  inquired  into  the  grounds  of  his  belief 
in  the  Established  Church,  and  into  the  additions  that  had  been  made 
to  its  faith  in  the  course  of  illiterate  ages  by  the  Popish  Church.  He 
had  read  Plotina,  who  taught  him  that  the  so-called  vicars  of  Christ 
and  his  vice-gerents  on  earth  were  often  devils  incarnate  and  stan- 
dard-bearers of  vice,  and  that  the  system  which  did  now  and  again 
produce  a  St.  Francis  d'Assis — all  reverence  to  his  name — produced 
also  the  congeners  of  Loyola,  and  Loyola  himself,  whose  followers, 
while  assuming  to  themselves  the  holy  name  of  Socii  Jesu,  made  that 
name  famous  and  infamous,  and  their  tenets  execrated  throughout  the 

Introduction.  xxxi 

civilised  world.  But  he  accepted  with  some  doubting,  having,  as  he 
thought,  great  authority  for  it  and  no  means  of  investigation,  the  story 
of  the  Remora ;  and  accepted  without  doubtmg  the  beliefs  that  the  bone 
of  a  carp's  head,  and  none  other,  staunched  blood,  the  value  of  the 
unicorn's  horn,  and  the  like,  and — notwithstanding  his  disbelief  in 
astrology— that  seed-time  and  springing  were  governed  by  the  waxing 
and  waning  of  the  moon.  He  also  believed  that  precious  stones 
owed  their  origin  to  the  influences  of  the  heavenly  bodies;  and  besides 
his  credulous  beliefs  as  to  certain  waters,  narrated  at  the  commence- 
ment, he  in  the  next  chapter  gives  the  absurdly  wonderful  virtues  of 
these  stones,  some,  as  he  says,  believed  in  by  him,  "  though  many 
things  most  false  are  added". 

How  then  came  he  to  inquire  into  and  write  so  strongly  against 
witchcraft .-'  Before  the  time  of  the  eighth  Henry,  sorcerers  were  dealt 
with  by  the  ecclesiastical  law,  which  punished  them  as  heretics. 
Moreover,  their  supposed  offences  against  the  person  seem,  chiefly  at 
least,  to  have  been  taken  notice  of  when  they  were  supposed  to  inter- 
fere with  high  or  state  matters  or  persons,  as  in  the  cases  of  Joan  of 
Arc  or  Dame  Eleanor  Cobham.  But  in  Henry's  time,  probably 
through  the  extension  of  continental  ideas,  aided,  it  may  be,  by  a 
desire  to  restrain  the  ecclesiastical  power,  c.  8  of  the  thirty-third  year 
of  his  reign  was  passed.  By  this  it  was  enacted,  that  witches,  etc., 
who  destroyed  their  neighbours,  and  made  pictures  [images]  of  them 
for  magical  purposes,  or  for  the  same  purposes  made  crowns,  swords, 
and  the  like,  or  pulled  down  crosses,  or  declared  where  things  lost  or 
stolen  were  become,  should  suffer  death  and  loss  of  lands  and  goods, 
as  felons,  and  lose  the  privileges  of  clergy  and  sanctuary.  Afterwards, 
by  I  Edw.  I,  c.  12,  this  and  other  offences  first  made  felonies  in 
Henry's  time  were  no  longer  to  be  accounted  such.  Thirdly,  in  the 
fifth  year  of  Elizabeth,  Parliament,  by  its  twelfth  chapter,  enacted, 
that  whereas  many  have  practised  sorceries  to  the  destruction  of 
people  and  their  goods,  those  that  cause  death  shall  suffer  as  was  de- 
clared by  33  Henry  VIII,  c.  8,  except  that  their  wives  and  heirs  shall 
not  have  their  rights  affected  by  such  attainder.  But  that  when  a 
person  was  only  injured,  or  their  goods  or  cattle  destroyed,  the 
offenders  should  for  the  first  offence  suffer  a  years  imprisonment,  and 
once  a  cjuarter  be  exposed  in  the  pillory  in  a  market  town  for  six 

xxxii  Introduction. 

hours,  and  there  confess  their  offences  ;  and  for  the  second  offence 
suffer  death  as  felons,  with  the  exceptions  before  rehearsed.  While 
any  who  seek  treasure,  or  would  bring  about  unlawful  love,  or  hurt  any- 
one in  his  body  or  goods,  should  for  a  first  offence  be  imprisoned  and 
suffer  as  before,  and  for  a  second  be  imprisoned  for  life  and  forfeit 
his  goods  and  cattle.  This,  so  far  as  humanity  is  concerned,  is  a 
distinct  advance  on  Henry's  enactment,  though  an  apparent  going 
back  from  that  of  Edward.  Perhaps,  as  before,  it  arose  from  a  desire 
to  remove  the  offences  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the  ecclesiastical  law, 
which  would  have  burnt  them,  nor,  as  evidenced  by  its  little  results, 
does  it  seem  to  have  been  made  through  any  mania  or  scare  in  the 
matter.  This  came  on  later,  when,  as  we  are  told  by  Brian  Darcie 
in  1582,  at  what  time,  under  pie-crust  promises  of  favour,  he  was 
endeavouring  to  get  women  to  confess,  and  then  be  hanged, — "  there 
is  a  man  of  great  learning  and  knowledge  come  over  lately  into  our 
Queenes  Majestie,  which  hath  advertised  her  what  a  companie  and 
numbers  of  Witches  be  within  Englande  :  whereupon  I  and  other  of 
her  Justices  have  received  Commission  for  the  apprehending  of  as 
many  as  are  within  these  limites."  Alas,  this  man  of  great  learning 
and  knowledge  seems  to  have  been  none  other  than  that  otherwise 
light  of  the  English  Church,  the  great,  good,  and  pious  Bishop  Jewel, 
who,  having  returned  from  a  forced  residence  abroad,  was  speedily 
promoted  by  her  Majesty,  and  in  a  sermon  preached  before  her,  in 
1572,  brought  in  the  subject  as  follows: — 

"  Heere  perhaps  some  man  will  replie,  that  witches,  and  conjurers 
often  times  chase  away  one  Divell  by  the  meane  of  another.  Possible 
it  is  so  ;  but  that  is  wrought,  not  by  power,  but  by  Collusion  of  the 
Divels.  For  one  Divell,  the  better  to  attaine  his  purpose,  will  give 
place,  and  make  as  though  he  stood  in  awe  of  another  Divell.  And 
by  the  way  to  touch  but  a  word  or  two  of  this  matter  for  that  the 
horrible  using  of  your  poore  subjects  inforceth  thereunto.  It  may 
please  your  Grace  to  understand,  that  this  kind  of  people,  I  meenes 
witches  and  sorcerers,  within  these  few  last  yeeres,  are  marvellously 
increased  within  this  your  Grace's  realme.  These  eies  have  scene 
most  evident  and  manifest  marks  of  their  wickednesse.  Your  Grace's 
subjects  pine  away  even  unto  the  death,  their  collour  fadeth,  their 
flesh  rotteth,  their  speech  is  benummed,  their  senses  are  bereft." 

Introduction.  xxxiii 

"  Wherefore,  j^our  poore  subjects  most  humble  petition  unto  your 
Highnesse,  is,  that  the  lawes  touching  such  malefactours,  may  be  put 
in  due  execution.  For  the  shole  of  them  is  great,  their  doings  hor- 
rible, their  malice  intollerable,  the  examples  most  miserable.  And  I 
pray  God,  they  never  practise  further,  then  upon  the  subject.  But 
this  only  by  the  way,  these  be  the  scholers  of  Beelzebub  the  chief 
captaine  of  the  Divels.'' 

The  plantings  of  the  Queen  in  the  commissions  of  her  Justices  thus 
instigated  and  encouraged,  produced  an  abundant  crop.  According 
to  the  Dedications  of  Scot,  Sir  Roger  Manwood,  Lord  Chief  Baron  of 
the  Exchequer,  had  had  "  in  these  causes  such  experience",  A  ii.  v., 
while  Sir  Thomas  Scot,  as  Justice  of  the  Peace,  had  also  had  "manie 
poore  old  women  convented  before  him  for  ....  witchcraft",  A.  vi. 
Various  booklets  also,  presently  to  be  spoken  of  more  at  large,  excited 
still  more  the  imaginations  of  a  credulous  people,  and  it  had  been 
supposed,  before  Scot  wrote,  as  will  be  seen  on  p.  473,  and  in  my  note 
on  that  page,  that  the  Queen's  person  had  been  aimed  at  in  that  way. 

It  thus  appears  that  though  Scot  may  have  been  brought  up  in  a 
traditional  but  little-regarded  belief  in  witchcraft,  he,  when  he  was  at 
least  thirty-four,  was  not  only  unprepared,  but  startled,  to  witness  and 
take  part  in  this  new  departure  from  justice  and  mercy.  Witchcraft, 
chiefly  looked  on  as  useful  in  discovermg  things  lost,  or  in  bringing  a 
wished-for  sweetheart  to  return  the  love  of  the  seeker,  or  in  curing 
ailments  simple  or  grievous,  became  feared,  reviled,  and  sought  out: 
sought  out  by  Commission  of  the  Queen,  sought  out  by  the  people  as 
a  great  and  fearful  evil  rapidly  overspreading  the  land,  and  able  and 
willing,  like  the  Plague  and  Black  Death,  to  count  its  victims  by 
thousands,  and  from  the  cottage  to  the  throne  itself  He,  a  man  both 
intelligent  and  compassionate,  sees  poor,  old,  decrepit  creatures  eking 
out  a  miserable  livelihood  by  begging  an  occasional  dole  from  their 
better  off  neighbours  ;  ill-tempered  by  age  and  condition,  and  there- 
fore abusive  when  refused  such  dole,  or  on  slighter  causes,  sometimes 
perhaps  through  old  knowledge  or  superstition,  but  probably  more 
often  for  the  sake  of  gain,  pretending  to  be  wise  above  what  is  known  ; 
he  sees  these  accused  of  selling  their  souls  for  the  sake  of  such  a 
position  in  the  world,  he  hears  them  accused  sometimes  of  foul,  more 
frequently  of  unlikely,  crimes  and  acts,  nay,  such  as  an  unprejudiced 

e  c 

xxxiv  Introduction. 

common  sense  must  laugh  at,  while  the  evidence  is  nearly  always  so 
faulty  that,  were  the  accusation  a  different  one,  it  would  be  at  once 
turned  inside  out  and  thrown  aside.  Unfortunately,  too,  some  of 
these  old  women  being  more  or  less  mad,  and  others  driven  through 
fear  on  the  one  hand,  or  through  promised  favour  on  the  other, 
confess  themselves  capable  of  doing  these  things,  though  any  man  of 
sense  and  observation  could  detect  their  state  or  motives.  Luckily, 
too,  he  had  had  close  to  him,  and  in  his  wife's  family,  the  known  and 
talked-of  imposture  of  the  Holy  Maid  of  Kent ;  and  in  his  own  time 
and  close  to  his  own  door,  the  case  of  the  Pythonist  of  Westwell,  at 
first  carried  out  triumphantly,  and  then,  on  her  own  confession  and 
her  re-acted  acts,  branded  as  an  impostor,  like  the  Holy  Maid.  The 
Dutchman,  too,  at  Maidstone,  after  being  set  forth  as  a  worker  of 
miracles  and  an  exorcist,  was  found  to  be  a  rogue;  and  "manie  other 
such  miracles  had  beene  latelie  printed,  whereof  diverse  had  beene 
bewraied."  He  had  taken  part  also — apparently  as  one  engaged  for 
the  defence — in  that  piece  of  folly  called  the  trial  of  Margaret  Simons, 
and  knew  the  history  of  Ade  Davie,  and  of  her  restoration  to  sanity 
without  exorcism,  hanging,  or  burning. 

Is  it  not  natural  that  his  suspicions,  and  more  than  suspicions, 
should  have  been  aroused,  and  that  he  should  have  been  thus  led 
to  take  up  the  whole  subject  seriously.''  One  who  had  given  himself 
up,  as  Wood  says,  to  reading  and  thought  as  well  as  to  healthy  and 
useful  exercise,  must  have  sought  for  and  obtained  books  on  either 
side  of  the  subject,  and  in  especial  the  known  book  of  Wier ;  and 
thoughtful  reading  of  these,  and  meditation  must  have  led  him  to 
extend  his  views,  and  gather  them  into  a  harmonious  and  consistent 
whole.  Meanwhile,  however,  the  bloodthirsty  superstition  daily  in- 
creased, and  there  were  published  first,  the  mad  book  or  books  of 
Richard  Gallis — spoken  of  in  pp.  132-3 — of  the  witches  at  Windsor, 
now,  I  believe,  unfortunately  lost,  where,  among  other  things,  he 
narrates  how,  at  a  Sabbath  meeting,  he  had  a  hand-to-hand  encounter 
with  the  devil,  and  wounded  him  so  sore  that  he  stank  of  brimstone; 
and  in  1582,  there  took  place  the  wholesale  condemnation  of  the  poor 
old  women  of  St.  Osees,  thirteen  I  believe  of  whom  were  hanged. 
There  had  been  no  such  condemnation  before  in  England.  It  is  not 
unlikely  that  he  himself  witnessed  their  condemnation — see  pp.  xxv-vi. 

Introditction.  xxxv 

So  unusual  was  it,  that — as  I  cannot  but  believe  on  other  evidence,  as 
stated  in  my  noting  on  Macbeth — a  ballad  was  written  on  it,  which 
became  very  commonly  known,  and  was  remembered  as  late  as  1606. 
This  same  unusual  breadth  of  punishment  also  created  so  much 
attention  that  Justice  Brian  Darcie  thought  it  worth  while  to  set  forth 
in  print,  not  the  trial,  but  the  depositions  taken  before  him,  and  thus 
inform  a  too  ignorant  public  that  he  and  he  alone  was  the  primary 
cause  of  such  a  purification. 

These  facts,  and  especially  this  last,  aroused,  I  believe,  Scot's 
compassion  and  indignation,  and  made  both  find  vent  in  printed 
words.  And  besides  these  likelihoods,  including  that  of  date,  there 
are  two  at  first  sight  seemingly  contradictory  facts,  which  made  them- 
selves manifest  to  me  when  I  first  carefully  read  the  book,  and  before 
I  had  formed  any  opinion  on  their  causes,  and  which  are  on  this  view 
reconciled.  These  facts  are,  that  while  the  plan  which  he  has  adopted, 
and  his  facts  and  conclusions,  seem  to  have  been  deliberately  sought 
out,  thought  over,  and  canvassed,  there  are  evidences  throughout  of 
a  feverous  haste  of  composition,  such  feverous  haste  as  the  above 
spoken  of  emotions  would  excite  in  a  man  like  Scot,  who  had  wit- 
nessed so  horrible  and  so  bloody  a  perversion  of  justice.  The  proof 
of  the  first  fact  I  leave  to  be  observed  by  the  intelligent  reader ;  but 
while  the  second  must  also  be  observed  by  him,  it  is  needful,  to  the 
full  exposition  of  my  argument,  that  I  should  collect  in  one  view  most 
at  least  of  the  details.  This  haste  is  evidenced  in  some  of  his  cor- 
rected errata,  but  more  in  those  that  he  did  not  correct.  Thus  we  have, 
on  p.  174,  a  curious  slip,  by  which  Pharaoh  becomes  a  Persian,  and 
Nebuchadnezzar  takes  Pharaoh's  place  as  an  Egyptian  king,  for  other 
parts  of  the  book  prove  conclusively  that  this  was  an  unintentional 
lapsus,  and  one  a  second  time  overlooked  when  the  book  was  re-read 
before  the  title-page  and  the  preliminary  leaves  were  set  up.  Similar 
are  his  errors  as  to  Haias  and  Sedaias,  for  at  one  time  he  speaks  of 
Rabbi  Sedaias  Haias,  repeating  it  also  at  the  last  when  he  gives  his 
"  forren  authors"  consulted,  and  between  these  speaks  of  them  as  two 
persons,  as  they  were.  More  especially  would  I  call  attention  to  his 
blunders  as  to  Argerius  Ferrerius.  He  quotes  him — yet  he  is  always 
Ferr^rius — five  times  in  his  text,  twice  in  his  table  of  contents,  and 
once  in  his  "authors  used".    So  in  his  translation  from  him,  the  "s"  of 

xxxvi  Introduction. 

"  verbis"  being  indistinct  in  some  copies,  he  read  the  word  as  "verbi", 
and  thereby  translated  the  sentence  into  such  unmistakable  non- 
sense that  this  alone  should  have  shown  him  his  error.  So,  also,  we 
have  the  senseless,  because  careless,  rendering  of  the  sword  in  hand 
passage,  p.  257 ;  and  with  these  may  be  classed  his  adoption  of 
T.  R.'s  curious  mistranslations  from  Wier's  Pseudotnonarchia,  or  from 
another  copy  of  the  Etnpto.  Saloinonis,  for  a  moment's  consideration 
would  have  shown  him  their  absurdity,  and  led  him  to  turn  to  Wier. 
In  p.  19  also,  we  find  "infants"  where,  as  stated  in  my  note,  all  the 
editions  of  the  Mai.  Malef.  in  the  British  Museum  have  "  infames"; 
and  this,  though  a  slip  of  memory,  betokens,  when  taken  with  the  rest, 
overhaste.  These  slips,  in  an  ordinary  writer,  would  lead  to  another 
conclusion,  but  not  in  this  case,  where  we  have  evidence  of  both 
ordinary  and  recondite  knowledge,  of  conclusions  tried  by  actual 
experiment,  of  a  quick  and  intelligent  perception,  and  of  what  may 
be  called,  in  a  good  sense,  a  ready  and  acute  subtlety  in  refuting  or 
retorting  allegations  or  objections. 

Our  author's  indebtedness  to  Cornelius  Agrippa  and  to  Wier  has, 
in  a  great  measure,  been  anticipated  in  what  has  been  said;  but  a  few 
words  may  here  be  added.  Casually  coming  across  their  books  when  he 
became  a  reader  of  out-of-the-way  works,  he  did  not  become  a  follower 
of  theirs,  and  then  write  a  book,  as  the  disciples  of  Pythagoras  wrote 
books  to  expound  and  hand  down  the  doctrines  of  their  master.  Wier 
had  written  a  book  against  witchcraft,  and  a  clear  and  comprehensive 
book.  But  while  Scot  certainly  followed  Wier  in  point  of  time,  and 
as  certainly  was  much  indebted  to  him  for  the  perfecting  of  his  book, 
yet,  as  1  have  said,  Scot  seems  to  have  taken  up  his  belief  against 
the  reality  of  witchcraft  from  what  he  in  his  own  experience  had 
witnessed  ;  and  my  view,  that  he  was  then  led  to  read  Wier  and 
Cornelius  Agrippa,  and  the  writers  on  the  other  side,  seems  to  me  con- 
firmed by  what  we  find  as  to  his  indebtedness  to  Wier.  The  "  Not' 
ings  on  Wier"  show  that,  while  he  copied  him  in  some  other  instances, 
he  borrowed  from  him  mainly  a  long  list  of  illustrations,  some  of  which 
even  he  may  have  drawn  independently  from  the  same  sources  as  did 

Bibliography. — We  do  not  find  an  entry  of  Scot's  Hoppe-garden 
in  the  Stationers'  Registers,  because  the  entries  about  1574  are  want' 

Introduction.  xxxvii 

ing.  But  why  do  we  not  find  so  large  and  important  a  book  as  the 
Witchcraft  of  1584  so  entered,  the  writer  being  of  a  family  of  no  mean 
repute,  and  the  head  of  his  house,  Sir  Th.  Scot,  being  in  those  days 
a  man  of  some  mark  ?  The  answer,  after  what  has  been  said,  is 
simple.  He  upheld  and  defended  a  heresy,  the  existence  and  dia- 
bolical powers  and  practices  of  witches  being  believed  in  and  guarded 
against,  by  the  Queen,  the  bishops,  and  the  people.  Hence  the  reply 
of  the  Stationers'  Company  would  most  certainly  have  been — the  same 
as  in  more  trifling  cases — "  provided  he  shall  get  the  bishop  of  Lon- 
don his  alowance  to  yt",  words  which,  under  the  circumstances, 
would  have  been  a  refusal,  and  a  refusal  which,  had  any  steps  been 
taken  against  him  after  its  publication,  would  have  told  against  him. 
Hence  he  resolved  to  print  it,  taking  all  the  blame  and  responsibility 
on  his  own  shoulders,  no  stationer's  name  being  connected  with  it, 
and  the  name  of  the  printer  appearing  only  at  the  end  of  the  book, 
without  date  or  place  of  address — "Imprinted  at  London  by  |  IVilliam 
Brome."  And  here,  by  the  way,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  though 
called  in  catalogues  a  quarto,  its  signatures  are  in  eights.  As 
before  stated,  both  Thomas  Ady  and  Anthony  a  Wood  tell  us  that 
it  "did  for  a  time  make  great  impressions  on  the  Magistracy 
and  Clergy",  and  that  it  did  so  generally  is  shown  by  the  appear- 
ance of  Webster's,  Ady's,  and  other  books  on  the  same  side,  and 
those  of  Gifford,  Perkins,  and  others,  on  the  other,  including  King 
James,  who,  in  1597,  issued  his  DcEinonologie  specially  against  it. 
Whether  Elizabeth  or  the  authorities  under  her  took  any  notice  of  it 
is  doubtful,  for,  as  I  have  said,  he  was  still  an  Esquire  in  1587  ;  and 
the  last  words  of  his  will,  "for  greate  is  the  trouble  my  poor  wief  hath 
had  with  me,  and  small  is  the  comforte  she  hath  receyved  at  my 
hands",  and  his  designation  of  himself  as  "  gent.",  point  leather  to  a 
voluntary  surrender  of  his  office,  through  weakness  and  ill-health, 
than  td  a  dismissal. 

But  zeal  for  the  truth,  as  he  believed  it,  combined  with  his  fears  for 
himself,  for  he  believed  that  he  had  been  the  object  of  witchcraft  and 
of  the  machinations  of  the  evil  powers  more  than  once,  though 
luckily  in  vain,  led  the  royal  author  on  the  other  side  to  cause  Scot's 
book  to  be  burned  by  the  common  hangman  ;  and,  as  is  also  said  by 
Cole,  not  one  copy  alone,   as  significant  of  its   character,  and  of  its 

xxxviii  Introduction. 

being  a  liber  prohibitiis  in  the  eyes  of  this  Protestant  Pope,  but  as 
many  as  could  be  laid  hands  upon.  While,  too,  I  have  as  yet  found 
no  direct  proof  of  this  latter  statement,  it  is  perhaps  in  some  degree 
confirmatory  of  it,  that  no  copies  of  the  book  exist  in  the  library  of 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  nor  in  that  of  Lambeth  Palace,  nor  in  that  of 
Sion  College.  To  the  same  cause  is  most  likely  due  the  exceedingly 
neat  copy  of  various  chapters,  and  parts  of  chapters,  contained  in  the 
Sloane  MS.,  flF.  2189,  in  the  British  Museum,  its  date  according  to 
the  experts  there  being  circa  1620.  At  one  time  I  had  suspected  that 
these  extracts  had  been  made  with  the  intent  of  writing  a  book  either 
for  or  against  the  truth  of  witchcraft ;  but  the  methodical  neatness 
of  all  but  the  first  two  or  three  pages,  the  manner  in  which  the  typo- 
graphical form  of  the  book  is  followed,  the  consecutive,  though 
broken  manner,  in  which  the  extracts  follow  one  another,  the  absence 
of  any  word  or  any  sign  of  remark  or  comment  throughout,  now  cause 
me  to  hold  that  it  was  a  copy  made  by  or  for  one  who  took  such  por- 
tions as  he  wished  from  a  book  otherwise  inaccessible. 

Turning  back  to  this  burning,  I  would  say  also  that  I  have  not 
come  across  any  English  contemporary,  or  even  early  statement  as 
to  it,  much  less  as  to  its  date.  Perhaps,  however,  without  much 
fear  of  error,  we  may  suppose  it  to  have  been  done  immediately  after 
the  Act  against  witches,  passed  in  the  first  year  of  James's  reign.  By  it 
the  Act  5  Eliz.  was  repealed,  and  any  conjuration,  etc.,  of  an  evil 
spirit  was  made  a  crime  punishable  by  death  as  a  felon,  the  culprit 
losing  all  benefit  of  clergy  and  sanctuary.  The  finding  of  treasure  by 
magical  means,  provoking  to  unlawful  love,  or  destroymg  of  cattle, 
was  for  the  first  offence  to  bring  with  it  imprisonment  for  one  year, 
standing  in  the  pillory  once  a  quarter  for  six  hours,  and  confessing  his 
crime,  as  in  the  Act  repealed;  and  for  the  second  offence  death  as  a 
felon,  though  the  dowry  and  the  heirship  were  not  attainted.  This  Act 
itself  shows  how  strong  were  James's  convictions  in  the  matter,  as 
does  the  publication  in  London  of  his  DcBinonologie  in  the  same  year, 
it  being  entered  on  the  Stationers'  Registers  on  the  3rd  April  1603. 
Scot's  book  was  therefore  against  James's  belief,  and  the  esteem  in 
which  it  was  held  against  his  own  powers  as  a  reasoner  and  author. 
While,  however,  so  far  as  I  can  find,  we  owe  the  knowledge  of  this 
burning  to  a  German  source,  its  extreme  likelihood  is  corroborated  by 

IntrodtLction.  xxxix 

what  I  have  said,  that  James's  belief  in  witchcraft  was  with  him  an 
undoubted  Article  of  Faith,  and  by  the  fact  that  various  books, 
known  and  unknown,  were  at  different  times  publicly  burnt  during 
his  reign,  though  no  official  records  of  these  burnings  have  been 

Cole,  as  quoted  in  Bliss's  edition  of  the  Athen.  Oxon.^  gives  the 
account  as  made  by  Thomasius  de  crimine  magise,  a  book  which  I 
believe  does  not  exist.  There  is  a  Thesis  inaugaralis  de  crimine 
magias  submitted  in  1701  by  Johan  Reiche  to  the  Regia  Academia 
Fredericiana  .  .  .  praeside  D.  Christiano  Thomasio.  But  Reiche 
refers  to  an  earlier  writer — "  Gisberti  Voetii  |  Theologian  in  Acad. 
Ultrajectina  Professoris  |  Selectarum  |  Disputationum  |  Theologi- 
carum,  |  Pars  Tertia.  |  .  .  .  .  |  Ultrajecti,  |  Ex  Officina  Johannis  a 
Waesberge,  |  Anno  CID  ID  C  Lix,  |  "  which  says,  p.  564  : 

".  .  .  .  Reginaldus  Scot  nobilis  Anglijs  magise  crimen  aperte  negavit, 
&  ex  professo  oppugnavit,  omnes  ejus  mirabiles  effectus  aut  ad  melan- 
coliam,  aliosve  naturales  morbos,  aut  ad  artem,  industriam,  &  agili- 
tatem  hominum  figmentis  &praestigiis  suis  illudentium,  aut  ad  stolidas 
imaginationes,  dictorum  magorum,  aut  ad  vanas  nugas  &  fictiones 
eorundem  magorum  referens.  Ejus  liber  tit.  Discoverie  of  With- 
craft  \sic'\  in  Anglia  combustus  est  ;  quern  nominatim  etiam  per- 
stringit  Sereniss.  Magnje  Briantniae  {sic'\  Rexfacobiis  in  Dcemojiolooia, 
eumque  tangit  difFusissimce  eruditionis  T\\e,o\og\i?,fohannesRaynoldi(S, 
in  cens.  lib.  Apocryph.  torn.  2prcBlect.i6().  In  eundem,  sed  innominatum 
calamum  strinxit  eximius  &  subacti  judicii  Theologus,  Guilelm.  Per- 
kinsjis  in  traciatu  de  Bascanologia.  Pars  libri  istius  Regi^ialdi  Scot 
elenctica  (nam  reliqua  in  editione  Anglicana  conjurationes  continebat,) 
in  Belgicum  idioma  translata  est,  ante  annos  aliquot  Lugd.  Batav. 
per  Thomam  Basson  :  ex  illius  libri  lectione,  seu  fonte  perenni,  non 
pauci  ab  illo  tempore  docti  &  indocti  in  Belgio  fiuctuare,  &  de  Magia 
ff/ceajTiKt^eii/  ac  \tj3epTivi^eiv,  (ut  Libertinis  &  Semilibertinis  infesta 
est  patria  nostra)  quin  eo  ignorantiae  saspe  prolabi,  ut  non  inique  illis 
applicari  potuerit,  quod  Sereniss.  Rex  Jacobus  in  DcBmonologid  sub- 
dito  suo  Reginaldo  Scot :  esse  qitasi  novos  SaddticcEOS :  cum  omnes 
diabolorum  operationes  &  apparitiones  suaviter  exibilant:  tanquam 
anicularum,  aut  superstitionis  meticulosae  phantasmata  ac  sabellas. 
Sunt  &  alii,  sed  pessimi  magije  patroni,  qui  ad  Deum  &  divina  charis- 

xl  Introduction. 

mata  seu  gratias  gratis  datas,  aut  ad  angelos  bonos,  operationes 
magicas  referunt." 

Dr.  W.  N.  du  Rieu,  Librarian  of  the  University  of  Leyden,  kindly 
informs  me,  that  a  translation  into  Dutch,  "omitting  some  formulae 
of  malediction  and  other  matters  which  would  more  interest  English 
readers,"  was  made  and  edited  by  Th.  Basson,  an  English  stationer 
living  at  Leyden  in  i2mo  in  1609.  It  was  undertaken  at  the  instiga- 
tion of  the  professors  of  law  and  history,  and  its  dedication,  dated 
loth  January  1609,  was  to  the  Curators  of  the  University,  and  to  the 
burgomasters  of  Leyden.  A  second  and  corrected  edition,  published 
by  his  son,  G.  Basson,  was  also  printed  at  Leyden  in  1637,  though  the 
dedication  is  dated  8th  May  1637,  Amsterdam. 

Though  in  various  of  the  notes  the  passages  have  been  spoken  of, 
yet  to  call  attention  to  the  matter,  and  in  the  hope  that  others  may  be 
more  successful,  I  would  add  that  I  have  not  discovered  the  principle 
on  which  he  went,  nor  his  authorities,  for  his  Scripture  readings.  In 
his  Latin  quotations  he  generally  quotes  the  Vulgate,  twice  or  thrice 
Beza,  or  Beza  varied,  while  at  other  times  he  goes  by  some  other 
translation,  or  possibly  makes  it  himself.  So  his  long  English 
quotation,  p.  284,  is  not  taken  from  Wycliffe's,  Tyndale's,  Cranmer's, 
Coverdale's,  Matthews',  or  from  the  Genevan,  Bishops',  or  Rheims 
versions,  though  more  like  the  Genevan,  while,  curiously  enough,  it 
precedes  the  one  of  161 1  by  one  or  two  verbal  coincidences.  Hence,  I 
believe  that  he  varied  the  Genevan  version  according  to  his  own  views 
and  taste,  and  am  the  more  inclined  to  this  in  that  the  passage  is  not 
in  Italics,  the  then  type  and  mark  of  quotations,  but  in  Romans. 

Notwithstanding,  however,  the  decree  that  had  gone  forth,  and, 
notwithstanding  the  strange  Sadducean  assertion,  not  argument,  set 
forth  by  James,  and  followed  by  John  Rainolds,  D.D.,  in  his  work  on 
the  Apocrypha  {iom.  ii,  1032),  and  by  Gisbert  Voet,  the  book's  inherent 
excellency,  as  reported  by  Ady,  and  as  evidenced  by  the  notices  of  it 
in  the  various  books  on  either  side  that  afterwards  came  forth,  and  in 
part,  perhaps,  through  that  decree  itself,  called  for  its  reproduction  ; 
and  in  165 1  it  was  issued  with  a  new  title-page,  though  naturally  it 
was  again  not  entered  on  the  Stationers'  Registers.  This  time  it  was 
really — as  evidenced  by  the  signatures — a  quarto.  The  text  was  one 
and  the  same  with  that  printed  off  by  Richard  Cotes  ;  but  there  were 

Introduction.  xli 

three  issues,  and  three  slightly  different  title-pages.  The  first  bears — 
LONDON  I  Printed  by  Richard  Cotes.  165 1.  The  second  has — 
Printed  by  R.  C.  and  are  to  be  sold  by  Giles  Calvert,  dwelling  at  the 

\  Black  Spread-Eagle  at  the  IVest-end  0/ Fa.u\s.  1651.  And  except 
for  these  final  words,  separated  on  both  title-pages  by  a  line  from  the 
rest,  both  are  word  for  word,  and  even  to  the  misprint  "  superstions" 
identical.  The  explanation,  in  all  probability,  if  not  certainty,  being 
that  my  "first"  one  was  the  first  issue,  when  the  publisher  thought  it 
more  prudent  to  withhold  his  name  ;  the  other,  a  second  issue  of 
copies  still  called  for,  when,  finding  no  ill  results,  he  had  become  bolder. 
The  third  has  below  the  line  spoken  of :  London  \  Printed  by  E.  [not 
R.]  Cotes  and  are  to  be  sold  by  Thomas  Williams  at  the  ]  Bible  in 
Little  Britain  1654.  In  this  "Scots"  is  printed  without  the  apos- 
trophe, "men",  "women",  and  "children",  as  also  "treatise",  have 
capital  initials  ;  on  both  occasions  it  has  "  Devils",  not  "  Divels";  and 
the  last  line  but  one  above  the  dividing  line  ends  "  De-"  not  "Divels", 
and  "superstions"  is  rightly  printed  "superstitions".  These  variations 
in  the  title-page,  and  the  exact  conformity  of  the  text  as  to  the  various 
peculiarities  of  the  letters,  words,  and  sizes  of  the  punctuation,  show 
that  Williams  had  come  into  possession  of  Calvert's  remainder,  or  of 
his  set-up  type,  and  had  issued  these  sheets,  prefixing  a  new  title-page 
of  his  own,  printed  by  E.  Cotes. 

There  is  not  the  slightest  evidence  of  a  copy  of  the  1584  edition 
having  been  prepared  for  the  press,  beyond  the  new  title-page,  and 
on  two  occasions  the  translation  of  Latin,  that  Scot  had  not — as  he 
had  done  in  similar  instances — translated.  The  Latin-named  in- 
gredients on  p.  184  are  Englished,  and  I  have  thus  been  enabled  to 
give  them  in  my  notings  with  the  more  probability  that  they  are 
correct.  The  second  instance  is,  as  stated  in  my  margin,  on  p.  416. 
Two  or  three  press  errors  are  corrected,  one  of  them  not  a  certain 
emendation,  and  all  within  the  competency  of  an  ordinary  compositor 
or  reader  ;  but  no  others,  not  even  that  of  "increase"  for  "incense", 
p.  446,  while  fresh  errors,  indicative  of  a  careless  "reader",  are 

What  has  been  thus  said  as  to  the  character  of  this  second  reprint, 
goes  to  prove  that  it  was  a  publisher's  venture  based  upon  the  demand 
fur  the  book,  and,  therefore,  for  gain,  and  one  wliich  he  carried  out  spite 


xlii  Introduction. 

of  its  having  been  burnt,  and  placed  among  the  "prohibited  books". 
In  like  manner,  and  for  the  like  purpose,  and  as  before,  without  entry 
in  the  Stationers'  Registers,  there  was  brought  out  the  third,  and  so- 
called  folio  edition  of  1665,  though  the  sheets  are  in  sixes.  All  but 
the  title-page,  which,  curiously  enough,  was  again  re-written,  though 
still  bearing,  like  the  second,  the  words,  "By  Reginald  Scot  Esquire"; 
it  is  a  careless  reprint  of  that  second,  with  all  its  errors,  and  new 
ones  superadded.  But  as  a  novelty  and  inducement  to  buy,  nine 
chapters,  commencing  the  fifteenth  book,  and  a  second  book  of  the 
"  Discourse  on  Devils  and  Spirits",  were  added  by  an  anonymous 
author.  Who  this  anonymity  was,  I  have  uselessly  spent  some  little 
time  in  inquiring,  time  that  might  have  been  better  employed,  even  had 
I  found  him.  But  it  goes  to  prove  that  these  additions  were  merely 
made  for  novelty's  sake,  and  its  glamour  and  gain,  in  that  the  writer 
was  a  believer  in,  and  not  improbably,  from  his  minute  directions,  as 
well  as  from  his  reticence,  a  practiser  of  witchcraft,  or  of  what  he 
thought  to  be  witchcraft.  He  also,  and  I  give  this  as  one  possible 
clue,  was  a  strong  believer  in  the  perishable  Astral  spirit  of  a  man,  as 
well  as  of  Astral  spirits  in  general,  and  much  of  his  "Discourse"  is 
taken  up  with  remarks  on  these. 

I  may  here  add,  as  showing  the  carelessness  with  which  these 
second  and  third  editions  were  edited,  a  note  of  the  errata  marked  in 
the  first  and  not  corrected  in  them. 

75,  21.  "We,"  so  the  second;  in  the  third  the  (,)  is  rightly  placed 
after  "  years".  A  correction  that  could  have  been  made  by  the  least 
intelligent  of  "  readers". 

168,31.  " Earth  n'rti^ firmament.''     Not  corrected. 

247,29.  "  Write  «(7W  it."     Not  corrected. 

269,  16.  "  If  there  be  masses  delete  \L"  Retained,  but  the  second 
attempts  to  correct  by  inserting  "no"  before  "masses'',  and  the  third 
follows  suit,  though  it  is  as  nonsensical  as  before. 

463,16.  "  Their  business  r^rt^/ that  business."     Not  corrected. 

Beyond  these,  the  limited  edition  now  printed  is  the  only  other 
known  to  me.  As  stated  in  the  preface,  it  is  a  reprint  of  the  first 
edition,  with  some  slight  alterations  in  the  lettering,  but  not  in  the 
spelling.  Besides  the  few  errata  that  have  been  found  and  recorded, 
the   small  heading  on   its  left  hand  pages  up  to  p.   24  is  "Ch.ip.  — ". 

Introductio7i.  xliii 

like  that  on  the  right  hand,  instead  of  being  "  i  or  2  Booke".  So 
also  in  the  earlier  pages,  the  marginal  references,  though  correct,  are 
not  printed  line  for  line  with  the  original.  The  pictorial  initial 
letters  of  the  first  chapter  of  each  book  occupy  in  the  original  almost 
a  third  of  the  page.  The  first  word  of  a  chapter  has  only  its  first  two 
letters— ^including  its  pictorial  letter — in  capitals,  but  the  remainder, 
as  well  as  the  rest  of  the  first  line,  is  in  larger  type  than  the  rest.  The 
original  bemg  also  in  black  letter  was  enabled  to  use  both  Romans 
and  Italics  as  variants,  whereas  the  reprint  could  only  use  Italics. 
The  rule  of  the  original  is,  however,  in  general  very  simple.  "  The 
—  Chapter",  the  contents  of  the  chapter  and  proper  names  are  in 
Romans;  "The —  Booke" and  quotations  in  Italics;  the  translations 
of  quotations  in  Romans.  Wherever  there  can  be  any  doubt  the  type 
of  the  original  is  marked  in  the  margin,  as  are  occasional  uses  by  the 
author  of  [  ]  to  distinguish  them  from  the  editor's  use  of  the  same. 
It  may  be  added  that  "  The  —  Chapter",  and  the  contents  of  the 
chapter,  have  been  transposed.  The  V  like  arrangement  of  the  lines 
at  the  end  of  a  chapter  have  not  been  followed,  but  been  imitated 
according  to  the  spirit  in  which  they  were  employed  ;  for,  after  an 
investigation  made  for  the  purpose,  it  was  found  that  they  do  not 
indicate  a  division  of  the  text  or  matter,  but  were  simply  compositors' 
devices  to  fill  up  a  page  when  that  page  either  ended  a  book,  or  when 
its  blank  space  did  not  allow  of  the  commencement  of  a  new  chapter. 
Similarly,  on  one  page,  a  (" .  •)  was  added  to  complete  the  page.  And, 
in  like  manner,  if  there  was  still  space  at  the  end  of  a  book,  an  en- 
graving was  inserted.  I  would  add  that  all  the  page  references  that 
I  make  are  to  the  pages  of  the  1584  edition. 

I  had  collected  for  an  appendix  various  grammatical  peculiarities 
of  the  age;  but  they  increased  the  number  of  pages,  and  therefore  the 
price  of  the  book,  without,  as  seemed  to  me,  sufficient  cause,  more 
especially  as  the  reader  can  readily  consult  Dr.  Abbot'i'  Shakesperian 
Grammar,  as  well  as  notices  in  other  books.  One  point,  however, 
ought  to  be  attended  to.  Though  an  educated  and  University  man, 
accustomed  to  Latin  and  Greek,  he,  like  all  of  his  time,  followed  the 
then  frequent  habit  of  using  singular  verbs  after  plural  nominatives 
not  immediately  preceding  them.  A  close  examination  of  these,  both 
in  Scot  and  Greene,  another  literate  and   Utriusque  Academia;  in 

xliv  Introduction. 

Artibus  Magister ;  and  one  notable  one  in  Ben  Jonson,  who  elsewhere, 
so  far  as  I  know,  avoids  this  error ;  as  well  as  those  in  Shakespeare 
and  others,  have  shown  me  that  they  cannot  be  explained  as  is  sought 
in  Dr.  Abbot's  Shakesperian  Gra/ninar,  §  333,  where  the  form  6f  the 
verb  is  held  to  be  a  remnant  of  the  northern  early  English  third  person 
plural  in  "s".  The  instances  alone  of  the  auxiliary  verbs  so  used  set  this 
theory  aside,  and  show  that  the  custom  was  due  to  carelessness,  habit, 
the  remoteness  or  after  position  of  the  true  nominatives,  and  to  the 
nearness  of  another  word,  sometimes  even  to  a  transposed  objective  ; 
or  of  a  "that"  or  "  which"  that  had  the  look  of  a  singular,  or  in  the 
case  of  a  double  nominative,  to  both  words  being  considered  as  im- 
plying one  thought,  as  indeed  they  often  did,  being  merely  synonyms. 
Our  Elizabethan  ancestors  would  have  said  :  "  Pity  and  compassion 
moves  me,"  because  they  held  pity  and  compassion  were  one  and 
the  same  ;  and  the  habit  of  using  Saxon  and  Latin,  or  other  syn- 
onyms, led  them  to  use  the  same  construction  when  the  meanings 
were  but  allied.  This  seems  to  me  the  more  likely  explanation  :  but 
the  reader  may  prefer  this — that  our  ancestors  took  the  phrase  to 
be  elliptical,  and  that  the  verb  really  employed  after  both  substantives 
was  to  be  understood  after  the  first  and  before  the  "  and". 

Contemporary  Notices  of  Scot. — Of  strictly  contemporary  notices,  I 
know  of  but  two.  In  Nash's  Four  Letters  Confuted^  I593)  he  asks, 
ed.  Grosart,  ii,  252  :  "  How  is  the  Supplication  a  diabolicall  Discourse, 
otherwise  than  as  it  intreats  of  the  diverse  natures  and  properties  of 
Divels  and  spirits  ?  in  that  far  fetcht  sense  may  the  famous  defensa- 
tive  against  supposed  Prophecies.,  and  the  Discoverie  0/  Witchcraft  be 
called  notorious  Diabolicall  discourses,  as  well  as  the  Supplication., 
for  they  also  intreate  of  the  illusions  and  sundrie  operations  of  spirits." 
The  second  is  in  Gabriel  Harvey's  Pierce's  Supererogation,  1593,  ed. 
Grosart,  ii,  291  :  "  Scottes  discoovery  of  Witchcraft,  dismasketh 
sundry  egregious  impostures,  and  in  certaine  principall  Chapters,  & 
speciall  passages,  hitteth  the  nayle  on  the  head  with  a  witnesse:  how- 
soever I  could  have  wished,  [G.  H.  is  nothing  if  he  be  not  quasi- 
critical  and  emending]  he  had  either  dealt  somewhat  more  curteously 
with  Monsieur  Bodine,  or  cofuted  him  somewhat  more  effectually." 

Of  course,  various  of  the  after-writers  on  witchcraft,  whichever 
side  they  took,  either  spoke  of  him  explicitly,  or  alluded  to  him  ; 

Introdtution.  xlv 

Webster,  Wagstafte,  Ady,  and  others,  on  the  same  side  as  Scot,  and 
Meric  Casaubon,  Cotta,  etc.,  ending  with  Glanvil  on  the  other.      But 
these,  the  really  curious  in  such  matters  may  be  left  to  search  out 
for  themselves.     Only  I  would  like  to  mention  John  Deacon's  and 
John  Walker's  Dialogicall  Discourses  of ...  Devils  [etc.],  1601,  both 
because  they,  being  clergymen,  had  the  boldness — besides  adding  new 
arguments  of  their  own,  and  though  their  wording  is  somewhat  less 
decided  than  their  own  evident  belief — out  of  three  explanations  of  the 
case  of  the  Witch  of  Endor  which  they  set  before  the  reader,  to 
plainly  prefer  Scot's  view  of  her  ventriloquism,  both  naming  him  in 
the  text,  and  giving  the  reference  to  his  page  in  their  margin  ;   and 
secondly,  because  so  far  as  a  hasty  look  enables  one  to  give  an 
opinion,  they  spoke  more  rationally  on  magical  and  other  points  than 
one  would  at  that  date  expect.     They  also  quote  the  opinion  of  Hip- 
pocrates on  magical  cures,  as  given  by  Scot,  p.  450,  and  show  that 
they  take  it,  though  not  literally,  from  him,  and  not  from  Hippocrates 
directly,  by  giving  a  reference  to  Scot  in  the  margin.      Afterwards 
they  published  in  1603,  a  second  large  work,  A  sununarie\f\  answer 
to  John  Darrell,  the  first  work  having  been  also  suggested  by  the  same 
impostor,  and  his  setting  forth  of  himself  as  a  caster  out  of  devils. 
I  have  said  on  p.  xxii  that  the  discovery  of  Scot's  name  in  the  Sub- 
sidy Rolls  for  1 586  and  1 587  with  the  affix  of  "  Armiger"  was  for  me  an 
important  find.     And  now  I  would  explain  that  it  was  so,  inasmuch 
as  it  set  my  mind  at  rest  as  to  the  oneness  of  the  Raynold  of  the 
Hoppe-garden  with  the  Reginald  Scot    Esquire,  of  the  Witclicraft. 
Aware  that  Reynold  and  Reginald  were  variants  of  one  name,  used  of 
and  by  the  same  person,  the  following  facts  hindered  me  for  a  long 
time  from  accepting  the  common  belief  that  the  Raynold  and  Regi- 
nald of  these  two  works  were  one  and  the  same.     First,  the  author 
of  the  Hoppe-garden  in  each  of  his  signatures  to  the  editions  of 
1574-6-8,  three  in  each,  appears  as  Raynold.  In  the  marriage  entry,  in 
the  pay-account  of  the  Kent  forces,  in  the  Muster-roll,  and  in  the  Will, 
it  is  also  Raynold.     But  in  1584,  throughout  the  Witchcraft,  that  is, 
four  times  in  all,  the  name  appears  as  Reginald.    Secondly,  in  the  Will 
of  1 599,  in  accordance  with  the  want  of  any  title  on  the  title-page  of  the 
Hoppe-garden,  he  describes  himself  as  "gent",  and  in  the  Inquisitio 
p.  m.,  though  he  is  called  Reginald,  the  document  being  in  Latin,  he 

xlvi  Inti^odiLction. 

is,  as  in  his  Will,  "generosus".  But  in  the  title-page  of  the  Witch- 
crafty  he  is  Reginald  Scot  Esquire.  The  finding  no  evidence  of  the 
separate  existence  of  a  Raynold  and  a  Reginald,  the  frequent  refer- 
ences to  the  Scriptures  in  the  Witchcraft^  and  the  very  frequent  refer- 
ences to  the  Proverbs  and  Ecclesiastes,  in  the  "Address  to  the 
Reader^'  of  the  Hoppe-garden,  the  use  in  both  works,  as  already  quoted, 
of  certain  legal  phrases,  and  the  occurrence  in  the  prefatory  part  of 
the  Hoppe-garden  of  "w^ith  the  licour  (or  rather  the  lucre)",  and 
"  condemne  the  man,  or  rather  the  mynde",  a  trick  of  language  not 
unfrequently  repeated  in  the  Discoverie,  a  trick  resulting  from  his 
love  of  irony,  shook  my  doubts.  But  there  were  still,  the  want  of  any 
title  after  the  name  in  the  Hoppe-garden^  the  "  gent"  of  the  Will, 
and  the  "generosus"  of  the  Inquisitio,  as  against  the  "Esquire"  of  the 
Discoverie.  First,  however,  Hunter's  suggestion,  that  his  esquireship 
was  due  to  his  having  been  appointed  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  then 
the  discovery  of  armiger  after  his  name,  have  removed  all  reasonable 
doubts;  and  to  turn  our  belief  to  a  positive  certainty,  it  only  remains 
to  discover  that  he  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace. 

Possibly  the  reader  may  now  expect  some  pages  on  Scot's  style 
as  a  writer,  and  on  his  claim — his  claim,  yet  not  one  made  by  him- 
self—to be  considered  an  English  classic.  But,  besides  that,  I  am 
not  "greatly  cesthetic",  and  besides  having  expressed  my  opinions 
in  more  than  one  place  in  this  Introduction,  I  think  that  any  reader, 
with  any  appreciation  of  style,  and  of  the  manner  in  which  an  argu- 
ment ought  to  be  carried  out,  can  come  to  but  one  conclusion.  Such 
belief,  I  may  add,  is  strengthened  by  this,  that  most  writers  whom  I 
have  consulted  are  of  this  opinion  :  and  I  would  conclude  with  three 
quotations,  chiefly  regarding  the  way  in  which  he  carried  out  his 
argument.  The  Rev.  Jos.  Hunter,  in  his  MS.  Chorus  Vatian,  ch.  v, 
says  :  "  In  fact,  I  had  no  notion  of  the  admirable  character  of  this 
book  till  I  read  it  this  September  1839.  It  is  one  of  the  few  instances 
in  which  a  bold  spirit  opposes  himself  to  the  popular  belief,  and 
seeks  to  throw  protection  over  a  class  of  the  defenceless.  In  my 
opinion,  he  ought  to  stand  very  prominent  in  any  catalogue  of 
Persons  who  have  been  public  benefactors." 

"  To  answer  his  argument  was  wholly  impossible,  and  though  the 
publication  of  his  book  did  not  put  an  end  to  the  notion  which  con- 

Introduction.  xlvii 

tinned  very  prevalent  for  a  century  afterwards  [though  we  know  from 
Ady  that  it  greatly  checked  the  belief  for  a  tune],  yet  it  had,  I  have 
no  doubt,  much  to  do  with  the  silent  and  gradual  extinction  of  it." 

So  D'Israeli,  in  his  ^wi?«zVzVj  iT/'ZzV^ra/z^r^,  has  these  words  :  "A 
single  volume  sent  forth  from  the  privacy  of  a  retired  student,  by  its 
silent  influence  may  mark  an  epoch  in  the  history  of  the  human 

"  Such  a  volume  was  The  Discoverie  of  Witchcraft^  by  Reginald 
Scot,  a  singular  work,  which  may  justly  claim  the  honour  in  this 
country  of  opening  that  glorious  career  which  is  dear  to  humanity 
and  fatal  to  imposture." 

Thirdly,  Professor  W.  T.  Gairdner,  M.D.  and  LL.D.,  thus  speaks, 
in  his  address  on  "  Insanity  :  Modern  Views  as  to  its  Nature  and 
Treatment",  read  before  the  Glasgow  Medico-Chirurgical  Society  : 
"  But  I  cannot  leave  it  [witchcraft]  .  .  .  without  expressing,  more 
strongly  than  even  Mr.  Lecky  does,  the  unqualified  admiration  and 
surprise  which  arise  in  the  mind  on  finding  that  in  1584  .  .  .  there 
was  at  least  one  man  in  England  .  .  .  who  could  scan  the  whole  field 
of  demonology,  and  all  its  terrible  results  in  history,  with  an  eye  as 
clear  from  superstition,  and  a  judgment  as  sound  and  unwavering  in 
its  opposition  to  abuses,  as  that  of  Mr.  Lecky  himself.  There  is  only 
one  book,  so  far  as  I  know,  in  any  language,  written  in  the  sixteenth 
or  even  the  seventeenth  century,  that  merits  this  praise  :  and  it  is  a 
book  which,  notwithstanding  its  wide  human  interest,  its  great  and 
solid  learning,  and  a  charming  English  style  that  makes  it  most 
readable,  even  at  the  present  day,  has  never  been  reprinted  for  two 
hundred  years,  and  is  therefore  extremely  inaccessible  to  most 
readers.  Feginald  Scot's  Discoverie  of  Witchcraft .  .  .  stands  brightly 
out  amid  the  darkness  of  its  own  and  the  succeeding  age,  as  a  per- 
fectly unique  example  of  sagacity  amounting  to  genius."  He  adds: 
"  Nothing,  however,  is  more  evident  than  that  Scot,  however  indebted 
to  Wier  (and  both  of  them,  probably,  to  Cornelius  Agrippa  .  .  .  ), 
was  far  in  advance  of  either  in  the  clearness  of  his  views  and  the 
unwavering  steadiness  of  his  leanings  to  the  side  of  humanity  and 

Note. —  The  italic  numerals  in  the  side  marqi/is 
denote  the  pages  of  the  Jirst,  the  ordinary  numbers 
those  of  the  second  edition. 

The  difcouerie 

of  witchcraft, 

Wherein  the  lewde  dealing  of  witches 

a7id  witchmongers  is  7iotablie  detected,  the 
knauerie  of  coniurors,  the  impietie  of  inchan- 

tors,  the  fo Hie  of  foothfaiers,  the  impudent  falf- 

hood  of  coufenors,  the  infidelitie  of  atheifts, 

the  pejlilent  pran:ifes  of  Pythonijls,  the 

curiofitie  of  figurecafters,  the  va- 

iiitie  of  dreamers^  the  hegger- 

lie  art  of  Alcu- 


The  abhomination  of  idolatrie,  the  hor- 

rible  art  of  poifoning,  the  vertue  and  power  of 

naturall    magike,   and   all   the  conueiances 

of  Legierdemaine  and  higgling  are  deciphered: 

and  many  other  things  opened,  which 

haue  long  lien  hidden,  howbeit 

verie  necefTarie  to 

be  knowne. 

Heerevnto  is  added  a  treatife  vpon  the 

nature  and  fubftance  of  fpirits  and  ditiels, 

&c :    all  latelie  written 

by  Reginald  Scot 


I.   lohn.  4,   I. 

Beleeue  not  etierie  fpirit^  but  trie  the  fpirits^  whether  they  are 

of  God  ;  for  manie  falfe prophets  are  gone 

out  into  the  worlds  &c. 























Difcovery  of  Witchcraft : 


The  common  opinions  of  Witches  con- 
tracting with  Divels,Spirits,or Familiars;  and 

their  power  to  kill,  torment,  and  confume  the  bodies  of 

men  women,  and  children,  or  other  creatures  by  difeafes 

or  otherwife ;  their  flying  in  the  Air,  &c.    To  be  but  imaginary 

Erronious  conceptions  and  novelties  ; 


The  lewde  unchriftian  practifes  of  Witchmongers,  upon  aged, 
melancholy,  ignorant,  and  fuperftious  people  in  extorting  con- 

feffions,  by  inhumane  terrors  and  tortures  is  notably  detedled. 

(The  knavery  and  confederacy  of  Conjurors. 
The  impious  blafphemy  of  Inchanters. 
The  impofture  of  Soothfayers,  and  Infidelity  of  Atheifts. 
The    delufion     of    Pythonifts,     Figure-cafters,     Afirologers,     and    va- 
A  i.  b  u.  j^j^y  ^j  Dreamers. 

I  The  fruitleffe  beggerly  art  of  Alchimiftry. 

I  The     horrible     art     of    Poifoning    and    all     the     tricks     and     convey- 

V        ances  of  juggling  and  Liegerdemain  are  fully  deciphered. 

With  many  Other  things  opened  that  have  long  lain  hidden:  though 

very  neceffary  to  be  known  for  the  undeceiving  of  Judges,  Juftices, 

and  Juries,  and  for  the  prefervation  of  poor,  aged,  deformed,  ignorant 

people  ;  frequently  taken,  arraigned,  condemned  and  executed  for 

Witches,  when  according  to  a  right  underftanding,  and  a  good 

confcience,  Phyfick,  Food,  and  neceffaries  should  be 

adminiftred  to  them. 

Whereunto  is  added,  a  treatife  upon  the  nature,  and  fubftance  of  Spirits  and  Divels, 
&c.  all  written  and  publifhed  in  Atmo  1584.  by  Regi7iald  Scot,  Efquire. 

Vrmtedhy  Richard  Cotes.     165 1, 










********************  ^t******«-*****i^***«**/>/;^*\^**^*|*^^ 

Size,  Fol.,  lO^  in.  x  6 J. 


Difcovery    of  Witchcraft: 

That  the  Compacts   and  Contrads   of  Witches 

with  Devils  and  all  Infernal  Spirits  or  Familiars,  are  but 
Erroneous  Novelties  and  Imaginary  Conceptions. 

Alfo  difcovering,  How  far  their  power  extendeth,  in  Killing,  Tormenting, 

Confuming,  or  Curing  the  bodies  of  Men,  Women,  Children,  or  Animals, 

by  Charms,  Philtres,  Periapts,  Pentacles,  Curfes,  and  Conjurations. 


The  Unchriftian   Practices  and  Inhumane  Dealings  of 

Searchers  and  Witch-tryers  upon  Aged,  Melancholly,  and  Superftitious 

people,  in  extorting  Confeffions  by  Terrors  and  Tortures, 
and  in  devifing  falfe  Marks  and  Symptoms,  are  notably  Detected. 

And  the  Knavery  oijtiglers,  Conjurers,  Charmers,  SootJifayers,Fignre^Cafters, 

Dreamers,  Alchymifts  and  Philterers',   with  many  other  things 

that  have  long  lain  hidden,  fully  Opened  and  Deciphered. 


Are  very  neceffary  to  be  known  for  the  undeceiving  of  Judges,  Juftices, 

and  yurors,  before  they  pafs  Sentence  upon  Poor,  Miferable  and  Ignorant  People  ; 
who    are  frequenly  Arraigned,  Condemned,  and  Executed  for  Witches  and  Wizzards. 

By    Reginald     Scot     Efquire. 

Whereunto  is  added 

An   excellent    Difcourfe    of   the  Nature  and  Siibftance 



The  Fir/t  by  the  aforefaid  Author:     The  Second  now 

added  in  this    Third  Edition,  as  Succedaneous  to  the  former, 

and  conducing  to  the  compleating  of  the  Whole  Work  : 

With  Nine  Chapters  at  the  beginning  of  the  Fifteenth*    Book 

of  the    DISCO  FERr. 


Printed  for  A.  Clark,  and  are  to  be  fold  by  Dixy  Page  at  the  Turks-Head 
in  Cornhill  ntz.x  the  Roya/l  Exchange,  1665. 

*  [•^'''••l 

To  the 


especiall  good 

Knight,    Lord 

Hono7^able,   mine 

Sir   Roger    Manwood 
cheefe  Baron  of  Jiir  Majesties  Court 
of  the  Eschequer. 

Insomuch  as  I  know  that  your  Lordship  is  by  nature 
whollie  inclined,  and  in  purpose  earnestly  bent  to  releeve 
the  poore,  and  that  not  onlie  with  hospitalitie  and  almes, 
but  by  diverse  other  devises  and  waies  tending  to  their 
comfort,  having  (as  it  were)  framed  and  set  your  selfe  to  the  helpe  and 
maintenance  of  their  estate  ;  as  appeareth  by  your  charge  and  travell 
in  that  behalfe.  Whereas  also  you  have  a  speciall  care  for  the  sup- 
porting of  their  right,  and  redressing  of  their  wrongs,  as  neither 
despising  their  calamitie,  nor  yet  forgetting  their  complaint,  seeking 
all  meanes  for  their  amendement,  and  for  the  reformation  of  their  dis- 
orders, even  as  a  verie  father  to  the  poore.  Finallie,  for  that  I  am  a 
poore  member  of  that  commonwelth,  where  your  Lordship  is  a 
principall  person;  I  thought  this  my  travell,  in  the  behalfe  of  the  poore, 
the  aged,  and  the  simple,  might  be/  verie  fitlie  commended  unto  you  : 
for  a  weake  house  requireth  a  strong  stale.  In  which  respect  I  give 
God  thanks,  that  hath  raised  up  unto  me  so  mightieafreend  for/thern 
as  your  Lordship  is,  who  in  our  lawes  have  such  knowledge,  in 
government  such  discretion,  in  these  causes  such  experience,  and  in 
the  commonwealth  such  authoritie;  and  neverthelesse  vouchsafe  to 
descend  to  the  consideration  of  these  base  and  inferior  matters,  which 
minister  more  care  and  trouble,  than  worldhe  estimation. 

And  in  somuch  as  your  Lordship  knoweth,  or  rather  exerciseth  the 
office  of  a  judge,  whose  part  it  is  to  heare  with  courtesie,  and  to 
determine  with  equitie  ;  it  cannot  but  be  apparent  unto  you,  that  when 
punishment  exceedeth  the  fault,  it  is  rather  to  be  thought  vengeance 
than  correction.  In  which  respect  I  knowe  you  spend  more  time  and 
travell  in  the  conversion  and  reformation,  than  in  the  subversion  & 
confusion  of  offenders,  as  being  well  pleased  to  augment  your 
owne  private  paines,  to  the  end  you  may  diminish  their  publike  smart. 
For  in  truth,  that  commonwealth  remaineth  in  wofuU  state,  where 
fetters  and  halters  beare  more  swaie  than  mercie  and  due  com- 

Howbeit,  it  is  naturall  to  unnaturall  people,  and  peculiar  unto 
witchmongers,  to  pursue  the  poore,  to  accuse  the  simple,  and  to  kill 
the  innocent  ;  supplieng  in  rigor  and  malice  towards  others,  that 

A.  ii.  V. 

viii  The  Epistle. 

which  they  themselves  want  in  proofe  and  discretion,  or  the  other  in 
offense  or  occasion.  But  as  a  cruell  hart  and  an  honest  mind  doo 
seldome  meete  and  feed  togither  in  a  dish  ;  so  a  discreet  and  mercifull 
magistrate,  and  a  happie  commonwealth  cannot  be  separated  asunder. 
How  much  then  are  we  bound  to  God,  who  hath  given  us  a  Queene, 
that  of  justice  is  not  only  the  very  perfect  image  &  paterne  ;  but  also 
A.  2.  of  mercie  &  clemencie  (under  God)  the  meere  fountaine  &/  bodie  it 
A.  iii.  selfe  ?  In  somuch  as  they  which  hunt  most  after  bloud  in/  these 
dales,  have  least  authoritie  to  shed  it.  Moreover,  sith  I  see  that  in 
cases  where  lenitie  might  be  noisome,  &  punishment  wholesome  to 
the  commonwealth  ;  there  no  respect  of  person  can  move  you,  no 
authoritie  can  abash  you,  no  feare,  no  threts  can  daunt  you  in  per- 
forming the  dutie  of  justice. 

In  that  respect  againe  I  find  your  Lordship  a  fit   person,  to  judge 

and  looke   upon  this  present  treatise.     Wherein  I  will  bring  before 

you,  as  it  were  to  the  barre,  two  sorts  of  most  arrogant  and  wicked 

people,  the  first  challenging  to  themselves,  the  second  attributing  unto 

a  Apoc.  4,  II.        others,  that  power  which  onelie  apperteineth  to  God,'^  who  onelie  is 

bRom.  8.  ^jjg  Creator  of  all  things,''  who  onelie  searcheth  the  heart  and  reines, 

Acts.  5.  .  . 

Apoc.  2.  who  onelie "  knoweth  our  imaginations  and  thoughts,  who  onelie"^ 

d  Dan.  2.  &  openeth  all  secrets,  who^  onelie  worketh  great  wonders,  who  onelie 

Ip*]'"^'-,  hath  power*' to  raise  up  &  cast  downe  ;  who  onelie  maketh  thunder, 

&  136.  lightning,  raine,  tempests,  and  restraineth  them  at  his  pleasure  ;  who 

f  John's.  &  36  onelie 8  sendeth  life  and  death,  sicknesse  &  health,  wealth  and  wo; 

Sam.  12.  ^j^Q  neither  giveth  nor  lendeth  his^  glorie  to  anie  creature. 

1.  Reg.  8.  ^  ° 

2.  Reg.  3.  And  therefore,  that  which  greeveth  me  to  the  bottome  of  my  hart, 
Zach  10.  's>  that  these  witchmongers  cannot  be  content,  to  wrest  out  of  Gods 
&  '4-                   hand  his  almightie  power,  and  keepe  it  themselves,  or  leave  it  with  a 

Amos.  4.  7.  o  r-  7  r-  7 

Ejob.  I.  witch:  but  that,  when  by  drift  of  argument  they  are  made  to  laie 

saie.  42,  8.        downe  the  bucklers,  they  yeeld  them  up  to  the  divell,  or  at  the  least 

praie  aid  of  him,  as  though  the  raines  of  all  mens  lives  and  actions 

were  committed  into  his  hand  ;  and  that  he  sat  at  the  sterne,  to  guide 

and  direct  the  course  of  the  whole  world,  imputing  unto  him  power 

and  abilitie  inough  to  doo  as  great  things,  and  as  strange  miracles  as 

ever  Christ  did. 

A.  2.  V.        But  the  doctors  of  this  supernaturall  doctrine  saie/  somtimes,  that 

A.  iii.  V.    the  witch  doth  all  these  things  by  vertue  of  hir/  charmes  ;  sometimes 

that  a  spirituall,  sometimes  that  a  corporall  divell  doth  accomplish  it; 

sometimes  they  saie  that  the  divell  doth  but  make  the  witch  beleeve 

she  doth  that  which  he  himselfe  hath  wrought ;  sometimes  that  the 

divell   seemeth   to   doo   that   by   compulsion,  which   he   doth   most 

willinglie.     Finallie,  the  writers  hereupon  are  so  eloquent,  and  full  of 

varietie  ;  that  sometimes  they  write  that  the  divell  dooth  all  this  by 

The  Epistle.  ix 

Gods  permission  onelie  ;  sometimes  by  his  licence,  somtimes  by  his 
appointment  :  so  as  (in  effect  and  truth)  not  the  divell,  but  the  high 
and  mightie  king  of  kings,  and  Lord  of  hosts,  even  God  himselfe, 
should  this  waie  be  made  obedient  and  servile  to  obeie  and  performe 
the  will  &  commandement  of  a  malicious  old  witch,  and  miraculouslie 
to  answere  hir  appetite,  as  well  in  everie  trifling  vanitie,  as  in  most 
horrible  executions  ;  as  the  revenger  of  a  doting  old  womans  imagined 
wrongs,  to  the  destruction  of  mania  innocent  children,  and  as  a 
supporter  of  hir  passions,  to  the  undoing  of  manie  a  poore  soule. 
And  I  see  not,  but  a  witch  may  as  well  inchant,  when  she  will ;  as  a 
lier  may  lie  when  he  list  :  and  so  should  we  possesse  nothing,  but  by 
a  witches  licence  and  permission. 

And  now  forsooth  it  is  brought  to  this  point,  that  all  divels,  which 
were  woont  to  be  spirituall,  may  at  their  pleasure  become  corporall, 
and  so  shew  themselves  familiarlie  to  witches  and  conjurors,  and  to 
none  other,  and  by  them  onlie  may  be  made  tame,  and  kept  in  a  box, 
&c.  So  as  a  malicious  old  woman  may  command  hir  divell  to  plague 
hir  neighbor  :  and  he  is  afflicted  in  manner  and  forme  as  she  desireth. 
But  then  commeth  another  witch,  and  she  biddeth  hir  divell  helpe, 
and  he  healeth  the  same  partie.  So  as  they/  make  it  a  kingdome  A  3 
divided  in  it  selfe,  and  therefore  I  trust  it  will  not  long  endure,  but 
will  shortlie  be  overthrowne,  according  to  the  words  of  our  Savior, 
OniJie  regnjtin  in  se  divisitni  desolabihcr,  Everie  king/dome  divided  in  a.  iiii. 
it  selfe  shalbe  desolate. 

And  although  some  sale  that  the  divell  is  the  witches  instrument, 
to  bring  hir  purposes  and  practises  to  passe  :  yet  others  saie  that  she 
is  his  instrument,  to  execute  his  pleasure  in  anie  thing,  and  therefore 
to  be  executed.  But  then  (me  thinks)  she  should  be  injuriouslie  dealt 
withall,  and  put  to  death  for  anothers  offense  :  for  actions  are  not 
judged  by  instrumentall  causes  ;  neither  dooth  the  end  and  purpose 
of  that  which  is  done,  depend  upon  the  meane  instrument.  Finallie, 
if  the  witch  doo  it  not,  why  should  the  witch  die  for  it .''  But  they  saie 
that  witches  are  persuaded,  and  thinke,  that  they  doo  indeed  those 
mischeefs  ;  and  have  a  will  to  performe  that  which  the  divell  com- 
mitteth  :  and  that  therefore  they  are  worthie  to  die.  By  which  reason 
everie  one  should  be  executed,  that  wisheth  evill  to  his  neighbor,  &c. 
But  if  the  will  should  be  punished  by  man,  according  to  the  offense 
against  God,  we  should  be  driven  by  thousands  at  once  to  the 
slaughterhouse  or  butcherie.  For  whosoever  loatheth  correction  Proverb.  5. 
shall  die.  And  who  should  escape  execution,  if  this  lothsomnesse  (I 
saie)  should  extend  to  death  by  the  civill  lawes.  Also  the  reward  of 
sinne  is  death.  Howbeit,  everie  one  that  sinneth,  is  not  to  be  put  to 
death  by  the  magistrate.     But  (my  Lord)  it  shalbe  proved  in  my 


X  The  Epistle. 

booke,  and  your  Lordship  shall  trie  it  to  be  true,  as  well  here  at  home 
in  your  native  countrie,  as  also  abrode  in  your  severall  circuits,  that 
(besides  them  that  be  Venifica,  which  are  plaine  poisoners)  there  will 
be  found  among  our  witches  onelie  two  sorts ;  the  one  sort  being  such 
A  3  V  by  imputation,  as/  so  thought  of  by  others  (and  these  are  abused,  and 
not  abusors)  the  other  by  acceptation,  as  being  willing  so  to  be 
accompted  (and  these  be  meere  cousenors.) 
Instit.  lib.  Calvine  treating  of  these  magicians,  calleth  them  cousenors,  saieng 

UemlplT'  ^'  that  they  use  their  juggling  knacks  onelie  to  amase  or  abuse  the 
Deut.  cap.  i8.  people  ;  or  else  for  fame  :  but  he/  might  rather  have  said  for  gaine. 
mils, Pag.  5.  Erastus  himselfe,  being  a  principal!  writer  in  the  behalfe  of  witches 

A.\\\i.v.  omnipotencie,  is  forced  to  confesse,  that  these  Greeke  words, /ifi7<'a, 

fui^l^iarjla,  (papfiaKia,  are  most  commonlie  put  for  illusion,  false  packing, 
cousenage,  fraud,  knaverie  and  deceipt  :  and  is  further  driven  to  saie, 
that  in  ancient  time,  the  learned  were  not  so  blockish,  as  not  to  see 
that  the  promises  of  magicians  and  inchanters  were  false,  and  no- 
thing else  but  knaverie,  cousenage,  and  old  wives  fables  ;  and  yet 
defendeth  he  their  flieng  in  the  aire,  their  transferring  of  corne  or 
grasse  from  one  feeld  to  another,  &c. 

But  as  Erastus  disagreeth  herein  with  himselfe  and  his  freends  :  so 
is  there  no  agreement  among  anie  of   those  writers,   but  onlie  in 
cruelties,  absurdities,  and  impossibilities.     And  these  (my  Lord)  that 
fall  into  so  manifest  contradictions,  and  into  such  absurd  assevera- 
tions, are  not  of  the  inferior  sort  of  witers  ;  neither  are   they   all 
papists,  but  men  of  such  accompt,  as  whose  names  give  more  credit 
to  their  cause,  than  their  writings.     In  whose  behalfe  I  am  sorie,  and 
partlie  for  reverence  suppresse  their  fondest  errors  and  fowlest  absur- 
alsaie.  59, 7.         dities  ;  dealing  speciallie  with  them  that  most  contend  in  crueltie,'^ 
bEccU27^5.         whose  feete  are  swift  to  shed  bloud,  striving  (as  ''Jesus  the  sonne  of 
c  Prov.  1, 16.         Sirach  saith)  and  hasting  (as  ''Salomon  the  sonne  of  David  saith)  to 
powre  out  the  bloud  of  the  innocent  ;  whose  heat  against  these  poore 
d  jer  2  34.  wretches  cannot  be  allaied  with  anie  other  liquor  than  bloud.     And 

eps.  139, 15.         therfore  I  feare  that  ''under  their  wings  will  be  found  the  bloud  of  the 
A  4    soules  of  the  poore,  at  that  daie,  when  the  Lord  shall  saie  ;/  "^Depart 
from  me  ye  bloadthirstie  men. 

And  bicause  I  know  your  Lordship  will  take  no  counsell  against 

innocent  bloud,  but  rather  suppresse  them  that  seeke  to  embrue  their 

hands  therein  ;  I  have  made  choise  to  open  their  case  unto  you,  and 

to  laie  their  miserable  calamitie  before  your  feete  :  following  herein 

[A.  v.]    the/  advise  of  that  learned  man  Brentius,  who  saith  ;  .5"/  gtns  admo- 

in  epistola  nuerit  magistratum,  ne  i/i  miseras  illas  viulierculas  scsviat,  eum  ego 

ad  Jo.  Wter.         arbitvor  divinitus  excitatiini ;  that  is.  If  anie  admonish  the  magistrate 

not  to  deale  too  hardlie  with  these  miserable  wretches,  that  are  called 

The  Epistle.  xi 

witches,  I  thinke  him  a  good  instrument  raised  up  for  this  purpose  by- 
God  himselfe. 

But  it  will  perchance  be  said  by  vvitchmongers  ;  to  wit,  by  such  as 
attribute  to  witches  the  power  which  apperteineth  to  God  onelie,  that 
I  have  made  choise  of  your  Lordship  to  be  a  patrone  to  this  my  booke; 
bicause  I  think  you  favour  mine  opinions,  and  by  that  meanes  may 
the  more  freelie  publish  anie  error  or  conceipt  of  mine  owne,  which 
should  rather  be  warranted  by  your  Lordships  authoritie,  than  by  the 
word  of  God,  or  by  sufficient  argument.  But  I  protest  the  contrarie, 
and  by  these  presents  I  renounce  all  protection,  and  despise  all  freend- 
ship  that  might  serve  to  helpe  towards  the  suppressing  or  supplanting 
of  truth  :  knowing  also  that  your  Lordship  is  farre  from  allowing  anie 
injurie  done  unto  man  ;  much  more  an  enimie  to  them  that  go  about 
to  dishonor  God,  or  to  embezill  the  title  of  his  immortall  glorie.  But 
bicause  I  know  you  to  be  perspicuous,  and  able  to  see  downe  into  the 
depth  and  bottome  of  causes,  and  are  not  to  be  carried  awaie  with  the 
vaine  persuasion  or  superstition  either  of  man,  custome,  time,  or 
multitude,  but  mooved  with  the  authoritie  of  truth  onlie  :  I  crave 
your  countenance  herein,  even  so  farre  foorth,  and  no  further,  than 
the  lawe  of  God,  the  lawe  of  nature,  the  lawe  of  this  land,  and  the/  rule  A4  v 
of  reason  shall  require.  Neither  doo  I  treat  for  these  poore  people 
anie  otherwise,  but  so,  as  with  one  hand  you  may  sustaine  the  good, 
and  with  the  other  suppresse  the  evill  :  wherein  you  shalbe  thought  a 
father  to  orphans,  an  advocate  to  widowes,  a  guide  to  the  blind,  a 
staie  to  the  lame,  a  comfort  &  countenance  to  the  honest,  a  scourge/ 
and  terror  to  the  wicked.  lA.  v.  ».] 

Thus  farre  I  have  beene  bold  to  use  your  Lordships  patience,  being 
offended  with  my  selfe,  that  I  could  not  in  brevitie  utter  such  matter 
as  I  have  delivered  amplie:  whereby  (I  confesse)  occasion  of  tedious- 
nes  might  be  ministred,  were  it  not  that  your  great  gravitie  joined 
with  your  singular  constancie  in  reading  and  judging  be  means  of 
the  contrarie.  And  I  wish  even  with  all  my  hart,  that  I  could  make 
people  conceive  the  substance  of  my  writing,  and  not  to  misconstrue 
anie  part  of  my  meaning.  Then  doubtles  would  I  persuade  my  selfe, 
that  the  companie  of  witchmongers,  &c  :  being  once  decreased,  the 
number  also  of  witches,  &c  :  would  soone  be  diminished.  But  true 
be  the  words  of  the  Poet,*  [*  Homer.] 

Haudqiiaquam  poteris  sortirier  omnia  sohis, 
Ndmqtie  aliis  divi  bello  poller e  dederujit. 
Hide  saltandi  arteni,  voce  huic  cythardqtie  canendi : 
Rurswn  alii  inseruil  sagax  in  pectore  niagims 
Jtipiter  ingenium^  ^t'c. 


The  Epistle. 

And  therefore  as  doubtful!  to  prevaile  by  persuading,  though  I  have 
reason  and  common  sense  on  my  side  ;  I  rest  upon  earnest  wishing  ; 
namelie,  to  all  people  an  absolute  trust  in  God  the  creator,  and  not 
in  creatures,  which  is  to  make  flesh  our  arme  :  that  God  may 
have  his  due  honor,  which  by  the  undutifulnes  of  manic 
is  turned  into  dishonor,  and  lesse  cause  of  offense 
and   errour  given   by   common   received   evill 
example.   And  to  your  Lordship  I  wish,  as 
increase  of  honour,  so  continu- 
ance of  good  health, 
and  happie 

Your  Lordships  to  be  commanded 

Reginald  Scot. 

The  Epistle.  xiii 

To  the  right  worshipfull  Sir  [^•^''•i  ^^^ 

Thomas  Scot  Knight,  Sr^c. 

[Rora.  and  Ital.  of  this  reversed  from  original.] 

Ir,  I  see  among  other  malefactors  manie  poore  old  women 
convented  before  you  for  working  of  miracles,  other 
wise  called  witchcraft,  and  therefore  I  thought  you  also  a 
meet  person  to  whom  I  might  comend  my  booke.  And 
here  I  have  occasion  to  speake  of  your  sincere  administration  of  justice, 
and  of  your  dexteritie,  discretion,  charge,  and  travell  emploied  in  that 
behalfe,  wherof  I  am  oculatus  testis.  Howbeit  I  had  rather  refer  the 
reader  to  common  fame,  and  their  owne  eies  and  eares  to  be  satisfiedy 
than  to  send  them  to  a  Stationers  shop,  where  manie  times  lies  are 
vendible,  and  truth  contemptible.  For  I  being  of  your  house,  of  your 
name,  &  of  your  bloud y  my  foot  being  under  your  table,  my  hand  in 
your  dish,  or  rather  in  your  pursse,  might  bee  thought  to  flatter  you  in 
that,  wherein  (I  knowe)  I  should  rather  offend  you  than  please  you. 
And  what  need  I  currie  favour  with  my  most  assured  friend .''  And  if 
I  should  onelie  publish  those  vertues  (though  they  be  manie)  which 
give  me  speciall  occasion  to  exhibit  this  my  travell  unto  you,  I  should 
doo  as  a  painter,  that  describeth  the  foot  of  a  notable  personage,  and 
leaveth  all  the  best  features  in  his  bodie  untouched. 

I  therefore  (at  this  time)  doo  onelie  desire  you  to  consider  of  my 
report,  concerning  the  evidence  that  is  commonlie  brought  before  you 
against  them.  See  first  whether  the  evidence  be  not  frivolous,  & 
whether  the  proofs  brought  against  them  be  not  incredible,  consisting 
of  ghesses,  presumptions,  &  impossibilities  contrarie  to  reason,  scrip-/ 
ture,  and  nature.  See  also  what  persons  complaine  upon  them,  A  a  2 
whether  they  be  not  of  the  basest,  the  unwisest,  &  most  faithles  kind 
of  people.  Also/  may  it  please  you  to  waie  what  accusations  and  [A.  vi.  v.] 
crimes  they  laie  to  their  charge,  namelie  :  She  was  at  my  house  of 
late,  she  would  have  had  a  pot  of  milke,  she  departed  in  a  chafe 
bicause  she  had  it  not,  she  railed,  she  curssed,  she  mumbled  and 
whispered,  and  finallie  she  said  she  would  be  even  with  me  :  and 
soone  after  my  child,  my  cow,  my  sow,  or  my  pullet  died,  or  was 
strangelie  taken.  Naie  (if  it  please  your  Worship)  I  have  further 
proofe  :  I  was  with  a  wise  woman,  and  she  told  me  I  had  an  ill 
neighbour,  &  that  she  would  come  to  my  house  yer  it  were  long,  and 
so  did  she  ;  and  that  she  had  a  marke  above  hir  waste,  &  so  had  she: 
and  God  forgive  me,  my  stomach  hath  gone  against  hir  a  great  while. 
Hir  mother  before  hir  was  counted  a  witch,  she  hath  bcene  beaten 

xiv  The  Epistle. 

and  scratched  by  the  face  till  bloud  was  drawne  upon  hir,  bicause  she 
hath  beene  suspected,  &  afterwards  some  of  those  persons  were 
said  to  amend.  These  are  the  certeinties  that  I  heare  in  their  evi- 

Note  also  how  easilie  they  may  be  brought  to  confesse  that  which 
they  never  did,  nor  lieth  in  the  power  of  man  to  doo  :  and  then  see 
whether  I  have  cause  to  write  as  I  doo.  Further,  if  you  shall  see 
that  infidelitie,  poperie,  and  manie  other  manifest  heresies  be  backed 
and  shouldered,  and  their  professors  animated  and  hartened,  by 
yeelding  to  creatures  such  infinit  power  as  is  wrested  out  of  Gods 
hand,  and  attributed  to  witches  :  finallie,  if  you  shall  perceive  that  I 
have  faithfullie  and  trulie  delivered  and  set  downe  the  condition  and 
state  of  the  witch,  and  also  of  the  witchmonger,  and  have  confuted 
by  reason  and  lawe,  and  by  the  word  of  God  it  selfe,  all  mine  adver- 
saries objections  and  arguments  :  then  let  me  have  your  countenance 
against  them  that  maliciouslie  oppose  themselves  against  me./ 
Aa2  My  greatest  adversaries  are  yoong  ignorance  and  old  custome. 
\.A.  vii.]  For  what  follie  soever  tract  of  time  hath  fostered,  it  is/  so  supersti- 
tiouslie  pursued  of  some,  as  though  no  error  could  be  acquainted  with 
custome.  But  if  the  lawe  of  nations  would  joine  with  such  custome,  to 
the  maintenance  of  ignorance,  and  to  the  suppressing  of  knowledge^ 
the  civilest  countrie  in  the  world  would  soone  become  barbarous,  &c. 
For  as  knowledge  and  time  discovereth  errors,  so  dooth  superstition 
and  ignorance  in  time  breed  theni.  And  concerning  the  opinions  of 
such,  as  wish  that  ignorance  should  rather  be  mainteined,  than  know- 
ledge busilie  searched  for,  bicause  thereby  offence  may  grow  :  I 
John.  5.  answer,  that  we  are  commanded  by  Christ  himselfe  to  search  for 

Prov.  15,1.  knowledge  :  for  it  is  the  kings  honour  (as  Salomon  saith)  to  search 

out  a  thing. 

Aristotle  said  to  Alexander,  that  a  mind  well  furnished  was  more 

beautiful!  than  a  bodie  richlie  araied.     What  can  be  more  odious  to 

man,  or  offensive  to  God,  than  ignorance  :  for  through  ignorance  the 

Acts.  3.  Jewes  did  put  Christ  to  death.  Which  ignorance  whosoever  forsaketh, 

Proverbs.  9.  jg  pj-Qmised  life  everlasting  :  and  therfore  among  Christians  it  should 

be  abhorred  above  all  other  things.     For  even  as  when  we  wrestle 

in  the  darke,  we    tumble  in  the  mire,  &c  :  so  when  we  see  not  the 

truth,  we  wallow  in  errors.  A  blind  man  may  seeke  long  in  the  rishes 

yer  he  find  a  needley  and  as  soone  is  a  doubt  discussed  by  ignorance. 

Finallie,  truth  is  no  sooner  found  out  in  ignorance,  than  a  sweet  savor 

in  a  dunghill.     And  if  they  will  allow  men  knowledge,  and  give  them 

no  leave  to  use  it,  men  were  much  better  be  without  it  than  have  it. 

Matth.  25.  For  it  is,  as  to  have  a  tallent,  and  to  hide  it  under  the  earthy  or  to 

Luk*    8  P*^*-  ^  candle  under  a  bushell  :  or  as  to  have  a  ship,  &  to  let  hir  lie 

The  Epistle. 


ahvaies  in  the  docke  :  which  thing  how  profitable  it  is,  I  can  saie 
somewhat  by  experience./ 

But    hereof   I    need    saie    no    more,  for    everie    man    seeth   that    A  a  2  v 
none   can    be   happie    who    knoweth    not    what    felicitie    meaneth. 
For   what   availeth    it    to    have    riches,  and    not    to  have  the  use/ 
thereof?       Trulie    the    heathen    herein    deserved    more    commen-    ^A.yW.v.^ 
dation  than  manic  christians,  for  they  spared  no  paine,  no  cost,  nor 
travell  to  atteine  to  knowledge.     Pythagoras  travelled  from  Thamus 
to  Aegypt,  and  afterwards  into  Crete  and  Lacedaemonia  :  and  Plato 
out  of  Athens  into   Italic  and  Aegypt,  and  all  to  find  out  hidden 
secrets  and  knowledge  :  which  when  a  man  hath,  he  seemeth  to  be 
separated  from  mortalitie.     For  pretious  stones,  and  all  other  crea- 
tures of  what  value  soever,  are  but  counterfeits  to  this  jewell  :  they 
are  mortall,  corruptible,  and  inconstant/  this  is  immortall,  pure 
and  certeine.    Wherfore  if  I  have  searched  and  found  out  any 
good  thing,  that  ignorance  and  time  hath  smothered, 
the  same  I  commend  unto  you  :  to  whom 
though  I  owe  all  that  I  have,  yet  am 
I  bold  to  make  other  par- 
takers with  you  in 
this  poore 

Your  loving  cousen, 

Reg.  Scot. 


The  Epistle. 

[^.  viii]. 
A  a  3 

[*  =  wooden] 

A  rt  3  V. 

\A.  viii.  v.'\ 

To  the  right  worshipfull   his   loving  friends, 

Maister  Doctor  Coldwell  Deane   of  Ro- 

chester,  and  Maister  Doctor  Read- 

7}taii  Archdeacon  of  Can- 

turburze,  &^c. 

[Rom.  and  Ital.  reversed  ;  the  italics  of  original  smaller  than  in  that  to  Sir  Th.  Scot.  J 

[Aving  found  out  two  such  civill  Magistrates,  as  for 
direction  of  judgement,  and  for  ordering  matters  con- 
cerning justice  in  this  common  weakh  (in  my  poore 
opinion)  are  verie  singular  persons,  who  (I  hope)  will 
accept  of  my  good  will,  and  examine  my  booke  by  their  experience, 
as  unto  whom  the  matter  therin  conteined  dooth  greatlie  apperteine: 
I  have  now  againe  considered  of  two  other  points  :  namelie,  divinitie 
and  philosophic,  whereupon  the  groundworke  of  my  booke  is  laid. 
Wherein  although  I  know  them  to  be  verie  sufficientlie  informed, 
yet  dooth  not  the  judgement  and  censure  of  those  causes  so  properlie 
apperteine  to  them  as  unto  you,  whose  fame  therein  hath  gotten 
preeminence  above  all  others  that  I  know  of  your  callings  :  and  in 
that  respect  I  am  bold  to  joine  you  with  them,  being  all  good  neigh- 
bours togither  in  this  commonwelth,  and  loving  friends  unto  me. 
I  doo  not  present  this  unto  you,  bicause  it  is  meet  for  youy  but  for 
that  you  are  meet  for  it  (I  meane)  to  judge  upon  it,  to  defend  it,  and 
if  need  be  to  correct  ity  knowing  that  you  have  learned  of  that  grave 
counseller  Cato,  not  to  shame  or  discountenance  any  bodie.  For  if 
I  thought  you  as  readie,  as  able,  to  disgrace  me  for  mine  insufficien- 
cies I  should  not  have  beene  hastie  (knowing  your  learning)  to  have 
written  unto  you  :  but  if  I  should  be  abashed  to  write  to  you,  I  should 
shew  my  selfe  ignorant  of  your  courtesie. 

I  knowe  mine  owne  weakenesse,  which  if  it  have  beene  able  to 
mainteine  this  argument,  the  cause  is  the  stronger.  Eloquent  words 
may  please  the  eares,  but  sufficient  matter  persuadeth  the  hart.  So 
as,  if  I  exhibit  wholsome  drinke  (thought  it  be  small)  in  a  treene* 
dish  with  a  faithfuU  hand,  I  hope  it  will  bee  as  well  accepted,  as 
strong  wine  offered  in  a  silver  bowle  with  a  flattering  heart.  And 
surelie  it  is  a  point  of  as  great  liberalitie  to  receive  a  small  thing 
thankeful/lie,  as  to  give  and  distribute  great  and  costlie  gifts  bounti- 
fullie  :  for  there  is  more  supplied  with  courteous  answers  than  with 
rich  rewards.  The  ty/rant  Dionysius  was  not  so  hated  for  his 
tyrannie,  as  for  his  churlish  and  strange  behaviour.  Among  the 
poore  Israelites  sacrifices,  God  was  satisfied  with  the  tenth  part  of 

The  Epistle.  xvii 

an  Ephah  of  flower,  so  as  it  were  fine  and  good.  Christ  liked  well 
of  the  poore  widowes  mite,  Lewis  of  France  accepted  a  rape  root  of 
clownish  Conan,  Cyrus  vouchsafed  to  drinke  a  cup  of  cold  water  out 
of  the  hand  of  poore  Sintetes  .•  and  so  it  may  please  you  to  accept 
this  simple  booke  at  my  hands,  which  I  faithfullie  exhibit  unto  you, 
not  knowing  your  opinions  to  meet  with  mine,  but  knowing  your 
learning  and  judgement  to  be  able  as  well  to  correct  me  where  I 
speake  herein  unskilfullie,  as  others  when  they  speake  hereof  ma- 

Some  be  such  dogs  as  they  will  barke  at  my  writings,  whether  I 
mainteine  or  refute  this  argument :  as  Diogenes  snarled  both  at  the 
Rhodians  and  at  the  Lacedaemonians  :  at  the  one,  bicause  they  were 
bravey  at  the  other,  bicause  they  were  not  brave.  Homer  himselfe 
could  not  avoid  reprochfuU  speaches.  I  am  sure  that  they  which 
never  studied  to  learne  anie  good  thing,  will  studie  to  find  faults 
hereat.  I  for  my  part  feare  not  these  wars,  nor  all  the  adversaries  I 
havey  were  it  not  for  certeine  cowards,  who  (I  knowe)  will  come 
behind  my  backe  and  bite  me. 

But  now  to  the  matter.  My  question  is  not  (as  manie  fondlie 
suppose)  whether  there  be  witches  or  naie  :  but  whether  they  can 
doo  such  miraculous  works  as  are  imputed  unto  them.  Good  Mais- 
ter  Deane,  is  it  possible  for  a  man  to  breake  his  fast  with  you  at 
Rochester,  and  to  dine  that  day  at  Durham  with  Maister  Doctor 
Matthewy  or  can  your  enimie  maime  you,  when  the  Ocean  sea  is 
betwixt  you  ?  What  reall  communitie  is  betwixt  a  spirit  and  a  bodie  ? 
May  a  spirituall  bodie  become  temporall  at  his  pleasure  .-'  Or  may  a 
carnall  bodie  become  invisible .''  Is  it  likelie  that  the  lives  of  all 
Princes,  magistrates,  &  subjects,  should  depend  upon  the  will,  or 
rather  upon  the  wish  of  a  poore  malicious  doting  old  fooley  and  that 
power  exempted  from  the  wise,  the  rich,  the  learned,  the  godlie,  &c  ? 
Finallie,  is  it  possible  for  man  or  woman  to  do  anie  of  those  miracles 
expressed  in  my  booke,  &  so  constantlie  reported  by  great  clarks .'' 
If  you  saie,  noy  then  am  I  satisfied.  If  you  sale  that  God,  abso- 
lutelie,  or  by  meanes  can  accomplish  all  those,  and  manie  more,  I 
go  with  you.  But  witches  may  well  saie  they  can  doo  these  things, 
howbeit  they  cannot  shew  how  they  doo  them.  If  I  for  my  part 
should  saie  I  could  doo/  those  things,  my  verie  adversaries  would  saie  a  a  4' 
that  I  lied. 

O  Maister  Archdeacon,  is  it  not  pitie,  that  that  which  is  said  to  be 
doone  with  the  almightie  power  of  the  most  high  God,  and  by  our 
saviour  his  onelie  sonne  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  shouldbe  referred  to 
a  baggage  old  womans  nod/  or  wish,  &c  ?     Good  Sir,  is  it  not  one   B.  i. 
manifest  kind  of  Idolatrie,  for  them  that  labor  and  are  laden,  to  come 


xviii  The  Epistle. 

unto  witches  to  be  refreshed?  If  witches  could  helpe  whom  they 
are  said  to  have  made  sicke,  I  see  no  reason,  but  remedie  might  as 
well  be  required  at  their  hands,  as  a  pursse  demanded  of  him  that 
hath  stolne  it.  But  trulie  it  is  manifold  idolatrie,  to  aske  that  of  a 
creature,  which  none  can  give  but  the  Creator.  The  papist  hath 
some  colour  of  scripture  to  mainteine  his  idoll  of  bread,  but  no 
Jesuiticall  distinction  can  cover  the  witchmongers  idolatrie  in  this 
behalfe.  Alas,  I  am  sorie  and  ashamed  to  see  how  manie  die,  that 
being  said  to  be  bewitched,  onelie  seeke  for  magicall  cures,  whom 
who] some  diet  and  good  medicines  would  have  recovered.  I  dare 
assure  you  both,  that  there  would  be  none  of  these  cousening  kind 
of  witches,  did  not  witchmongers  mainteine  them,  followe  them,  and 
beleeve  in  them  and  their  oracles  :  whereby  indeed  all  good  learning 
and  honest  arts  are  overthrowne.  For  these  that  most  advance  their 
power,  and  mainteine  the  skill  of  these  witches,  understand  no  part 
thereof :  and  yet  being  manie  times  wise  in  other  matters,  are  made 
fooles  by  the  most  fooles  in  the  world. 

Me  thinks  these  magicall  physicians  deale  in  the  commonwelth, 
much  like  as  a  certeine  kind  of  Cynicall  people  doo  in  the  church, 
whose  severe  saiengs  are  accompted  among  some  such  oracles,  as 
may  not  be  doubted  ofy  who  in  stead  of  learning  and  authoritie 
(which  they  make  contemptible)  doo  feed  the  people  with  their  owne 
devises  and  imaginations,  which  they  prefer  before  all  other  divinitie  : 
and  labouring  to  erect  a  church  according  to  their  owne  fansies, 
wherein  all  order  is  condemned,  and  onelie  their  magicall  words  and 
curious  directions  advanced,  they  would  utterlie  overthrowe  the  true 
Church.  And  even  as  these  inchanting  Paracelsians  abuse  the 
people,  leading  them  from  the  true  order  of  physicke  to  their 
charmes  :  so  doo  these  other  (I  sale)  dissuade  from  hearkening  to 
learning  and  obedience,  and  whisper  in  mens  eares  to  teach  them 
their  frierlike  traditions.  And  of  this  sect  the  cheefe  author  at  this 
A  a4  V   time  is/  one  Browne,  a  fugitive,  a  meet  cover  for  such  a  cup :  as  here- 

[»  Allans]  tofore  the  Anabaptists,  the  Arrians,*  and  the  Franciscane  friers. 

Trulie  not  onlie  nature,  being  the  foundation  of  all  perfection^ 
but  also  scripture,  being  the  mistresse  and  director  thereof,  and  of 
all  christianitie,  is  beautified  with  knowledge  and  learning.  For  as 
nature  without  discipline  dooth  naturallie  incline  unto  vanities,  and 

Rom.  2, 27!  as  it  were  sucke  up  errors  :  so  doth  the  word,  or  rather  the  letter  of 

the  scripture,  without   understanding,  not   onlie   make  us  devoure 

errors,  but  yeeldeth  us  up  to   death    &    destruction  :    &    therefore 

Paule  saith  he  was  not  a  minister  of  the  letter,  but  of  the  spirit. 

Thus  have  I  beene  bold  to  deliver  unto  the  world,  and  to  you,  those 

B.  i.  V.   simple/  notes,  reasons,  and  arguments,  which  I  have  devised  or  col- 

Cor.  3,  6. 

The  Epistle. 


lected  out  of  other  authors  :  which  I  hope  shall  be  hurtfull  to  none, 
but  to  my  selfe  great  comfort,  if  it  may  passe  with  good  liking  and 
acceptation.     If  it  fall  out  otherwise,  I  should  thinke  my  paines  ill 
imploied.     For  trulie,  in  mine  opinion,  whosoever  shall  performe  any 
thing,  or  atteine  to  anie  knowledge  y    or  whosoever  should  travell 
throughout  all  the  nations  of  the  world,  or  (if  it  were  possible)  should 
peepe  into  the  heavens,  the  consolation  or  admiration  thereof  were 
nothing  pleasant  unto  him,  unles  he  had  libertie  to  impart  his  know- 
ledge to  his  friends.     Wherein  bicause  I  have  made   speciall  choise 
of  you,  I  hope  you  will  read  it,  or  at  the  least  laie  it  up  in  your  studie 
with  your  other  bookes,  among  which  there  is  none  dedicated 
to  any  with  more  good  will.     And   so  long  as  you 
have  it,  it  shall  be  unto  you  (upon  adven- 
ture of  my  life)  a  certeine  amulet, 
periapt,  circle,  charme,  &c  : 
to  defend  you  from 
all  inchant- 

Your  loving  friend 
Reg.  Scot. 

A  ii.  B 

To  the  Readers. 

Isai.  II. 
Prover.  1. 

B.  ii  V. 

jo  you  that  are  wise  &  discreete  few  words  may  suffice : 
for  such  a  one  judgeth  not  at  the  first  sight,  nor  reproov- 
eth  by  heresaie  ;  but  patientlie  heareth,  and  thereby 
increaseth  in  understanding  :  which  patience  bringeth 
foorth  experience,  whereby  true  judgement  is  directed.  I  shall  not 
need  therefore  to  make  anie  further  sute  to  you,  but  that  it  would 
please  you  to  read  my  booke,  without  the  prejudice  of  time,  or  former 
conceipt  :  and  having  obteined  this  at  your  hands,  I  submit  my  selfe 
unto  your  censure.  But  to  make  a  solemne  sute  to  you  that  are 
parciall  readers,  desiring  you  to  set  aside  parcialitie,  to  take  in  good 
part  my  writing,  and  with  indifferent  eies  to  looke  upon  my  booke, 
were  labour  lost,  and  time  ill  imploied.  For  I  should  no  more  pre- 
vaile  herein,  than  if  a  hundred  yeares  since  I  should  have  intreated 
your  predecessors  to  beleeve,  that  Robin  goodfellowe,  that  great  and 
ancient  bulbegger,  had  beene  but  a  cousening  merchant,  and  no 
divell  indeed. 

If  I  should  go  to  a  papist,  and  sale  ;  I  praie  you  beleeve  my 
writings,  wherein  I  will  proove  all  popish  charmes,  conjurations, 
exorcismes,  benedictions  and  cursses,  not  onelie  to  be  ridiculous, 
and  of  none  effect,  but  also  to  be  impious  and  contrarie  to  Gods 
word :  I  should  as  hardlie  therein  win  favour  at  their  hands,  as  here- 
in obteine  credit  at  yours.  Neverthelesse,  I  doubt  not,  but  to/  use 
the  matter  so,  that  as  well  the  massemoonger  for  his  part,  as  the 
witchmoonger  for  his,  shall  both  be  ashamed  of  their  professions. 

But  Robin  goodfellowe  ceaseth  now  to  be  much  feared,  and  poperie 
is  sufficientlie  discovered.  Nevertheles,  witches  charms,  and  con- 
jurors cousenages  are  yet  thought  effectuall.  Yea  the  Gentiles  have 
espied  the  fraud  of  their  cousening  oracles,  and  our  cold  prophets 
and  inchanters  make  us  fooles  still,  to  the  shame  of  us  all,  but 
speciallie  of  papists,  who  conjure  everie  thing,  and  thereby  bring  to 
passe  nothing.  They  saie  to  their  candles  ;  I  conjure  you  to  endure 
for  ever :  and  yet  they  last  not  a  pater  noster  while  the  longer.  They 
conjure  water  to  be  wholesome  both  for  bodie  and  soule  :  but  the 
bodie  (we  see)  is  never  the  better  for  it,  nor  the  soule  anie  whit 

The  Epistle.  xxi 

reformed  by  it.  And  therefore  I  mervell,  that  when  they  see  their 
owne  conjurations  confuted  and  brought  to  naught,  or  at  the  least 
void  of  effect,  that  they  (of  all  other)  will  yet  give  such  credit,  counte- 
nance, and  authoritie  to  the  vaine  cousenages  of  witches  and  con- 
jurors ;  as  though  their  charmes  and  conjurations  could  produce  more/ 
apparent,  certeine,  and  better  effects  than  their  owne.  B  v 

But  my  request  unto  all  you  that  read  my  booke  shall  be  no  more, 
but  that  it  would  please  you  to  conferre  my  words  with  your  owne 
sense  and  experience,  and  also  with  the  word  of  God.  If  you  find 
your  selves  resolved  and  satisfied,  or  rather  reformed  and  qualified 
in  anie  one  point  or  opinion,  that  heretofore  you  held  contrarie  to 
truth,  in  a  matter  hitherto  undecided,  and  never  yet  looked  into  ;  I 
praie  you  take  that  for  advantage  :  and  suspending  your  judgement, 
staie  the  sentence  of  condemnation  against  me,  and  consider  of  the 
rest,  at  your  further  leasure.  If  this  may  not  suffice  to  persuade  you, 
it  cannot  prevaile  to  annoy  you :  and  then,  that  which  is  written  with- 
out offense,  may  be  overpassed  without  anie  greefe. 

And  although  mine  assertion,  be  somewhat  differing  from  the  old 
inveterat  opinion,  which  I  confesse  hath  manie  graie  heares,  whereby 
mine  adversaries  have  gained  more  authoritie  than  reason,  towards 
the  maintenance  of  their  presumptions  and  old  wives  fables  :  yet 
shall  it  fullie  agree  with  Gods  glorie,  and  with  his  holie  word.  And 
albeit  there  be  hold  taken  by  mine  adver/saries  of  certeine  few  words  B.  iii. 
or  sentences  in  the  scripture  that  maketh  a  shew  for  them  :  yet  when 
the  whole  course  thereof  maketh  against  them,  and  impugneth  the 
same,  yea  and  also  their  owne  places  rightlie  understood  doo  nothing 
at  all  releeve  them  :  I  trust  their  glorious  title  and  argument  of 
antiquitie  will  appeare  as  stale  and  corrupt  as  the  apothecaries  drugs, 
or  grocers  spice,  which  the  longer  they  be  preserved,  the  woorsse  they 
are.  And  till  you  have  perused  my  booke,  ponder  this  in  your  mind, 
to  wit,  that  Sages,  Thessalce,  Striges,  Lamia  (which  words  and  none 
other  being  in  use  do  properlie  signifie  our  witches)  are  not  once 
found  written  in  the  old  or  new  testament  ;  and  that  Christ  himselfe 
in  his  gospell  never  mentioned  the  name  of  a  witch.  And  that  neither 
he,  nor  Moses  ever  spake  anie  one  word  of  the  witches  bargaine  with 
the  divell,  their  bagging,  their  riding  in  the  aire,  their  transferring  of 
corne  or  grasse  from  one  feeld  to  another,  their  hurting  of  children 
or  cattell  with  words  or  charmes,  their  bewitching  of  butter,  cheese, 
ale,  &c  :  nor  yet  their  transubstantiation  ;  insomuch  as  the  writers  Mai.  male/. 
hereupon  are  not  ashamed  to  say,  that  it  is  not  absurd  to  affirme  that  '''''  " ''""' ' 
there  were  no  witches  in  Jobs  time.  The  reason  is,  that  if  there  had 
beene  such  witches  then  in  beeing,  Job  would  have  said  he  had  beene 
bewitched.     But  indeed  men  tooke  no  heed  in  those  daies  to  this 


The  Epistle. 

DaKiPUS  ill 

suo  frologo. 

1.  Pet.  4. 1.  doctrine  of  divels  ;  to  wit,  to  these  fables  of  witchcraft,  which  Peter 

saith  shall  be  much  regarded  and  hearkened  unto  in  the  latter  daies. 
Howbeit,  how  ancient  so  ever  this  barbarous  conceipt  of  witches 
omnipotencie  is,  truth  must  not  be  measured  by  time  :  for  everie  old 
opinion  is  not  sound.  Veritie  is  not  impaired,  how  long  so  ever  it  be 
suppressed  ;  but  is  to  be  searched  out,  in  how  darke  a  corner  so  ever 
it  lie  hidden  :  for  it  is  not  like  a  cup  of  ale,  that  may  be  broched  too 
rathe.  Finallie,  time  bewraieth  old  errors,  &  discovereth  new  matters 
of  truth.  Danaeus  himselfe  saith,  that  this  question  hitherto  hath 
never  beene  handled ;  nor  the  scriptures  concerning  this  matter  have 
never  beene  expounded.  To  prove  the  antiquitie  of  the  cause,  to 
B  2  confirme  the  opini/on  of  the  ignorant,  to  inforce  mine  adversaries 
arguments,  to  aggravate  the  punishments,  &  to  accomplish  the  con- 
fusio  of  these  old  women,  is  added  the  vanitie  and  wickednes  of 
them,  which  are  called  witches,  the  arrogancie  of  those  which  take 
B.  iii.  V.  upon  them  to/  worke  wonders,  the  desire  that  people  have  to  hearken 
to  such  miraculous  matters,  unto  whome  most  commonlie  an  impos- 
sibilitie  is  more  credible  than  a  veritie  ;  the  ignorance  of  naturall 
causes,  the  ancient  and  universall  hate  conceived  against  the  name 
of  a  witch  ;  their  ilfavoured  faces,  their  spitefull  words,  their  cursses 
and  imprecations,  their  charmes  made  in  ryme,  and  their  beggerie  ; 
the  feare  of  manie  foolish  folke,  the  opinion  of  some  that  are  wise, 
the  want  of  Robin  goodfellowe  and  the  fairies,  which  were  woont  to 
mainteine  chat,  and  the  common  peoples  talke  in  this  behalfe  ;  the 
authoritie  of  the  inquisitors,  the  learning,  cunning,  consent,  and 
estimation  of  writers  herein,  the  false  translations  and  fond  interpre- 
tations-used, speciallie  by  papists  ;  and  manie  other  like  causes.  All 
which  toies  take  such  hold  upon  mens  fansies,  as  whereby  they  are 
lead  and  entised  awaie  from  the  consideration  of  true  respects,  to  the 
condemnation  of  that  which  they  know  not. 

Howbeit,  I  will  (by  Gods  grace)  in  this  my  booke,  so  apparentlie 
decipher  and  confute  these  cavils,  and  all  other  their  objections  ;  as 
everie  witchmoonger  shall  be  abashed,  and  all  good  men  thereby 
satisfied.  In  the  meane  time,  I  would  wish  them  to  know  that  if 
neither  the  estimation  of  Gods  omnipotencie,  nor  the  tenor  of  his 
word,  nor  the  doubtfulnes  or  rather  the  impossibilitie  of  the  case,  nor 
the  small  proofes  brought  against  them,  nor  the  rigor  executed  upon 
them,  nor  the  pitie  that  should  be  in  a  christian  heart,  nor  yet  their 
simplicitie,  impotencie,  or  age  may  suffice  to  suppresse  the  rage  or 
rigor  wherewith  they  are  oppressed  ;  yet  the  consideration  of  their 
sex  or  kind  ought  to  moove  some  mitigatio  of  their  punishment. 
For  if  nature  (as  Plinie  reporteth)  have  taught  a  lion  not  to  deale  so 
roughlie  with  a  woman  as  with  a  man,  bicause  she  is  in  bodie  the 

The  Epistle.  xxiii 

weaker  vessell,  and  in  hart  more  inclined  to  pitie  (which  Jeremie  in    Lam.  jer.  3. 
his  lamentations  seemeth  to  confirme)  what  should  a  man  doo  in  this    ^ct^^^io 
case,  for  whome  a  woman  was  created  as  an  helpe  and  comfort  unto    l-  ^or-  n-  9- 

,  .       1  ,  •         1         ,  r  ■       ■  Ibid.  vers.  7. 

him?     In  80  much  as,  even  m  the  lawe  of  nature,  it  is  a  greater   Ge.  2. 22.  is. 

offense  to  slea  a  woman  than  a  man  :  not  bicause  a  man  is  not  the   fyollem.  2.  9. 

more  excellent  creature,  but  bicause  a  woman  is  the  weaker  vessell. 

And  therefore  among  all  modest  and  honest  persons  it  is  thought  a 

shame  to  offer  violence  or   injurie  to  a  woman  :    in   which   respect    Vir.  Georg. 

Virgil/  saith,  Nitlluni  meniorabile  nomen  faviinea  m  pcrna  est.  IB.  iv.] 

God  that  knoweth  my  heart  is  witnes,  and  you  that  read  my  booke 
shall  see,  that  my  drift  and  purpose  in  this  enterprise  tendeth  onelie 
to  these  respects.  First,  that  the  glorie  and  power  of  God  be  not  so 
abridged  and  abased,  as  to  be  thrust  into  the  hand  or  lip  of  a  lewd 
old  woman:  whereby  the  worke  of  the  Creator  should  be  attributed  to 
the  power  of  a  creature.  Secondlie,  that  the  religion  of  the  gospell 
may  be  seene  to  stand  without  such  peevish  trumperie.  Thirdlie, 
that  lawfuU  favour  and  christian  compassion  be  rather  used  towards 
these  poore  soules,  than  rigor  and  extremitie.  Bicause  they,  which 
are  commonlie  accused  of  witchcraft,/  are  the  least  sufficient  of  all  B  2  v 
other  persons  to  speake  for  themselves  ;  as  having  the  most  base  and 
simple  education  of  all  others  ;  the  extremitie  of  their  age  giving 
them  leave  to  dote,  their  povertie  to  beg,  their  wrongs  to  chide  and 
threaten  (as  being  void  of  anie  other  waie  of  revenge)  their  humor 
melancholicall  to  be  full  of  imaginations,  from  whence  cheefelie  pro- 
ceedeth  the  vanitie  of  their  confessions  ;  as  that  they  can  transforme 
themselves  and  others  into  apes,  owles,  asses,  dogs,  cats,  &c  :  that 
they  can  flie  in  the  aire,  kill  children  with  charmes,  hinder  the 
comming  of  butter,  &c. 

And  for  so  much  as  the  mightie  helpe  themselves  together,  and  the 
poore  widowes  crie,  though  it  reach  to  heaven,  is  scarse  heard  here  Ecd[us.]  35,15. 
upon  earth  :  I  thought  good  (according  to  my  poore  abilitie)  to  make 
intercession,  that  some  part  of  common  rigor,  and  some  points  of 
hastie  judgement  may  be  advised  upon.  For  the  world  is  now  at  that 
stay  (as  Brentius  in  a  most  godlie  sermon  in  these  words  afifirmeth) 
that  even  as  when  the  heathen  persecuted  the  christians,  if  anie  were 
accused  to  beleeve  in  Christ,  the  common  people  cried  Ad  leonem:  so 
now,  if  anie  woman,  be  she  never  so  honest,  be  accused  of  witchcraft, 
they  crie  Ad  igneni.  What  difference  is  betweene  the  rash  dealing  of 
unskilfull  people,  and  the  grave  counsell  of  more  discreet  and  learned 
persons,  may  appeare  by  a  tale  of  Daneeus  his  owne  telling  ;  wherein 
he  opposeth  the  rashnes  of  a  few  townesmen,  to  the  counsell  of  a 
whole  senate,  preferring  the  follie  of  the  one,  before  the  wisdome  of 
the  other. 


The  Epistle. 

Lib.  15.  cap. 
1 8.  de  varie- 
tatib.  rerunt 

At  Orleance  on  Loyre  (saith  he)  there  was  a  manwitch,  not  only/ 
IB.  iv.  -'.]  taken  and  accused,  but  also  convicted  and  condemned  for  witchcraft, 
who  appealed  from  thence  to  the  high  court  of  Paris.  Which  accusa- 
tion the  senate  sawe  insufficient,  and  would  not  allow,  but  laughed 
thereat,  lightlie  regarding  it  ;  and  in  the  end  sent  him  home  (saith 
he)  as  accused  of  a  frivolous  matter.  And  yet  for  all  that,  the  magis- 
trats  of  Orleance  were  so  bold  with  him,  as  to  hang  him  up  within 
short  time  after,  for  the  same  or  the  verie  like  offense.  In  which 
example  is  to  be  scene  the  nature,  and  as  it  were  the  disease  of  this 
cause  :  wherein  (I  sale)  the  simpler  and  undiscreeter  sort  are  alwaies 
more  hastie  &  furious  in  judgements,  than  men  of  better  reputation 
and  knowledge.  Nevertheles,  Eunichius  saith,  that  these  three  things ; 
to  wit,  what  is  to  be  thought  of  witches,  what  their  incantations  can 
doo,  and  whether  their  punishment  should  extend  to  death,  are  to  be 
well  considered.  And  I  would  (saith  he)  they  were  as  well  knowne, 
as  they  are  rashlie  beleeved,  both  of  the  learned,  and  unlearned. 
And  further  he  saith,  that  almost  all  divines,  physicians  and  lawyers, 
who  should  best  know  these  matters,  satisfieng  themselves  with  old 
custome,  have  given  too  much  credit  to  these  fables,  and  too  rash  and 
unjust  sentence  of  death  upon  witches.  But  when  a  man  pondereth 
(saith  he)  that  in  times  past,  all  that  swarved  from  the  church  of 
Rome  were  judged  heretikes  ;  it  is  the  lesse  marvell,  though  in  this 
matter  they  be  blind  and  ignorant. 

And  surelie,  if  the  scripture  had  beene  longer  suppressed,  more 
absurd  fables  would  have  sproong  up,  and  beene  beleeved.  Which 
credulitie  though  it  is  to  be  derided  with  laughter;  yet  this  their  cruel- 
B  3  tie  is  to  be/  lamented  with  teares.  For  (God  knoweth)  manie  of  these 
poore  wretches  had  more  need  to  be  releeved  than  chastised  ;  and 
more  meete  were  a  preacher  to  admonish  them,  than  a  gailor  to  keepe 
them  ;  and  a  physician  more  necessarie  to  helpe  them,  than  an 
executioner  or  tormentor  to  hang  or  burne  them.  For  proofe  and 
due  triall  hereof,  I  will  requite  Danasus  his  tale  of  a  manwitch  (as  he 
termeth  him)  with  another  witch  of  the  same  sex  or  gender. 

Cardanus  from  the  mouth  of  his  owne  father  reporteth,  that  one 
Barnard,  a  poore  servant,  being  in  wit  verie  simple  and  rude,  but  in 
his  service  verie  necessarie  and  diligent  (and  in  that  respect  deerelie 
\B.  v.]  beloved  of  his  maister)  professing  the  art  of  witchcraft,/  could  in  no 
wise  be  dissuaded  from  that  profession,  persuading  himselfe  that  he 
knew  all  things,  and  could  bring  anie  matter  to  passe  ;  bicause  cer- 
teine  countrie  people  resorted  to  him  for  helpe  and  counsell,  as 
supposing  by  his  owne  talke,  that  he  could  doo  somewhat.  At  length 
he  was  condemned  to  be  burned  :  which  torment  he  seemed  more 
willing  to  suffer,  than  to  loose  his  estimation  in  that  behalfe.    But  his 

The  Epistle.  xxv 

maister  having  compassion  upon  him,  and  being  himselfe  in  his 
princes  favor,  perceiving  his  conceipt  to  proceed  of  melancholic, 
obteined  respit  of  execution  for  twentie  daies.  In  which  time  (saith 
he)  his  maister  bountifullie  fed  him  with  good  fat  meat,  and  with  foure 
egs  at  a  meale,  as  also  with  sweet  wine  :  which  diet  was  best  for  so 
grosse  and  weake  a  bodie.  And  being  recovered  so  in  strength,  that 
the  humor  was  suppressed,  he  was  easilie  woone  from  his  absurd  and 
dangerous  opinions,  and  from  all  his  fond  imaginations  :  and  con- 
fessing his  error  and  follie,  from  the  which  before  no  man  could 
remoove  him  by  anie  persuasions,  having  his  pardon,  he  lived  long  a 
good  member  of  the  church,  whome  otherwise  the  crueltie  of  judge- 
ment should  have  cast  awaie  and  destroied. 

This  historie  is  more  credible  than  Sprengers  fables,  or  Bodins 
babies,  which  reach  not  so  far  to  the  extolling  of  witches  omnipotencie, 
as  to  the  derogating  of  Gods  glorie.  For  if  it  be  true,  which  they 
affirme,  that  our  life  and  death  lieth  in  the  hand  of  a  witch  ;  then  is 
it  false,  that  God  maketh  us  live  or  die,  or  that  by  him  we  have  our 
being,  our  terme  of  life  appointed,  and  our  daies  numbred.  But  surelie 
their  charmes  can  no  more  reach  to  the  hurting  or  killing  of  men  or 
women,  than  their  imaginations  can  extend  to  the  stealing  and  car- 
rieng  awaie  of  horsses  &  mares.  Neither  hath  God  given  remedies 
to  sicknes  or  greefes,  by  words  or  charmes,  but  by  hearbs  and 
medicines  ;  which  he  himselfe  hath  created  upon  earth,  and  given  Amos.  3.  6. 
men  knowledge  of  the  same;    that  he  might  be  glorified,  for  that    La.jer.  3. 38. 

o  j3  J  Isai,  45.  9. 

therewith  he  dooth  vouchsafe  that  the  maladies  of  men  and  cattell    Rom.  9.  20. 

should  be  cured,  &c.     And  if  there  be  no  affliction  nor  calamitie,  but 

is  brought  to  passe  by  him,  then  let  us  defie  the  divell,  renounce 

all  his  works,  and  not  so  much  as  once  thinke  or  dreame  upon  this 

supernaturall  power  of  witches  ;  neither  let  us  prosecute  them  with 

such  despight,  whome  our  fansie  condemneth,and  our  reason  acquiteth : 

our/  evidence  against  them  consisting  in  impossibilities,  our  proofes    [5  v.  v.'\ 

in   unwritten   verities,  and    our    whole    proceedings   in  doubts  and 


Now  bicause  I  mislike  the  extreame  crueltie  used  against  some  of  b  3.  v. 
these  sillie  soules  (whome  a  simple  advocate  having  audience  and 
justice  might  deliver  out  of  the  hands  of  the  inquisitors  themselves) 
it  will  be  said,  that  I  denie  anie  punishment  at  all  to  be  due  to  anie 
witch  whatsoever.  Naie,  bicause  I  bewraie  the  follie  and  impietie  of 
them,  which  attribute  unto  witches  the  power  of  God  :  these  witch- 
moongers  will  report,  that  I  denie  there  are  anie  witches  at  all  :  and 
yet  behold  (saie  they)  how  often  is  this  word  [Witch]*  mentioned  in  the  *  [  ]  in  text, 
scriptures  ?  Even  as  if  an  idolater  should  saie  in  the  behalfe  of 
images  and  idols,  to  them  which  denie  their  power  and  godhead,  and 


xxvi  The  Epistle. 

inveigh  against  the  reverence  doone  unto  them  ;  How  dare  you  denie 
the  power  of- images,  seeing  their  names  are  so  often  repeated  in  the 
scriptures  ?  But  truehe  I  denie  not  that  there  are  witches  or  images  : 
but  I  detest  the  idolatrous  opinions  conceived  of  them  ;  referring  that 
to  Gods  worke  and  ordinance,  which  they  impute  to  the  power  and 
malice  of  witches  ;  and  attributing  that  honour  to  God,  which  they 
ascribe  to  idols.  But  as  for  those  that  in  verie  deed  are  either 
witches  or  conjurors,  let  them  hardlie  suffer  such  punishment  as  to 
their  fault  is  agreeable,  and  as  by  the  grave  judgement  of  lawe  is 

Places  aniended  by  t/ie  author,  afid  to  be  read  as  followeth.     The  first 
number  standeth  for  the  page,  the  second  for  the  line. 

46,  16.  except  you.  257.  32.  an  image. 

51.    9.  one  Saddocke.  269.  16.  there  be  masses. 

75.  21.  that  we  of  333.  H-  evenlie  severed, 

no.  21.  as  Elimas.  363.  26.  for  bellowes. 

112.  10.  is  reproved.  366.  27.  his  leman. 

119.  16.  one  Necus.  438.  29.  exercise  the. 

126.  12.  Magus  as.  450-     i-  that  it  is. 

[*i6]  138.    2.  the  hart.  463.  I9.*thatbusinesse. 

144.  25.  in  hir  closet  at  471-  I9-  coteineth  nothing. 

Endor,  or  in.  472.  n.  I  did  deferre. 

168.  31.  the  firmament.  491.    6.  so  difficult. 

187.  16.  reallie  finished.  491.  27.  begat  another. 

192.  put  out  the  first  line  503.    9.  of  all  the. 

of  the  page.  519.    7-  the  Hevites. 

247.  29.  write  it.  542.  30.  their  reproch./ 

[Corrected  in  this  4th  edition.     The  numbers  of  the  3rd  line  in  original,  /.<■.,  from  43S, 
are  smaller."! 

The  forren  authors  used  in  this  Booke. 

[B.  vi.]    [B  4J 

/r^  Lianus. 
/jLL    Aetius. 
Albertus  Crantzius. 
Albertus  Magnus. 
Alcoranum  Francisca- 

Alexander  TralUanus. 
AndrEeas  Gartnerus. 
Andrseas  Massius. 
Antonius  Sabellicus. 
Apollonius  Tyan^us. 
Argerius  Ferrarius.* 

Arnoldus  de  villa  nova. 
Augustinus   episcopus 

Augustinus  Niphus. 
Aulus  Gellius. 
Barnardinus  de  bustis. 
Bartholomaeus  Anglicus, 
Berosus  Anianus. 
Cardanus  pater. 
Cardanus  filius. 
Carolus  Callus. 



Cornelius  Agrippa. 

Cornelius  Nepos. 

Cornelius  Tacitus. 






Diodorus  Siculus. 

Dionysius  Areopagita, 







Erasmus  Roterodamus. 

Erasmus  Sarcerius. 



Eusebius  Caesariensis. 


Franciscus  Petrarcha. 





Gemma  Phrysius. 

Georgius  Pictorius. 


Goschalcus  Boll. 




Guido  Bonatus. 

Gulielmus    de    sancto 

Gulielmus  Parisiensis. 
Hermes  Trismegistus. 








Jacobus  de  Chusa  Car- 

Jaso  Pratensis. 
Innocentius.  8.  Papa. 
Johannes  Anglicus. 
Johannes  Baptista  Nea- 

Johannes  Cassianus. 
Johannes  Montiregius. 
Johannes  Rivius. 
Josephus  ben  Gorion.      [*  Ferre-] 
Josias  Simlerus. 

Julius  Maternus. 
Justinus  Martyr. 
Laurentius  Ananias. 
Laurentius    a    villavi- 

Leo  II.  Pontifex. 
Lex  Salicarum. 
Lex  12.  Tabularum. 
Legenda  aurea. 
Legenda  longa  Colonise. 
Leonardus  Vairus. 
Ludovicus  Ccclius. 
Magna  Charta. 
Malleus  Maleficarum. 


Marbodeus  Callus. 
Marsilius  Ficinus. 
Martinus  de  Aries. 
Melancthonus.//]  B4V.  Memphradorus. 

Michael  Andrsas. 




Nicholaus  5.  Papa. 


Olaus  Gothus. 




Paulus  Aegineta. 

Paulus  Marsus. 


Petrus  de  Appona. 

Petrus  Lombardus. 

Petrus  Martyr. 



Philastrius  Brixiensis. 


Philo  Judasus. 







Polydorus  Virgilius. 

Pomoerium   sermonum 









Rabbi  Abraham. 

Rabbi  ben  Ezra. 

Rabbi  David  Kimhi. 

Rabbi  Josuah  ben  Levi. 

Rabbi  Isaach  Natar. 

Rabbi  Levi. 

Rabbi  Moses. 

Rabbi  Sedaias  Haias. 

Robertas  Carocullus. 







Septuaginta  interpretes. 




Speculum  exemplorum. 


Sulpitius  Severus. 




Thomas  Aquinas. 



Theodorus  Bizantius. 





Valerius  Maximus. 



Xanthus    historiogra- 

^  T/iese  Ens;lish. 

Barnabe  Googe. 

Beehive  of  the  Romish 

Edward  Deering. 

Geffrey  Chaucer. 

Giles  Alley. 

GnimelfMaharba  [Abra- 
ham Fleming]. 

Henrie  Haward. 

John  Bale. 

John  Fox. 

John  Malborne. 

John  Record. 

Primer  after  Yorke  use. 

Richard  Gallis. 

Roger  Bacon. 

Testament  printed  at 

T.  E.  a  nameles  author. 

Thomas  Hilles. 

Thomas  Lupton. 

Thomas  Moore  Knight. 

Thomas  Phaer. 

T.  R.  a  nameles  author. 

William  Lambard. 
W.  W.a  nameles  author. 


[These  Contents  in  original  end  the  book  as  do  our  Indices.] 

The  summe  of  everie  chapter  con 

tehied  in   the  sixtecne  bookes  of  this  disco- 

verie,  with  the  discourse  of  divels  and 

spirits  annexed  thereunto. 

\  The  first  Booke. 

\  N  impeachment  of  witches  power 
in  meteors  and  elementarie 
bodies,  tending  to  the  rebuke  of 
such  as  attribute  too  much  unto 
them.  Pag.  i. 

The  inconvenience  growing  by  mens  cre- 
duhtie  herein,  with  a  reproofe  of  some 
churchmen,  which  are  inclined  to  the  com- 
mon conceived  opinion  of  witches  omni- 
potencie,  and  a  familiar  example  thereof, 
pag.  .     4- 

Who  they  be  that  are  called  witches,  with  a 
manifest  declaration  of  the  cause  that 
mooveth  men  so  commonlie  to  thinke,  & 
witches  themselves  to  beleeve  that  they 
can  hurt  children,  cattell,  &c.  with  woros 
and  imaginations  :  and  of  coosening 
witches.  pag.  ?• 

What  miraculous  actions  are  imputed  to 
witches  by  witchmongers,  papists,  and 
poets.  pag.  (). 

A  confutation  of  the  common  conceived 
opinion  of  witches  and  witchcraft,  and 
how  detestable  a  sinne  it  is  to  repaire  to 
them  for  counsell  or  helpe  in  time  of  afflic- 
tion, pag.  II. 

A  further  cocfutation  of  witches  miraculous 
and  omnipotent  power,  by  invincible 
reasons  and  authorities,  with  dissuasions 
from  such  fond  credulitie.  pag.  12. 

By  what  meanes  the  name  of  witches  be- 
commeth  so  famous,  &  how  diverslie 
people  be  opinioned  concerning  them  and 
their  actions.  pa.  14. 

Causes  that  moove  as  well  witches  them- 
selves as  others  to  thinke  that  they  can 
worke  impossibilities,  with  answers  to 
certeine  objections  :  where  also  their 
punishment  by  law  is  touched.        pag.  16. 

A  conclusion  of  the  first  booke,  wherein  is 
foreshewed  the  tyrannicall  crueltie  of 
witchmongers  and  inquisitors,  with  a  re- 
quest to  the  reader  to  peruse  the  same, 
pag.  17- 

51   The  second  Booke. 

VX/'Hat  testimonies  and  witnesses  are 
'  *  allowed  to  give  evidence  against  re- 
puted witches,  by  the  report  and  allow- 
ance of  the  inquisitors  themselves,  &  such 
as  are  speciall  writers  herein.         -Pag.  19. 

The  order  of  examination  of  witches  by  the 
inquisitors.  pag.  20. 

Matters  of  evidence  against  witches,  pag.  22. 

Confessions  of  witches,  whereby  they  are 
condemned.  pag-  24. 

Presumptions,  whereby  witches  are  con- 
demned, pag.  25. 

Particular  interogatories  used  by  the  inquisi- 
tors against  witches.  pa.  27. 

The  inquisitors  triall  of  weeping  by  conju- 
ration, pag.  29. 

Certeine  cautions  against  witches,  and  of 
their  tortures  to  procure  confession,  pag.  29. 

The  15.  crimes  laid  to  the  charge  of  witches, 
by  witchmongers  ;  speciallie  by  Bodin,  in 
Demonomania  32. 

A  refutation  of  the  former  surmised  crimes 
patched  togiiher  by  Bodin,  and  the  onelie 
waie  to  escape  the  inquisitors  hands,  pag.  34. 

The  opinion  of  Cornelius  Agrippa  concern- 
ing witches,  of  his  pleading/  for  a  poore 
woman  accused  of  witchcraft,  and  how  he 
convinced  the  inquisitors.  pag.  35. 

What  the  feare  of  death  and  feeling  of  tor- 
ments may  force  one  to  doo,  and  that  it 
is  no  marvell  though  witches  condemne 
themselves  by  their  owne  confessions  so 
tyrannicallie  extorted.  pag.  37. 

^   The  third  Booke. 

'X'He  witches  bargaine  with  the  divell,  ac- 

■'■      cording   to    M.    Mai.     Bodin,     Nider, 

Daneus,  Psellus,  Erastus,  Hemingius,  Cu- 

manus,   Aquinas,   Bartholomeus   Spineus, 

&c.  Pag.  40. 

The  order  of  the  witches  homage  done  (as  it 
is  written  by  lewd  inquisitors  and  peevish 
witchmoonger.s)  to  the  divell  in  person  ;  of 
their  songs  and  danses,  and  namelie  of  La 
volta,  and  of  other  ceremonies,  also  of 
their  e.xcourses.  pag.  41. 

How  witches  are  summoned  to  appeere  be- 
fore the  divell,  of  their  riding  in  the  aire, 
of  their  accompts,  of  their  conference  with 
the  divell,  of  his  supplies,  and  their  con- 
ference, of  their  farewell  and  sacrifices  : 
according  to  Daneus,  Psellus,  iS;c.       p.  43. 

That  there  can  no  real  league  be  made  with 
the  divell  the  first  author  of  the  league, 
and  the  weake  proofes  of  the  adversaries 
for  the  same.  pag.  44. 

Of  the  private  league,  a  notable  tale  of  Bo- 
dins  concerning  a  French  ladie,  with  a 
confutation.  pag.  46. 


TJie   Contents. 

A  disproofe  of  their  assemblies,  and  of  their 
bargaine  _      _  pag.  47. 

A  confutation  of  the  objection  concerning 
witches  confessions.  pag.  49 

What  follie  it  were  for  witches  to  enter  into 
such  desperate  perill,  and  to  endure  such 
intollerable  tortures  for  no  gaiue  or  cora- 
moditie,  and  how  it  comes  to  passe  that 
witches  are  overthrowne  by  their  confes- 
sions. 51. 

How  melanchtilie  abuseth  old  women,  and 
of  the  effects  thereof  by  sundrie  ex- 
amples, psg.  52. 

That  voluntarie  confessions  may  be  untrulie 
made,  to  the  undooing  of  the  confessors, 
and  of  the  strange  operation  of  melan- 
cholic, prooved  by  a  familiar  and  late 
example.  pag.  55. 

The  strange  and  divers  effects  of  melan- 
cholie,  and  how  the  same  humor  abound- 
ing in  witches,  or  rather  old  women,  fiUeth 
them  full  of  mervellous  imaginations,  & 
that  their  confessions  are  not  to  be  cre- 
dited.     _  p.  57. 

A  confutation  of  witches  confessions,  especi- 
allie  concerning  their  league.  pag.  59. 

A  confutation  of  witches  confessions,  con- 
cerning making  of  tempests  and  raine  :  of 
the  naturall  cause  of  raine,  and  that 
witches  or  divels  have  no  power  to  doo 
such  things.  pag.  60. 

What  would  ensue,  if  witches  confessions  or 
witchmCigers  opinions  were  true,  concern- 
ing the  effects  of  witchcraft,  inchantments, 
&c.  pag.  63. 

Examples  of  forren  nations,  who  in  their 
warres  used  the  assistance  of  witches  ;  of 
eybiting  witches  in  Ireland,  of  two  archers 
that  shot  with  familiars.  pag.  64. 

Authorities  condemning  the  fantasticall  con- 
fessions of  witches,  and  how  a  popish  doc- 
tor taketh  upon  him  to  disproove  the 
same.  pag.  65. 

Witch  mongers  reasons,  to  proove  that 
witches  can  worke  wonders,  Bodins  tale  of 
a  Friseland  preest  transported,  that  imagi- 
nations proceeding  of  melancholie  doo 
cause  illusions.  pag.  67. 

That  the  confession  of  witches  is  insufficient 
in  civill  and  common  law  to  take  awaie 
life.  What  the  sounder  divines,  and  de- 
crees of  councels  determine  in  this 
case.  pag.  68. 

Of  foure  capitall  crimes  objected  against 
witches,  all  fuUie  answered  &  confuted  as 
frivolous.  pag.  70./ 

S  s.  ii.  A  request  to  such  readers  as  loath  to  heare 
or  read  filthie  &  bawdie  matters  (which  of 
necessitie  are  here  to  be  inserted)  to  passe 
over  eight  chapters.  pag.  72. 

\  The  fourth  Booke. 

f\y  witchmoongers  opinions  concerning  e- 

^-^     vill  spirits,  how  they  frame  themselves 

in   more    excellent   sort  than    God   made 

us.  Pag.  73. 

Of    bawdie    Incubus    and    Succubus,    and 

whether  the  action  of  venerie  may  be  per- 

formed betweene  witches  and  dive! 
and  when  witches  first  yeelded  to  I 
cubus.  pag.  74. 

Of  the  divels  visible  and  invisible  dealing 
with  witches  in  the  waieof  lecherie.  pag.76. 

That  the  power  of  generation  is  both  out- 
wardlie  and  inwardlie  impeached  by 
witches,  and  of  divers  that  had  their  geni- 
tals taken  from  them  by  witches,  and  by 
the  same  means  againe  restored,     pag.  77. 

Of  bishop  Sylvanus  his  leacherie  opened  & 
covered  agiine,  how  maids  having  yellow 
haire  are  most  combred  with  Incubus,  how 
marled  men  are  bewitched  to  use  other  mens 
wives,  and  to  refuse  their  owne.       pag.  79. 

How  to  procure  the  dissolving  of  bewitched 
love,  also  to  enforce  a  man  (how  proper 
so  ever  he  be)  to  love  an  old  hag  ;  and 
of  a  bawdie  tricke  of  a  priest  in  Gelder- 
land.  pag.  80. 

Of  divers  saincts  and  holie  persons,  which 
were  exceeding  bawdie  and  lecherous, 
and  by  certeine  miraculous  meanes  became 
chast.  pag.  81. 

Certeine  popish  and  magicall  cures,  for  them 
that  are  bewitched  in  their  privities,  p.  82. 

A  strange  cure  doone  to  one  that  was  mo- 
lested with  Incubus.  pag-  83. 

A  confutation  of  all  the  former  follies  touch- 
ing Incubus,  which  by  examples  and 
proofes  of  like  stuffe  is  shewed  to  be  flat 
knaverie,  wherein  the  carnall  copulation 
with  spirits  is  overthrowne.  pag.  85. 

That  Incubus  is  a  naturall  disease,  with 
remedies  for  the  same,  besides  magicall 
cures  herewithall  expressed.  pag.  86. 

The  censure  of  G.  Chaucer,  upon  the  knave- 
rie of  Incubus.  pag.  88. 

1   The  fift  Booke. 

r\^   transformations,    ridiculous   examples 

^-^  brought  by  the  adversaries  for  the  con- 
firmation of  their  foolish  doctrine.  Pag  8g. 

Absurd  reasons  brought  by  Bodin,  &  such 
others,  for  confirmation  of  transforma- 
tions, pag.  93. 

Of  a  man  turned  into  an  asse,  and  returned 
againe  into  a  man  by  one  of  Bodins 
witches :  S.  Augustines  opinion  thereof. 
cap.  _  ^  94. 

A  summarie  of  the  former  fable,  with  a  refu- 
tation thereof,  after  due  examination  of 
the  same.  pag.  97. 

That  the  bodie  of  a  man  cannot  be  turned 
into  the  bcdie  of  a  beast  by  a  witch,  is 
prooved  by  strong  reasons,  scriptures,  and 
authorities.  pag.  99. 

The  witchmongers  objections  concerning 
Nabuchadnez-zar  answered,  &  their  errour 
concerningLycanthropia  confuted,  pag.ioi. 

A  speciall  objection  answered  concerning 
transportations,  with  the  consent  of  diverse 
writers  thereupon.  pag.  103. 

The  witchmongers  objection  concerning  the 
historie  of  Job  answered.  pag.  105. 

What  severall  sortes  of  witches  are  men- 
tioned in  the  scriptures,  &  how  the  word 
witch  is  there  applied.  pag.  109. 

The  Contents. 


H   The  sixt  Booke. 

'X'He  exposition  of  this  Hebrue  word  Cha- 

■'■     saph,  wherin  is  answe/red  the  objection 

conteined  in  Exodus  22.  to  wit:  Thou  shalt 

not  suflfer  a  witch  to  live,  and  of  Simon 

Magus      Acts   8.  pag.  iii. 

The  place  of  Deuteronomie  expounded, 
wherein  are  recited  all  kind  of  witches  ; 
also  their  opinions  confuted,  which  hold 
that  they  can  worke  worke*  such  miracles 
as  are  imputed  unto  them.  pag.  113. 

That  women  have  uted  poisoning  in  all  ages 
more  ihan  men,  &  of  the  inconvenience  of 
poisoning  pag.  116. 

Of  divers  poisoning  practises,  otherwise 
called  vencficia,  committed  in  Italic, 
Genua,  Millen,Wittenberge,  also  how  they 
were  discovered  and  executed,     pag.  119. 

A  great  objection  answered  concerning  this 
kind  of  witchcraft  called  Veneficium. 
pag.  120. 

In  what  kind  of  confections  that  witchcraft, 
which  is  called  Venehcium,  consisteth  : 
of  love  cups,  and  the  same  confuted  by 
poets.  pag.  121. 

It  is  prooved  by  more  credible  writers,  that 
love  cups  rather  ingendrr  death  through 
venome,  than  love  by  art  :  and  with  what 
toies  ttiey  destroie  cattell,  and  procure 
luve.       ...  .  P-.  123- 

John  Bodin  triumphing  against  J.  Wier  is 
overtaken  with  lalse  grecke  &  false  inter- 
pretation thereof.  p.  125. 

If  The  seventh  Booke. 

C\  F  the  Hebrue  woord  Ob,  what  it  signifieth 

^-^  where  it  is  found,  of  Pythonisses  called 
Ventriloque,  who  they  be,  &  what  the  r 
practises  are,  experience  and  examples 
thereof  shewed.  Pag.  126. 

How  the  lewd  practise  of  the  Pythonist  of 
Westwell  came  to  light,  and  by  whome 
she  was  examined  ;  and  that  all  hir  dia- 
bolicall  speach  was  but  ventriloquie  and 
plaine  cousenage,  which  is  prooved  by  hir 
owne  confession.  P^g-  130. 

Bodins  stuffe  concerning  the  Pythonist  of 
Endor,  with  a  true  storie  of  a  counterfeit 
Dutchman.  P^g-  i32- 

Of  the  great  oracle  of  Apollo  the  Pythonist, 
and  how  men  of  all  sorts  have  beene  de- 
ceived, and  that  even  the  apostles  have 
mistaken  the  nature  of  spirits,  with  an  un- 
answerable argument,  that  spirits  can 
take  no  shapes.  pag.  133. 

Why  Apollo  was  called  Pytho  wherof  those 
witches  were  called  Pythonists  :  Gregorie 
his  letter  to  the  divcH.  pag.  136. 

Apollo,  who  was  called  Pytho,  compared  to 
the  Rood  of  grace  :  Gregories  letter  to  the 
divell  cofuted.  p.  137. 

How  diverse  great  clarkes  and  good  authors 
have  beenc  abu.-ed  in  this  matter  of  spirits 
through  false  reports,  and  by  means  of 
their  credulilie  have  published  lies,  which 
are  confuted  by  Aristotle  and  the  scrip- 
tures, pag.  138. 

<  )f  the   witch   of   Endor,    and    whether    she 

accomplished  the  raising  of  Samuel  trulie, 
or  by  deceipt :  the  opinion  of  some  d'vines 
hereupon.  p.  139. 

That   Samuel   was  not   raised   indeed,  and     S  s.  ii.  v. 
how  Bodin  and  all  papists  dote  herin,  and 
that   soules   cannot   be   raised    by  witch- 
craft, pag.  140. 

That  neither  the  divell  nor  Samuel  was 
raised,  but  that  it  was  a  meere  cousenage, 
according  to  the  guise  of  our  Pythonists. 
pag..      .  .  142.     [*i;V] 

The  objection  of  the  witchmongers  concern- 
ing this  plac;  fullie  answered, and  what  cir- 
cumstances are  to  be  considered  for  the  un- 
derstanding of  this  storie,  which  is  plainelie 
opened  from  the  beginning  of  the  28  chapt. 
of  the  I.  Samuel,  to  the  12.  verse,  pag.  143. 

The  12.  13.  &  14.  verses  of  i.  Sam.  28.  ex- 
pounded :  wherein  is  shewed  that  Saule 
was  cousened  and  abused  by  the  witch,  & 
that  Samuel  was  not  raised,  is  prooved  by 
the  witches/  owne  talke.  pag.  146.     S  s.  iii. 

The  residue  of  i.  Sam.  28.  expounded  : 
wherein  is  declared  how  cunninglie  this 
witch  brought  Saule  resolutelie  to  beleeve 
that  she  raised  Samuel,  what  words  are 
used  to  colour  the  cousenage,  &  how  all 
might  also  be  wrought  by  ventriloquie. 
p.  _  148. 

Opinions  of  som";  learned  men,  that  Samuel 
was  indeed  raised,  not  by  the  witches  art 
or  power,  but  by  the  speciall  miracle  of 
God,  that  there  are  no  such  visions  in  these 
our  dales,  and  that  our  witches  cannot  doo 
the  like.  pag.  151. 

Of  vaine  apparitions,  how  people  have  beene 
brought  to  feare  bugs,  which  is  partlie  re- 
formed by  preaching  of  the  gospel,  the 
true  effect  of  Christes  miracles,     pag.  152. 

Witches  miracles  copared  to  Chnsts,  that 
God  is  the  creator  of  al  things,  of  Apollo, 
and  of  his  names  and  portraiture,  pag.  154. 

H   The  eight  Booke. 

np  Ha' miracles  are  ceased.  156. 

-*•      'Ihat  the  gift  of  prophesie  is  ceased. 

Pag.  158. 

That  Oracles  are  ceased.  pag.  160. 

A  tale  written  by  manie  grave  authors,  and 
beleeved  by  manie  wise  men  of  the  divels 
death.  Another  storie  written  by  papists, 
and  beleeved  of  all  catholikes,  approoving 
the  divels  honestie,  conscience,  and  coiir- 
tesie.  pag.  162. 

The  judgments  of  the  ancient  fathers  touch- 
ing oracles,  and  their  abolishment,  and 
that  they  be  now  transferred  from  Delphos 
to  Rome.  p.  164. 

Where  and  wherein  cou^eners,  witches,  and 
prei-sts  were  woont  to  give  oracles,  and  to 
worke  their  feats.  pag.  165. 

If  The  ni?ith  Booke. 

"T^He  Hebrue  word  Kasam  expounded,  and 
•'■  how  farre  a  Christian  may  conjecture 
Pag.  167. 

of  things  to  come. 


The  Contents. 


[*  doe] 

[*  sic'^ 

Proofes  by  the  old  and  new  testament,  that 
certaine  observations  of  the  weather  are 
lawful!.  pag.  i68. 

That  certeine  observations  are  indifferent, 
certeine  ridiculous,  and  certeine  impious, 
whence  that  cunning  is  derived  of  Apollo, 
and  of  Aruspices.  pag.  169. 

The  predictions  of  soothsaiers  &  lewd 
preests,  the  prognostications  of  astrono- 
mers and  physicians  allowable,  divine 
prophesies  holie  and  good.  pag.  171. 

The  diversitie  of  true  prophets,  of  Urim, 
and  of  the  propheiicall  use  of  the  twelve 
pretious  stones  conteined  therein,  of  the 
divine  voice  called  Eccho.  pag.  172. 

Of  prophesies  conditional!  :  whereof  the  pro- 
phesies in  the  old  testament  dee**  intreat, 
and  by  whom  they  were  published  ;  witch- 
mongers  answers  to  the  objections  against 
witches  supernatural!  actions.       pag.  173. 

What  were  the  miracles  expressed  in  the 
old  testament,  and  what  are  they  in  the 
new  testament:  and  that  we  are  not  now  to 
loolce  for  anie  more  miracles.        pag.  175. 

U  The  tetith  Booke. 

'T'He  interpretation   of  the    Hebrue  word 

-*■      Onen,  of  the  vanitie   of  dreames,  and 

divinations  thereupon.  Pag.  177. 

Of  divme,  natural!,  &  casual!  dreames.  with 
the  differing  causes  and  effects,    pag.  178. 

The  opinion  of  divers  old  writers  touching 
dreames,  and  how  they  varie  in  noting 
the  causes  therof.  p.  179. 

Against  interpretors  of  dreames,  of  the  ordi- 
narie  cause  of  dreames,  Hemingius  his 
opinion  of  diabolicall  dreames,  the  inter- 
pretation of  dreames  cea^ed.        pag.  180./ 

That  neither  witches,  nor  anie  other,  can 
either  by  words  or  herbs,  thrust  into  the 
mind  of  a  sleeping  man,  what  cogitations 
or  dreames  they  list  ;  and  whence  magi- 
cal! dreames  come.  pag.  181. 

How  men  have  beene  bewitched,  cousened 
or  abused  by  dreames  to  dig  and  search 
for  monie.  pag.  182. 

The  art  &  order  to  be  used  in  digging  for 
monie,  revealed  by  dreames,  how  to  pro- 
cure pleasant  dreames,  of  morning  and 
midnight  dreames.  p.  183. 

Sundrie  receipts  &  ointments,  made  and 
used  lor  the  transportation  of  witches,  and 
other  miraculous  effects  :  an  instance 
thereof  reported  and  credited  by  some 
that  are  learned.  pag.  184. 

A  confutation  of  the  former  follies,  as  well 
cocerning  ointments,  dreams,  &c.  as  also 
of  the  assemblie  of  witches,  and  of  their 
consultations  and  bankets  at  sundrie 
places,  and  all  in  dreames.  pag.  185. 

That  most  part  of  prophesies  in  the  old 
testament  were  revealed  in  dreams,  that 
we  are  not  now  to  looke  for  such  revela- 
tions, of  some  who  have  drempt  of  that 
which  hath  come  to  passe,  that  dreames 
proove  contrarie,  NelSuchadnez  zars*  rule 
to  know  a  true  e.\positor  of  dreames. 
pag.  187. 

H  The  eleventh  Booke. 

'X'He  Hebrue  word  Nahas  expounded,  of 
the   art   of  augurie,   who  invented  it, 
how  slovenlie  a  science  it  is:  the  multitude 
of  sacrifices  and  sacrificers  of  the  heathen, 
and  the  causes  thereof.  Pag.  189. 

Of  the  Jewes  sacrifice  to  Moloch,  a  discourse 
thereupon,  and  of  Purgatorie.       pag.  190. 
The  Cambals*  crueltie,  of  popish  sacrifices 
exceeding  in  tyrannie  the  jewes  or  Gen- 
tiles, pag.  igi. 
The  superstition  of  the  heathen  about  the 
element  of  fier,  and  how   it  grew  in  such 
reverence   among  them,   of  their  corrup- 
tions, and  that  they  had  some   inkling  of 
the   godlie   fathers   dooings   in    that    be- 
halfe.                                                   pag.  191. 
Of  the  Romane  sacrifices,  of  the  estimation 
they  had  of  augurie,  of  the  lawe  of  the 
twelve  tables.                                    pag.  192. 
Colleges  of  augurors,  their  office,  their  num- 
ber, the  signification  of  augurie,  that  the 
practisers  of  that  art  were  couseners,  their 
profession,  their  places  of  exercise,  their 
apparell,  their  superstition.           pag.  193. 
The  times  and  seasons  to  exercise  augurie, 
the  maner  and  order  thereof,  of  the  cere- 
monies thereunto  belonging.         pag.  195. 
Upon  what  signes  and  tokens  augurors  did 
prognosticate,   observations   touching  the 
inward  and  outward  parts  of  beasts,  with 
notes  of  beasts  behaviour  in  the  slaughter- 
house,                                                 pag    196. 
A  confutation  of  augurie,  Plato  his  reverend 
opinion  thereof,    of    contrarie   events,    & 
false  predictions.  p.  196. 
The   cousening  art   of  sortilege   or  lotarie, 
practised   especiallie  by  Aegyptian  vaga- 
bonds, of  allowed  lots,  of  Pythagoras  his 
lot,  &c.                                               pag.  197. 
Of  the  Cabalisticall  art,  consisting  of  tradi- 
tions and  unwritten  verities  learned  without 
booke,  and  of  the  division  thereof  cap.  i  gS. 
When,  how,  and  in  what  sort  sacrifices  were 
first   ordained,    and  how  they  were  pro- 
phaned,  and  how  the  pope  corrupteth  the 
sacraments  of  Christ.                       pag.  200. 
Of  the  objects  whereupon  the  augurors  used 
to   prognosticate,  with  certeine  cautions 
and  notes.                                          pag.  201. 
The  division  of  augurie,  persons  acimittable 
into  the  colleges  of  augurie,  of  their  super- 
stition,                                              pag.  202./ 
Of  the  common  peoples  fond  and  supersti- 
tious collections  and  observations,  pag.  203. 
How  old  writers  varie  about  the  matter,  the 
maner,  and  the  meaiies,   whereby  things 
augurificall  are  mooved.                 pag.  205. 
How  ridiculous  an  art  augurie  is,  how  Cato 
mocked   it,    Aristotles  reason   against  it, 
fond  collections  of  augurors,  who  allowed, 
and  who  disallowed  it.                    pag.  206. 
Fond  distinctions  of  the  heathen  writers, con- 
cerning augurie.                                 pag.  208. 
Of  naturall   and   casuall  augurie,    the   one 
allowed, and  the  other  disallowed  pag.  208. 
A  confutation   of  casual  augurie   which   is 
meere  witchcraft,   and   upon  what  uncer- 
teintie   those   divinations    are    grounded, 
pag.  Z09. 

The  Contents. 


That  figiire-cahters  are  witches,  the  uncer- 
teiiitie  of  their  art,  and  of  their  contradic- 
tions, CorneUus  Agrippas  sentence  against 
judiciall  astrologie.  pag.  210. 

The  subtiltie  of  astrologers  to  mainteine 
the  credit  of  their  art,  why  they  remaiiie 
in  credit,  certeine  impieties  conteined  in 
astrologers  assertions.  _       pag.  212. 

Who  have  power  to  drive  awaie  divels  with 
their  onelie  presence,  who  shall  receive  of 
God  whatsoever  they  aske  in  praier,  who 
shall  obteine  everlasting  life  by  meanes  of 
constellations,  as  nativitie-casters  afifirme. 
pag.  214- 

t  The  twclfc  Booke. 

"yHe    Hebrue    word    Habar    expounded, 
-'-      where  also  the  supposed  secret  force  of 
charmes  and  inchantments  is  shewed,  and 
the  efficacie  of  words  is  diverse  waies  de- 
clared. Pag.  216. 

What  is  forbidden  in  scriptures  concerning 
witchcraft,  of  the  operation  of  words,  the 
superstition  of  the  Cabalists  and  papists, 
who  createth  substances,  to  imitate  God 
in  some  cases  is  presumption,  words  of 
sanctification.  pag.  217. 

What  eflect  &  offense  witches  charmes  bring, 
how  unapt  witches  are,  and  how  unlikelie 
to  worke  those  things  which  they  are 
thought  to  doo,  what  would  follow  if  those 
things  were  true  which  are  laid  to  their 
charge.  pag.  218. 

Why  God  forbad  the  practise  of  witchcraft, 
the  absurditie  of  the  law  of  the  twelve 
tables,  whereupon  their  estimation  in 
miraculous  actions  is  grounded,  of  their 
woonderous  works.  pag.  220. 

An  instance  of  one  arreigned  upon  the  law 
of  the  twelve  tables,  whereby  the  said  law 
is  prooved  ridiculous,  of  two  witches  that 
could  doo  woonders.  pag.  221. 

Lawes  provided  for  the  punishment  of  such 
witches  as  worke  miracles,  whereof  some 
are  mentioned,  and  of  certeine  popish 
lawes  published  against  them.      pag.  222. 

Poetical  authorities  commonlie  alledged  by 
witchmongers,  for  the  proofe  of  witches 
miraculous  actions,  and  for  confirmation 
of  their  supernaturall  power.         pag.  223. 

Poetrie  and  poperie  compared  in  inchant- 
ments,popish  witchmongers  have  more  ad- 
vantage herein  than  protestants.  pag.  229. 

Popish  periapts,  amulets  &  charmes,  agnus 
Dei,  a  wastcote  of  proofe,  a  charme  for  the 
falling  evil!,  a  writing  brought  to  S.  Leo 
from  heaven  by  an  angell,  the  vertues 
of  S.  Saviors  epistle,  a  charme  against 
theeves,  a  writing  found  in  Christs  wounds, 
of  the  crosse,  &c.  P^g-  230. 

H  A  charme  against  shot,  or  a  wastcote  of 
proofe.  Against  the  falling  evill,  p.  231. 
A  popish  periapt  or  charme,  which  must 
never  be  said,  but  carried  about  one, 
against  theeves.  Another  amulet,  pag.  233. 
A  papisticall  charme.  A  charme  found  in 
the  ca/non  of  the  masse.  Other  papisticall 
charmes.  pag.  234.  A  charme  of  the  holie 
Crosse,  pag.  235.  A  charme  taken  out  of 
the  Primer.  pag.  236. 

How  to  make  holie  water,  and  the  vertues 
thereof,  S.  Rufins  charme,  of  the  wearuig 
&  bearing  of  the  name  of  Jesus,  that  the 
sacrament  of  confession  &  the  eucharist 
is  of  as  much  efficacie  as  other  charmes, 
and  magnified  by  L.  Vairus.  pag.  237, 

Of  the  noble  balme  used  by  Moses,  apishlie 
counterfeited  in  the  church  of  Rome. 
pag.  _  238. 

The  opinion  of  Ferrarius  touching  charmes, 
periapts,  appensions,  amulets,  &c.  Of 
Homericall  medicines,  of  constant  opinion, 
and  the  effects  thereof.  pag.  239. 

Of  the  effects  of  amulets,  the  drift  of  Arge- 
rius  Ferrarius  in  the  commendation  of 
charmes,  &c  :  foure  sorts  of  Homericall 
medicines,  and  the  choice  thereof;  of 
imagination.  pag.  241. 

Choice  of  charmes  against  the  falling  evill, 
the  biting  of  a  mad  dog,  the  stinging  of  a 
scorpion,  the  toothach,  for  a  woman  in 
travell,  for  the  kings  evill,  to  get  a  thorne 
out  of  any  member,  or  a  bone  out  of  ones 
throte,  charmes  to  be  said  fasting,  or  at 
the  gathering  of  hearbs,  for  sore  eies,  to 
open  locks,  against  spirits,  for  the  bots 
in  a  horsse,  and  speciallie  for  the  Duke  of 
Albas  horsse,  for  sowre  wines,  &c.  pag.  242. 

If  For  the  faUing  evill.  pa.  242.  Against 
the  biting  of  a  mad  dog.  pag.  243.  Against 
the  biting  of  a  scorpion.  Against  the 
toothach.  A  charme  to  release  a  woman 
in  travell.  To  heale  the  Ivings  or  Queenes 
evill,  or  anie  other  sorenesse  in  the  throte. 
A  charme  read  in  the  Romish  church, 
upon  saint  Blazes  daie,  that  will  fetch  a 
thorne  out  of  anie  place  of  ones  bodie,  a 
bone  out  of  the  throte,  &c  ;  Lect.  3.  pag. 
244.  A  charme  for  the  headach.  A 
charme  to  be  said  ech  morning  by  a 
witch  fasting,  or  at  least  before  she  go 
abroad.  Another  charme  that  witches  use 
at  the  gathering  of  their  medicinable 
hearbs.  An  old  womans  charme,  wher- 
with  she  did  much  good  in  the  countrie, 
and  grew  famous  thereby,  pag.  245.  An- 
other like  charme.  A  charme  to  open 
locks.  A  charme  to  drive  awaie  spirits 
that  haunt  anie  house,  pag.  246.  A  prettie 
charme  or  conclusion  for  one  possessed. 
Another  for  the  same  purpose.  Another 
to  the  same  effect.  Another  charme  or 
witchcraft  for  the  same.  pag.  247.  A 
charme  for  the  bots  in  a  horsse.  pag.  248. 
A  charme  against  vineger.  pa.  249. 

The  inchanting  of  serpents  &  snakes,  objec- 
tions answered  concerning  the  same  ;  fond 
reasons  whie  charmes  take  effect  therein, 
Mahomets  pigeon,  miracles  wrought  by 
an  Asse  at  Memphis  in  Aegypt,  popish 
charmes  against  serpents,  of  miracle- 
-workers,  the  taming  of  snakes,  Bodins  lie 
of  snakes.  pag.  249. 

Charmes  to  carrie  water  in  a  sive,  to  know 
what  is  spoken  of  us  behind  our  backs, 
for  bleare  eies,  to  make  seeds  to  growe 
well,  of  images  made  of  wax,  to  be  rid  of 
a  witch,  to  hang  hir  up,  notable  authori-  S  g.  iiii.  y. 
ties  against  waxen  images,  a  storie  be- 
wraieng  the  knaverie  of  waxen  images, 
pag.  256 



TJie   Contents. 

f  A  charme  teaching  how  to  hurt  whom  you 
list  with  images  of  wax,  &c.  pag.  257. 

Sundrie  sorts  of  charmes  tending  to  divrrse 
purposes,  and  first,  certeine  charmes  to 
make  taciturnitie  in  tortures.  pag.  259. 
1[  Counter  charmes  against  these  and  all 
other  witchcrafts,  in  the  saieng  also 
whereof  witches  are  vexed,  &c.  A  charme 
for  the  choine  cough.  For  corporall  or 
spirituall  rest,  Charmes  to  find  out  a 
[Ss.  v.]  theefe.  pag.  260.  Another/  waie  to  find 
out  a  theefe  that  hath  stolne  any  thing 
from  you.  pag.  261.  To  put  out  the 
theeves  eie.  Another  waie  to  find  out  a 
theefe.  pag.  262.  A  charme  to  find  out 
or  spoile  a  theefe.  S.  Adelberts  cursse  or 
charme  against  theeves.  pag  263.  Another 
inchantment.  P^g.  266. 

A  charme  or  experiment  to  find  out  a  witch, 
pag.  266. 

^  To  spoile  a  theefe,  a  witch,  or  any  other 
enimie.  and  to  be  delivered  from  the  evill. 
pag.  269.  A  notable  charme  or  medicine 
to  pull  out  an  arrowhead,  or  any  such 
thing  that  sticketh  in  the  flesh  or  bones, 
and  cannot  otherwise  be  had  out.  Charmes 
[Ss.  V.  v.]  against  a  quotidian  ague.  For  all  maner 
of  agues  intermittant.  Periapts,  charac- 
ters, &c  :  for  agues,  and  to  cure  all  dis- 
eases, and  to  deliver  from  all  evill.  p.  270. 
More  charmes  for  agues,  pag.  271.  For  a 
bloudie  fluxe,  or  rather  an  issue  of  bloud. 
Cures  CO  mmensed  and  finished  by  witch- 
craft, pa,  273.  Another  witchcraft  or 
knaverie,  practised  by  the  same  surgion. 
pag.  275.  Another  experiment  for  one 
bewitched.  Otherwise.  A  knacke  to 
know  whether  you  be  bewitched,  or  no, 
&c.  pag.  276. 

That  one  witchcraft  may  lawfullie  meete 
with  another.  pag.  277. 

Who  are  privileged  from  witches,  what 
bodies  are  aptest  to  be  bewitched,  or  to  be 
witches,  why  women  are  rather  witches 
than  men,  and  what  they  are.  pag.  277. 
What  miracles  witchmongers  report  to  have 
been  done  by  witches  words  &c  :  contra- 
dictions of  witchmongers  among  them- 
selves, how  beasts  are  cured  hereby,  of 
bewitjhed  butter,  a  charme  against 
witches,  &  a  counter  charme,  the  effect  of 
charmes  and  words  prooved  by  L.  Vairus 
to  be  woonderfull.  pag.  279. 

%  A  charme  to  find  hir  that  bewitched  your 
kine.  Another,  for  all  that  have  bewitched 
any  kind  of  cattell.  p.  281.  A  speciall 
charme  to  preserve  all  cattell  from  witi  h- 
craft.  pag.  2S2. 

Lawfull  charmes,  rather  medicinable  cures 
for    diseased    cattell.        The    charme    of 
charmes,  and  the  power  thereof,  pag.  283. 
1[  The    charme    of    charmes.       Otherwise, 
pag.  284. 

A  confutation  of  the  force  and  vertue  falselie 
ascribed  to  charmes  and  amulets,  by  the 
authorities  of  ancient  writers,  both  divines 
and  physicians.  pag.  285. 

If  The  xiii.  Booke. 

He   signification   of   the   Hebrue    word 
Hartumim,  where    it   is  found  written 


in  the  scriptures,  and  how  it  is  diverslie 
translated  :  whereby  the  objection  of 
Pharaos  magicians  is  afterward  answered 
in  this  booke  ;  also  of  naturall  magicke 
not  evill  in  it  selfe.  Pag.  287. 

How  the  philosophers  in  times  past  travelled 
for  the  knowledge  of  naturall  magicke,  of 
Salomons  knowledge  therein,  who  is  to  be 
called   a   naturall   magician,   a   distinctio 
therof,  and  why  it  is  condemned  for  witch- 
craft, pag.  288. 
What  secrets  doo  lie   hidden,   and  what  is 
taught   in   naturall   magicke,    how    Gods 
glorie  is  magnified  therein,  and  that  it  is 
nothing  but  the  worke  of  nature,  pag. 290. 
What  strange  things  are  brought  to  passe  by 
naturall  magicke.  P^g'  291. 
The   incredible   operation   of  waters,    both 
standing   and   running  ;     of  wels,    lakes, 
rivers,  and  of  their  woonderfull   effects. 
pag.  292. 
The  vertues  and  qualities  of  sundrie  pre- 
tious  stones,  of  cousening  Lapidaries,  &c. 
pag.                                                     _         293. 
Whence  the   pretious   stones  receive   their 
operations,   how    curious   Magicians   use 
them,  and  of  their/  seales.               pag.  297. 
The  sympathie  and  antipathic  of  naturall 
and   elementarie  bodies  declared  by   di- 
verse  examples  of  beasts,  birds,   plants, 
&c.                                                      pag.  301. 
The  former  matter  prooved  by  manie  exam- 
ples of  the  living  and  the  dead.     pag.  303. 
The   bewitching   venome   conteined  in   the 
bodie  of  an  harlot,  how  hir  eie,  hir  toong, 
hir  beautie  and  behavior  bewitcheth  some 
men  :  of  bones  and  homes  yeelding  great 
vertue.                                                pag.  304. 
Two  notorious  woonders  and  yet  not  mar- 
velled at.                                            pag.  305. 
Of    illusions,    confederacies,   and    legierde- 
maine,  and  how  they  may  be  well  or  ill 
used.                                                   pag.  307. 
Of  private  confederacie,  and  of  Brandons 
pigeon.                            _                   pag.  308. 
Of  publike    confederacie,   and   whereof   it 
consisteth.                                          pag.  309. 
How  men  have  beene  abused  with  words  of 
equivocation,  with  sundrie  examples  there- 
of,                                                       pag.  309. 
How  some  are  abused  with  naturall  magike, 
and  sundrie    examples  therof  when  illu- 
sion is  added  thereunto,  of  Jacobs  pied 
sheepe,  and  of  a  blacke  Moore,    pag.  311. 
The   opinion  of  witchmongers,   that  divels 
can  create  bodies,  &  of  Pharaos  magicians, 
pag.  312. 
How  to  produce  or  make  monsters  by  art 
magike,     and    why    Pharaos     magicians 
could  not  make  lice.                          pa.  313. 
That  great  matters  may  be  wrought  by  this 
art,  when  princes  esteeme  and  mainteine 
it  :    of  divers    woonderfull    experiments, 
and  of  strange  conclusions  in  glasses,  of 
the  art  perspective,  &c.                  pag.  315. 
A   comparison   betwixt  Pharaos   magicians 
and  our  witches,  and  how  their  cunning 
consisted  in  juggling  knacks.        pag.  317. 
That  the  serpents  and  frogs  were  trulie  pre- 
sented, and  the  water  poisoned  indeed  by 
Jannes  and  Jambres,  of  false  prophets,  and 
of  their  miracles,  of  Balams  asse.  pag.  318 

The  Contents. 


The  art  of  juggling  discovered,  and  in 
what  points  it  dooth  principallie  consist, 
pag.  321. 

Of  the  ball,  and  the  manner  of  legierde- 
maine  therwith,  also  notable  feats  with 
one  or  diverse  balles.  pag.  322. 

1[  To  make  a  little  ball  swell  in  your  hand 
till  it  be  verie  great,  p.  323.  To  con- 
sume (or  rather  to  conveie)  one  or  manie 
balles  into  nothing,  pag.  324.  How  to  rap 
a  wag  upon  the  knuckles-  pag.  324. 

Of  conveiance  of  monie.  pag.  324. 

%  To  conveie  monie  out  of  one  of  your 
hands  into  the  other  by  legierdemaine. 
pag.  325.  To  convert  or  transubstantiate 
monie  nito  counters,  or  counters  into 
monie.  pag.  325.  To  put  one  testor  inte 
one  hand,  and  an  other  into  the  other 
hand,  and  with  words  to  bring  them  to- 
gither.  pag.  325.  To  put  one  testor  into  a 
strangers  hand,  and  another  into  your 
owne,  and  to  conveie  both  into  the 
strangers  hand  with  words,  pag.  326.  How 
to  doo  the  same  or  the  like  feat  otherwise. 
pa.  326.  To  throwe  a  peece  of  monie 
awaie,  and  to  find  it  againe  where  you 
list.  pag.  326.  With  words  to  make  a 
groat  or  a  testor  to  leape  out  of  a  pot,  or 
to  run  alongst  upon  a  table,  pag.  327.  To 
make  a  groat  or  a  testor  to  sinke  through 
a  table,  and  to  vanish  out  of  a  handkercher 
verie  strangelie.  pag.  327. 

A  notable  tricke  to  transforme  a  counter  to  a 
groat.  pag.  328. 

An  excellent  feat,  to  make  a  two  penie  peece 
lie  plaine  in  the  palme  of  your  hand,  and 
to  be  passed  from  thence  when  you  list, 
pag.  _  329. 

1[  To  conveie  a  testor  out  of  ones  hand  that 
holdeth  it  fast.  pag.  329.  To  throwe  a 
peece  of  monie  into  a  deepe  pond,  and  to 
fetch  it  againe  from  whence  you  list, 
pag.       _  _   _  _  330./ 

To  conveie  one  shilling  being  in  one  hand 
into  an  other,  holding  your  armes  abroad 
like  a  rood.  pag.  330.  How  to  rap  a  wag 
on  the  knuckles.  pag-  33°. 

To  transforme  anie  one  small  thing  into  anie 
other  forme  by  folding  of  paper,  pag.  331. 

Of  cards,  with  good  cautions  how  to  avoid 
cousenage  therein  :  speciall  rules  to  con- 
veie and  handle  the  cards,  and  the  maner 
and  order  how  to  accomplish  all  difficult 
and    strange    things    wrought    by  cards. 

„pag.  .  331- 

Tl  How  to  deliver  out  foure  aces,  and  to  con- 
vert them  into  foure  knaves,  pag.  333.  How 
to  tell  one  what  card  he  seeth  in  the  bot- 
tome,  when  the  same  card  is  shuffled  into 
the  stocke.  pag.  334.  An  other  waie  to  doo 
the  same,  having  your  selfe  indeed  never 
seene  the  card.  pag.  334.  To  tell  one  with- 
out confederacie  what  card  he  thinketh. 
pag-  334- 

How  to  tell  what  card  anie  man  thinketh, 
how  to  conveie  the  same  into  a  kernell  of 
a  nut  or  cheristone,  &c  :  and  the  same 
againe  into  ones  pocket  :  how  to  make  one 
drawe  the  same  or  anie  card  you  list,  and 
all  under  one  devise.  pag.  335. 

Of  fast   or   loose,  how  to  knit  a  hard  knot 

upon  a   handkercher,    and  to   undoo  the 
same  with  words.  p.  336. 

H  A  notable  feat  of  fast  or  loose,  namelie,  to 
pull  three  headstones  from  off  a  cird, 
while  you  hold  fast  the  ends  thereof,  with- 
out remooving  of  your  hand.  pag.  337. 
Juggling  knacks  by  confederacie,  and  how 
to  know  whether  one  cast  crosse  or  pile  by 
the  ringing.  pag.  338. 

H  To  make  a  shoale  of  goslings  drawe  a  tim- 
ber log.  pag.  338.  To  make  a  pot  or  anie 
such  thing  standmg  fast  on  the  cupboord, 
to  fall  downe  thense  by  vertue  of  words, 
pag.  338.  To*  one  danse  naked,  pag.  339.  ["make] 
To  transforme  or  alter  the  colour  of  ones 
cap  or  hat.  pag.  339.  How  to  tell  where  a 
stoUen  horsse  is  become.  pag.  339. 

Boxes  to  alter  one  graine  into  another,  or  to 
consume  the  graine  or  come  to  nothing, 
pag.  340- 

*\  How  to  conveie  (with  words  or  charmes) 
the  come  conteined  in  one  boxe  into  an 
other,  pag.  340.  Of  an  other  boxe  to  con- 
vert wheat  into  flower  with  words,  &c. 
pag.  341.  Of  diverse  petie  juggling  knacks, 
pag.  341- 

To  burne  a  thred,  and  to  make  it  whole 
againe  with  the  ashes  thereof.  pag.  341. 
H  To  cut  a  lace  asunder  in  the  middest,  and 
to  make  it  whole  againe.  pag.  342.  How 
to  pull  laces  innumerable  out  of  your 
mouth,  of  what  colour  or  length  you  list, 
and  never  anie  thing  seene  to  be  therein, 
pag.  _  343- 

How  to  make  a  booke,  wherein  you  shall 
shew  everie  leafe  therein  to  be  white, 
blacke,  blew,  red,  yellow,  greene,  &c. 
pag.  343- 

Desperate  or  dangerous  juggling  knacks, 
wherin  the  simple  are  made  to  thinke, 
that  a  seelie  juggler  with  words  can  hurt 
and  hclpe,  kill  and  revive  anie  creature 
at  his  pleasure:  and  first  to  kill  anie  [Ss.  vi.] 
kind  of  puUen,  and  to  give  it  life  againe. 
pag.  346- 

H  To  eate  a  knife,  and  to  fetch  it  out  of  anie 
other  place,  pag.  346.  To  thrust  a  bodkin 
into  your  head  without  hurt.  pag.  347.  To 
thrust  a  bodkin  through  your  toong,  and 
a  knife  through  your  arme:  a  piltiful  sight, 
without  hurt  or  danger,  pag.  347.  To 
thrust  a  peece  of  lead  into  one  eie,  and  to 
drive  it  about  (with  a  sticke)  betweene  the 
skin  and  flesh  of  the  forehead,  untill  it  be 
brought  to  the  other  eie,  and  there  thrust 
out.  pag.  348.  To  cut  halfe  your  nose 
asunder,  and  to  heale  it  againe  presentlie 
without  anie  salve.  pag.  348  / 

To  put  a  ring  through  your  cheeke.  pag.  348.  [Ss  vi.  v.] 
To  cut  off  ones  head,  and  to  laie  it  in  a 
platter,  &c  :  which  the  juglers  call  the 
decollation  of  John  Baptist,  pag.  349.  To 
thrust  a  dagger  or  bodkin  in  your  guts 
verie  strangelie,  and  to  recover  immediat- 
lie.  pag.  350.  To  draw  a  cord  through 
your  nose,  mouth  or  hand,  so  sensiblie  as  it 
is  wonderfuU  to  see.  pag.  351. 

The  conclusion  wherein  the  reader  is  referred 
to  certeine  patterns  of  instruments  where- 
with diverse  feats  here  specified  are  to  be 
executed.  pag.  3Si- 


TJie  Contents. 


'\  The  xiiii.  Booke. 

^F  the  art  of  Alqumysterie,  of  their  woords 
of  art  and  devises  to  bleare  mens  eies, 
and  to  procure  credit  to  their  profession, 
Pag.  353- 

[S  s.  iii.]  The  Alcumysters  drift,  the  Chanons  yeomans 
tale,  of  alcumystical  stones  and  waters, 
pag.  355- 

Of  a  yeoman  of  the  countrie  cousened  by  an 
Alcumyst.  pag.  357- 

A  certeine  king  abused  by  an  Alcumyst, 
and  of  the  kings  foole  a  pretie  jest, 
pag.  360- 

A  notable  storie  written  by  Erasmus  of  two 
Alcumysts,  also  of  longation  and  curtation. 
pag.  361- 

The  opinion  of  diverse  learned  men  touching 
the  follie  of  Alcumystrie.  pag.  368. 

That  vaine  and  deceitfuU  hope  is  a  great 
cause  why  men  are  seduced  by  this  allur- 
ing art,  and  that  there  labours  therein  are 
bootelesse,  &c.  pag.  371- 

A  continuation  of  the  former  matter,  with  a 
conclusion  of  the  same.  p.  372- 

H  The  XV.  Booke. 

'y  He  e.xposition  of  lidoni,  and  where  it  is 
-'■  found,  whereby  the  whole  art  of  conjur- 
ation is  deciphered.  Pag.  376. 

An  inventarie  of  the  names,  shapes,  powers, 
governement,  and  effects  of  divels  and 
spirits,  of  their  severall  segniorities  and 
degrees  :  a  strange  discourse  woorth  the 
reading.  p.  377- 

The  houres  wherein  principall  divels  may  be 
bound  ;  to  wit,  raised  and  restrained  from 
dooing  of  hurt.  p.  393. 

The  forme  of  adjuring  or  citing  of  the  spuits 
aforesaid  to  arise  &  appeare.       page.  393. 

A  confutation  of  the  manifold  vanities  con- 
teined  in  the  precedent  chapters,  speciallie 
of  commanding  of  divels.  pag.  396. 

The  names  of  the  pl.-inets,  their  characters, 
togither  with  the  twelve  signes  of  the 
zodiake,  their  dispositions,  aspects,  and 
government,  with  other  observations, 
pag.  _  397- 

H  The  twelve  signes  of  the  zodiake,  their 
characters  and  denominations,  &c.  pag. 
397.  Their  dispositions  or  inclinations.  397. 
The  disposition  of  the  planets,  pag.  398. 
The  aspects  of  the  planets.  398.  How  the 
dale  is  divided  or  distinguished.  398.  The 
division  of  the  dale,  and  the  planetarie 
regiment,  pag.  399.  The  division  of  the 
night,  and  the  planetarie  regiment, 
pag.  399- 

The  characters  of  the  angels  of  the  seven 
dales,  with  their  names  :  of  figures,  seales 
and  periapts.  P^g-  4oo. 

An  experiment  of  the  dead.  P-ig-  4oi. 

A  licence  for  Sibylla  to  go  and  come  by  at 

all  times.  pag.  407. 

To   know   of  treasure  hidden  in  the  earth. 

pag.    _  _  408. 

H  This  is  the  waie  to  go  invisible  by  these 

three  sisters  of  fairies.  408. 

An   experiment  of  Citrael,  &c  :  aiigeli  diei 
dotninici.  P^g-  4fO- 

U  The  seven  angels  of  the  seven  dales,  with 
the  praier  called /?r^/«rt  litigme.  pag.  410. 
How  to  inclose  a  spirit  in  a  christall  stone, 
pag.  411/ 

A  figure  or  typeproportionall,  shewing  what 
forme  must  be  observed  and  kept,  in  mak- 
ing the  figure  whereby  the  former  secret 
of  inclosing  a  spirit  in  christall  is  to  be  ac- 
complished, &c.  pag.  414. 
An  experiment  of  Bealphares.  pag.  415. 
^  The  twoo  and  twentieth  Psalme.  pag.  416. 
This  psalme  also  following,  being  the  fiftie 
one  psalme,  must  be  said  three  times  over, 
&c.  pag.  416. 
To  bind  the  spirit  Bealphares,  and  to   lose 
him  againe.  pag.  418- 
^  A  licence  for  the  spirit  to  depart,  pag.  419. 
A  type  or  figure  of  the  circle  for  the  maister 
and  his  fellowes  to  sit  in,  shewing  how  & 
after   what   fashion   it   should   be    made, 
pag.  420- 
The  making  of  the  holie  water         pag.  421. 
TI  To  the  water  sale  also  as  followeth.  pag. 
421.     Then  take  the  salt  in  thy  hand,  and 
sale  putting  it  into  the   water,   making  in 
the  maner  of  a  crosse.   pag.  421.     Then 
sprinkle  upon  anie  thing,  and  sale  as  fol- 
loweth.                                               pag.  422. 
To  make  a  spirit  to  appeare  in  a  christall. 
pag.      _  422. 
An  experiment  of  the  dead.               pag.  423. 
If  Now  the  Pater  noster,   Ave,  and   Credo 
must  be  said,  and  then  the  praier  imme- 
diatlie  following.                                  p.  425. 
A  bond  to  bind  him  to  thee,  and  to  thy  N. 
as  followeth.                                      pag.  425. 
^  This  bod  as  followeth,  is  to  call  him  into 
your  christall  stone,   or  glasse,   &.C.  pag. 
428.      Then  being   appeared,    sale   these 
words  following,  pag.  429.     A  licence  to 
depart.                                                   pag.  429. 
When  to  taike  with  spirits,  and  to  have  true 
answers  to  find  out  a  theefe.          pag.  430. 
•J  To  speake  with  spirits.                   pag.  430. 
A    confutation    of    conjuration,    especiallie 
of  the  raising,  binding  and  dismissing  of 
the  divell,   of  going  invisible   and   other 
lewd  practises.                                  pag.  430. 
A  comparison  betweene  popish  exorcists  and 
other     conjurors,    a    popish    conjuration 
published    by    a    great     doctor    of     the 
Romish  church,    his  rules    and   cautions, 
pag.  433- 
A  late  experiment,  or  cousening  conjuration 
practised  at  Orleance  by  the  Franciscane 
Friers,    how    it    was    detected,    and   the 
judgement   against  the    authors   of    that 
comedie.                       _                      pag.  435. 
Who  may  be  conjurors  in  the  Romish  church 
besides  priests,  a  ridiculous  definition  of 
superstition,  what  words  are  to  be  used 
and  not  used   in   exorcismes,  rebaptisme 
allowed,  it  is  lawful!  to  conjure  any  thing, 
differences  betweene  holie  water  and  con- 
juration,                                            pag.  438. 
The  seven  reasons  why  some  are  not  rid  of 
the  divell  with  all  their  popish  conjura- 
tions, why  there  were  no  cojurors  in  the 
primitive  church,  and   why  the  divell  is 

The  Contents. 


not  so  soone  cast  out  of  the  bewitched  as 
of  the  possessed.  _  pag.  441. 

Other  grosse  absurdities  of  witchmongers  in 
this  matter  of  conjurations.  pag.  443. 

Certaine  conjurations  taken  out  of  the  pon- 
tificall  and  out  of  the  missall.         pag.  444. 
11  A  conjuration  written  in  the  masse  booke. 
Fol.  I.     pag.  445.     Oremus.  pag.  445. 

That  popish  priests  leave  nothing  uncon- 
jured,  a  forme  of  exorcisme  for  incense, 
pag.  446. 

The  rules  and  lawes  of  popish  E.xorcists  and 
other  conjurors  all  one,  with  a  confutation 
of  their  whole  power,  how  S.  Martine  con- 
jured the  divell.  _  pag.  447. 
That   it  is  a  shame  for  papists  to  beleeve 
other  conjurors  dooings,  their  owne  being 
of  so  litle  force,  Hippocrates  his  opinion 
herein.                                           _    pag.  450./ 
How  conjurors  have  beguiled  witches,  what 
bookes  they  carie  about  to  procure  credit 
to   their   art,    wicked    assertions    against 
Moses  and  Joseph.  pag.  451. 
All  magicall  arts  confuted  by  an  argument 
concerning  Nero,  what  Cornelius  Agrippa 
and  Caroius  Gallus  have  left  written  ther- 
of,  and  prooved  by  e.xperience.      pag.  452. 
Of  Salomons  conj  urations,  and  of  the  opinion 
conceived   of   his   cunning    and    practise 
therein.  pag.  454. 
Lessons  read  in  all  churches,  where  the  pope 
hath  authoritie,  on  Saint  Margarets  dale, 
translated   into   English  word   for  word, 
pag.  455- 
A   delicate   storie   of  a   Lombard,  who   by 
saint    jMargarets    example    would    needs 
fight  with  a  reall  divell.                  pag.  457. 
The   storie  of  S.   Margaret  prooved  to  be 
both   ridiculous   and    impious    in    everie 
point.                                                   pag.  459. 
A   pleasant    miracle  wrought   by   a  popish 
preest.                                                 pag.  460. 
The  former  miracle  confuted,  with  a  strange 
storie  of  S.  Lucie.           _                 pag   461. 
Of  visions,  noises,  apparitions,  and  imagined 
sounds,  and  of  other  illusions,  of  wander- 
ing soules  :   with  a  confutation   thereof 
pag.                                                    _  461. 
Cardanus  opinion   of  strange   noises,    how 
counterfet  visions  grow  to  be  credited,  of 
popish  appeerances,    of   pope   Boniface, 
pag.  464. 
Of  the  noise  or  sound  of  eccho,  of  one  that 
narrowlie  escaped  drowning  thereby  &c. 
pag           .        .                         .  465- 
Of  Theurgie,  with  a  confutation  therof,  a 
letter  sent  to  me  concerning  these  matters, 
pag.  466. 
U  The  copie  of  a  letter  sent  unto  me  R.  S. 
by  T.  E.   Maister  of  art,    and  practiser 
both  of  physicke,  and  also  in  times  past, 
of  certeine  vaine  sciences  ;  now  condemned 
to  die  for  the  same  :  wherein   he  openeth 
the  truth  touching  these  deceits,  pag.  467. 

II  The  xvi.  Booke. 

A   Conclusion,  in  maner  of  an  epilog,  re- 

•'^     peating  manie  of  the  former  absurdities 

of    witchmongers    conceipts,  confutations 

thereof,  and  of  the  authoritie  of  James 
Sprenger  and  Henry  Institor  inquisitors 
and  compilers  of  M.  Mai.  Pa.  470. 

By  what  meanes  the  common  people  have 
beene  made  beleeve  in  the  miraculous 
works  of  witches,  a'  definition  of  witch- 
craft, and  a  description  thereof,     pag.  471. 

Reasons  to  proove  that  words  and  characters 
are  but  babies,  and  that  witches  cannot  doo 
such  things  as  the  multitude  supposeth 
they  can,  their  greatest  woonders  prooved 
trifles,  of  a  yoong  gentleman  cousened. 
pag.  .  473- 

Of  one  that  was  so  bewitched  that  he  could 
read  no  scriptures  but  canonicall,  of  a 
divell  that  could  speake  no  Latine,  a 
proofe  that  witchcraft  is  flat  cousenage. 
pag.     _  _  _  476. 

Of  the  divination  by  the  sive  &  sheeres,  and 

by   the   booke   and   key,    Hemingius   his    [Ssvii.v.] 

opinion  thereof  confuted,  a  bable  to  know 

what    is   a   clocke,    of    certeine     jugling 

knacks,   manifold    reasons    for    the    over- 

throwe  of  witches  and  conjurors,  and  their 

cousenages,  of  the  divels  transformations, 

of  Ferrum  candeiis,  &^c.  pag.  477. 

How  the  divell  preached  good  doctrine  in  the 
shape  of  a  preest,  how  he  was  discovered, 
and  that  it  is  a  shame  (after  confutation  of 
the  greater  witchcrafts)  for  anie  man  to 
give  credit  to  the  lesser  points  thereof, 
pag.        ...  .  481- 

A  conclusion  against  witchcraft,  in  maner 
and  forme  of  an  Induction.  pag.  483. 

Of  naturall  witchcraft  or  fascination,  pag. 4S4. 

Of  inchanting  or  bewitching  eies.  pag.  485./ 

Of  naturall  witchcraft  for  love,  &c.   pag.  487.     [S  s.  viii.] 

A   Discourse  upon   divels  and  spirits,  and 

•'"*■  first  of  philosophers  opinions,  also  the 
maner  of  their  reasoning  hereupon,  and 
the  same  confuted.  Pag.  489. 

Mine  owne  opinion  concerning  this  argu- 
ment,to  the  disproofe  of  some  writers  here- 
upon, pag.  491. 

The  opinion  of  Psellus  touching  spirits,  of 
their  severall  orders,  and  a  confutation  of 
his  errors  therein.  pag.  492. 

More  absurd  assertions  of  Psellus  and  such 
others,  concerning  the  actions  and  passions 
of  spirits,  his  definition  of  them,  and  of 
his  experience  therein.     "  pag.  495. 

The  opinion  of  Fascius  Cardanus  touching 
spirits,  and  of  his  familiar  divell.   pag.  497. 

The  opinion  of  Plato  concerning  spirits, 
divels  and  angels,  what  sacrifices  they 
like  best,  what  they  feare,  and  of  Socrates 
his  familiar  divell.  pag.  498. 

Platos  nine  orders  of  spirits  and  angels, 
Dionysius  his  division  thereof  not  much 
differing  from  the  same,  all  disprooved  by 
learned  divines.  pag.  500. 

The  commensementofdivelsfondlie gathered 
out  of  the  14.  of  Isaie,  of  Lucifer  and  of 
his  fall,  the  Cabalists  the  Thalmudists 
and  Schoolemens  opinions  of  the  creation 
of  angels.  pag.  501. 

Of  the  cotention  betweene  the  Greeke  and 


The  Contents. 

Latine  church  touching  the  fall  of  angels, 

the    variance  among    papists    themselves 

[S  s  viii.  v.]        herein,  a  conflict  betweene  Michael  and 

Lucifer.  pag.  503. 

Where  the  battell  betweene  Michael  and 
Lucifer  was  fought,  how  long  it  continued, 
and  of  their  power,  how  fondlie  papists 
and  infidels  write  of  them,  and  how  rever- 
entlie  Christians  ought  to  thinke  of  them, 
p.  .  504- 

Whether  they  became  divels  which  being 
angels  kept  not  their  vocation,  in  Jude 
and  Peter ;  of  the  fond  opinions  of  the 
Rabbms  touching  spirits  and  bugs,  with  a 
confutation  thereof.  P^g-  5o6. 

That  the  divels  assaults  are  spirituall  and 
not  temporall,  and  how  grosselie  some 
understand  those  parts  of  the  scripture, 
pag.  _  _      508. 

The  equivocation  of  this  word  spirit,  how 
diverslie  it  is  taken  in  the  scriptures, where 
(by  the  waie)  is  taught  that  the  scripture 
is  not  alwaies  literallie  to  be  interpreted, 
nor  yet  allegoricallie  to  be  understood, 
pa.  509. 

That  it  pleased  God  to  manifest  the  power 
of  his  Sonne  and  not  of  witches  by  mira- 
cles, pag.  512. 

Of  the  possessed  with  devils.        _     pag.  513. 

That  we  being  not  throughlie  informed  of 
the  nature  of  divels  and  spirits,  must 
satisfie  our  selves  with  that  which  is  di- 
livered  us  in  the  scriptures  touching  the 
same,  how  this  word  divell  is  to  be  under- 
stood both  in  the  singular  &  plurall  num- 
ber, of  the  spirit  of  God  and  the  spirit  of 
the  divell, of  tame  spirits,ofAhab  pag.  154. 

Whether  spirits  and  soules  can  assume 
bodies,  and  of  their  creation  and  substance, 
wherein  writers  doo  extreamelie  contend 
and  varie.  pag.  516. 

Certeine  popish  reasons  concerning  spirits 
made  of  aier,  of  dale  divels  and  night 
divels,  and  why  the  divell  loveth  no  salt 
in  his  meate  pag.  517. 

That  such  divels  as  are  mentioned  in  the 
scriptures,  have  in  their  names  their  na- 
ture and  qualities  expressed,  with  in- 
stances thereof.  P^g-  S^S- 
[*  Pneuma-]  Diverse  names  of  the  divell,  whereby  his 
nature  and  disposition  is  manifested. 
pag.  520- 

That  the  idols  or  gods  of  the  Gentiles  are 
divels,  their  diverse  names,  and/  in  what 
affaires  their  labours  and  authorities  are 
emploied,  wherein  also  the  blind  supersti- 
tion of  the  heathen  people  is  discovered, 
pag.  521. 

Of  the  Romans  cheefe  gods  called  Dii  se- 
lecti,  and  of  other  heathen  gods,  their 
names  and  offices.  pag.  523. 

Of  diverse  gods  in  diverse  countries. 

Of  popish  provmciall  gods,  a  comparison  be- 
tweene them  and  heathen  gods,  of  physi- 
call  gods,  and  of  what  occupation  everie 
popish  god  is.  pag.  526. 

A  comparison  betweene  the  heathen  and 
papists,  touching  their  e.vcuses  for  idola- 
trie.  pag.  529. 

The  conceipt  of  the  heathen  and  the  papists 
all  one  in  idolatrie,  of  the  councell  of 
Trent,  a  notable  storie  of  a  hangman 
arraigned  after  he  was  dead  and  buried, 
&c.  pag.  530. 

A  confutation  of  the  fable  of  the  hangman, 
of  manie  other  feined  and  ridiculous  tales 
and  apparitions,  with  a  reproofe  thereof, 
pag.         .  _       532- 

A  confutation  of  Johannes  Laurentius,  and 
of  manie  others,  mainteining  these  fained 
and  ridiculous  tales  and  apparitions,  & 
what  driveth  them  awaie  ;  of  Moses  and 
Helias  appearance  in  Mount  Thabor. 
pag.         _  _  _  534- 

A  confutation  of  assuming  of  bodies,  and  of 
the  serpent  that  seduced  Eve.       pag.  536. 

The  objection  concerning  the  divels  assum- 
ing of  the  serpents  bodie  answered, 
pag.  537- 

Of  the  cursse  rehearsed  Genes.  3.  and  that 
place  rightlie  expounded,  John  Calvines 
opinion  of  the  divell.  pag.  539. 

Mine  owne  opinion  and  resolution  of  the 
nature  of  spirits,  and  of  the  divell,  with  his 
properties.  pag.  540. 

Against  fond  witchmongers,  and  their 
opinions  concerning  corporall  divels. 
pag.       ....     542- 

A  conclusion  wherin  the  Spirit  of  spirits  is 
described,  by  the  illumination  of  which 
spirit  all  spirits  are  to  be  tried  :  with  a 
confutation  of  the  Pneutomachi*  flatlie  de- 
nieng  the  divinitie  of  this  Spirit,    pag.  543. 


^  Imprinted  at  London  by 
William  Brome. 

[These  Contents  in  original  end  the  book  as  do  our  Indices.] 

Appendix    I. 

\Ch.  [  to  9  affixed  to  the  \^th  Book  in  Ed.  1665.] 


I.  C\F  Magical  Circles,  and  the  reason  of 
^-^     t  leir  Institution.  215 

II.  H01V  to  raise  up  the  Ghost  of  one  that 
hath  hanged  himself.  217 

III.  How  to  raise  iip  the  three  Spirits, 
Paymon,  Bathin,  and  Barma  ;  and  what 
wonderful  things  may  be  effected  through 
their  Assistance.  218 

IV.  How  to  consecrate  all  manner  of  Circles, 
Fumigations,  Fires,  Magical  Garments, 
and  Utensils.  220 

V.  Treating  jnore  practically  of  the  Co?ise- 

cration  of  Circles,  Fires,  Gartnents  and 
Fumigations.  221 

VI.  How  to  raise  and  exorcise  all  sorts  of 
Spirits  belonging  to  the  A  iry  Region.    111 

VII.  How  to  obtain  the  familiarity  of  the 
Genius,  or  Good  Angel,  and  cause  him  to 
appear.  223 

VIII.  A  form  of  Conjuring  Luridan  the 
Familiar,  otherwise  called  Belelah.      224 

IX.  How  to  cotijtire  the  Spirit  Balkin  tlie 
Master  of  Luridan.  226 

Appendix  II. 

[Second  Book  of  A  Discourse  on  Devils  and  Spirits.'] 

Book  II. 


I.  y^F  spirits  in  general,  wliat  they  are, 
'-^     a}id  hozu  to  be  co)isidercd,  also  how 

far  the p07uer  0/ Magiiians  and  Witches, 
is  able  to  operate  in  Diabolical  Ma- 
gick.  39 

II.  Of  the  good  and  evil  Dsemons  or  Genii ; 
•whether  they  are,  what  they  are,  and  how 
they  are  manifested;  also  of  their  jiames, 
powers,  faculties,  offices,  how  they  are  to 
be  considered.  42 

III.  Of  the  Astral  Spirits  of  Men  de- 
parted ;  wliat  they  are,  and  7uhy  tJiey  ap- 
pear again,  and  what  witclicraft  may  be 
wrought  by  them.  45. 


IV.  Of  astral  spirits,  or  separate  daemons  ui 
all  their  drstinctiotis,  names,  dr'  natures, 
and  places  of  habitations,  <Sr=  what  maybe 
ivrought  by  their  assistance.  49 

V.  Of  the  Infernal  Spirits,  or  Devils,  dr' 
damned  sojils,  treating  what  their  tia- 
tures,  names,  &^  powers  are.  56. 

VI.  Of  the  nature,  force,  6^  fortns  of 
charms,  periapts,  a>nulets,  pentacles,  con- 
jurations, ceremonies,  is'c.  66 

VII.  Being  the  conclusion  of  the  whole, 
7vherein  divers  ancient  spells,  cliarms, 
incantations,  and  exorcisms,  are  briefly 
spoken  of,  68 

THE    END. 

The  discoverie   of   Witchcraft. 
^f  The  first  Booke. 

The   first   Chapter. 

An  impeachment  of  Witches  power  in  jneteors  and  elementarie  bodies 
tciidiiii!;  to  the  rebicke  of  such  as  attribute  too  much  unto  them. 

I  HE  fables  of  Witchcraft  have  taken  so  fast  hold  and  deepe 
root  in  the  heart  of  man,  that  fewe  or  none  can  (novva- 
daies)  with  patience  indure  the  hand  and  correction  of 
God.  For  if  any  adversitie,  greefe,  sicknesse,  losse  of 
children,  corne,  cattell,  or  libertie  happen  vnto  them ;  by  &  by 
they  exclaime  uppon  witches.  As  though  there  were  no  God  in 
Israel  that  ordereth  all  things  according  to  his  will  ;  punishing  both 
just  and  unjust  with  greefs,  plagues,  and  afflictions  in  maner  and 
forme  as  he  thinketh  good  :  but  that  certeine  old  women  heere  on 
earth,  called  witches,  must  needs  be  the  contrivers  of  all  mens 
calamities,  and  as  though  they  themselves  were  innocents,  and  had 
deserved  no  such  punishments.  Insomuch  as  they  sticke  not  to  ride 
and  go  to  such,  as  either  are  injuriouslie  tearmed  witches,  or  else  are 
willing  50  to  be  accounted,  seeking  at  their  hands  comfort  and  remedie 
in  time  of  their  tribulation,  contrarie  to  Gods  will  and  commandement 
in  that  behalfe,  who  bids  us  resort  to  him  in  all  /  our  necessities. 

Such  faithlesse  people  (I  sale)  are  also  persuaded,  that  neither 
haile  nor  snowe,  thunder  nor  lightening,  raine  nor  tempestuous  winds 
come  from  the  heavens  at  the  commandement  of  God  :  but  are  raised 
by  the  cunning  and  power  of  witches  and  conjurers  ;  insomuch  as  a 
clap  of  thunder,  or  a  gale  of  wind  is  no  sooner  heard,  but  either  they 
run  to  ring  bels,  or  crie  out  to  burne  witches ;  or  else  burne  consecrated 
things,  hoping  by  the  smoke  thereof,  to  drive  the  divell  out  of  the 
aire,  as  though  spirits  could  be  fraied  awaie  with  such  externall  toies  : 
howbeit,  these  are  right  inchantments,  as  Brentius  affirmeth. 

But  certeinlie,  it  is  neither  a  witch,  nor  divell,  but  a  glorious^  God 
that  maketh  the  thunder.  I  have  read  in  the  scriptures,  that  God  ^ 
maketh  the  blustering  tempests  and  whirlewinds  :  and  I  find  that  it 
is<=  the  Lord  that  altogither  dealeth  with  them,  and  that  they*^  blowe 
according  to  his  will.  But  let  me  see  anie  of  them  all "  rebuke  and 
still  the  sea  in  time  of  tempest,  as  Christ  did  ;  or  raise  the  stormie 
wind,  as  ^  God  did  with  his  word  ;  and  I  will  beleeve  in  them.     Hath 


Job.  5. 

Mitth.  II. 

In  condone. 
aPsal.  25. 
bPsal.  83- 

«Eccles.  43. 
d  Luke-  g. 
Matth.  g. 
«Mark.  4,41. 
Luke.  g.  14. 

'Psal.  170. 

Chap.  I. 

The  discoverie 

gjob.  38,  22- 

Eccles.  43. 

liLeviti.  26. 
verse.  3    4. 

'Psal.  78,  23- 
liNahum.  I. 

ijob.  26,8. 
Job.  37. 
Psalme.  135. 
Jar.  10  &  15. 

mOse.  13. 

"  Psa.  39,  &c. 

In  epist.  ad 
Jo.  Wierinii. 

oExod.  13. 

Isai.  65. 

Ps.  18,  II,  19. 

anie  witch  or  conjurer,  or  anie  creature  entred  into  the  ^  treasures  of 
the  snowe  ;  or  seene/  the  secret  places  of  the  haile,  which  GOD  hath 
prepared  against  the  daie  of  trouble,  battell,  and  warre?  I  for  my  part 
also  thinkewith  Jesus  Sirach,  that  at  Gods  onelie  commandement  the 
snowe  falleth  ;  and  that  the  wind  bloweth  according  to  his  will,  who 
onelie  maketh  all  stormes  to  cease;  a.nd.'^  who  (if  we  keepe  his 
ordinances)  will  send  us  raine  in  due  season,  and  make  the  land  to 
bring  forth  hir  increase,  and  the  trees  of  the  field  to  give  their  fruit. 

But  little  thinke  our  witchmongers,  that  the  ^  Lord  commandeth  the 
clouds  above,  or  openeth  the  doores  of  heaven,  as  David  aftirmeth  ; 
or  that  the  Lord  goeth  forth  in  the  tempests  and  stormes,  as  the 
Prophet  '^  Nalunn  reporteth:  but  rather  that  witches  and  conjurers  are 
then  about  their  businesse. 

The  Martionists  acknowledged  one  God  the  authour  of  good  things, 
and  another  the  ordeiner  of  evill  :  but  these  make  the  divell  a  whole 
o-od,  to  create  things  of  nothing,  to  knowe  mens  cogitations,  and  to 
doo  that  which  God  never  did  ;  as,  to  transubstantiate  men  into  beasts, 
&c.  Which  thing  if  divels  could  doo,  /  yet  followeth  it  not,  that 
witches  have  such  power.  But  if  all  the  divels  in  hell  were  dead, 
and  all  the  witches  in  England  burnt  or  hanged  ;  I  warrant  you  we 
should  not  faile  to  have  raine,  haile  and  tempests,  as  now  we  have  : 
according  to  the  appointment  and  will  of  God,  and  according  to  the 
constitution  of  the  elements,  and  the  course  of  the  planets,  wherein 
God  hath  set  a  perfect  and  perpetuall  order. 

I  am  also  well  assured,  that  if  all  the  old  women  in  the  world  were 
witches  ;  and  all  the  priests,  conjurers  :  we  should  not  have  a  drop 
of  raine,  nor  a  blast  of  wind  the  more  or  the  lesse  for  them.  For  Uhe 
Lord  hath  bound  the  waters  in  the  clouds,  and  hath  set  bounds 
about  the  waters,  untill  the  daie  and  night  come  to  an  end  :  yea  it  is 
God  that  raiseth  the  winds  and  stilleth  them  :  and  he  saith  to  the 
rame  and  snowe  ;  Be  upon  the  earth,  and  it  falleth.  The  ™  wind  of  the 
Lord,  and  not  the  wind  of  witches,  shall  destroie  the  treasures  of 
their  plesant  vessels,  and  drie  up  the  fountaines  ;  saith  Oseas.  Let 
us  also  learne  and  confesse  with  the  Prophet  Z'aw^,  that  we  °  our 
selves  are  the  causes  of  our  afflictions  ;  and  not  exclaime  upon 
witches,  when  we  should  call  upon  God  for  mercie. 

The  Imperiall  lawe  (saith  Brentius)  condemneth  them  to  death 
that  trouble  and  infect  the  aire  :  but  I  aflirme  (saith  he)  that  it  is 
neither  in  the  power  of  witch  not  divell  so  to  doo,  but  in  God  onelie. 
Though  (besides  Bodin,  and  all  the  popish  writers  in  generall)  it 
please  Danceus,  Hyperiiis,  Haningius,  Erasius,  &c.  to  conclude 
otherwise.  The  clouds"  are  called  the  pillers  of  Gods  tents,  Gods 
chariots,  and  his  pavillions.     And  if  it  be  so,  what  witch  or  divell  can 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  2.  3 

make  maisteries  therof  ?    S.  Atis;jistine  saith,  No)i  est  piitandiun  istis   August, 
transgressoribiis  angelisservire hanc7-eru)nvisibiliuin  tnafc7'ievi,sed soli   ^'^"''"'    ""'^' 
Deo:  We  must  not  thinke  that  these  visible  things  are  at  thecommande- 
ment  of  the  angels  that  fell,  but  are  obedient  to  the  onelie  God. 

Finallie,  if  witches  could  accomplish  these  things  ;  what  needed  it 
seeme  so  strange  to  the  people,  when  Christ  by  miracle  p  commanded    pMar.  4,41. 
both  seas  and  winds,  &c.     For  it  is  written  ;  Who  is  this  ?  for  both 
wind  and  sea  obeie  him./ 

The   second    Chapter.  4-  3. 

The  inconvenience  growing  by  mens  crednlitie  herein.,  with  a  re- 
proofe  of  some  chtirchmen,  which  aj-e  inclined  to  the  common 
conceived  opinion  of  witches  omnipotencie,  and  a  familiar  exatiiple 


tUT  the  world  is  now  so  bewitched  and  over-run  with  this 
fond  error,  that  even  where  a  man  shuld  seeke  comfort 
and  counsell,  there  shall  hee  be  sent  (in  case  of  necessitie) 
from  God  to  the  divell  ;  and  from  the  Physician,  to  the 
coosening  witch,  who  will  not  sticke  to  take  upon  hir,  by  wordes 
to  heale  the  lame  (which  was  proper  onelie  to  Christ  ;  and  to 
them  whom  he  assisted  with  his  divine  power)  yea,  with  hir 
familiar  &  charmes  she  will  take  upon  hir  to  cure  the  blind  :  though 
in  the  ^  tenth  of  S.  Johns  Gospell  it  be  written,  that  the  divell  cannot  *  Joh.  10, 21. 
open  the  eies  of  the  blind.  And  they  attaine  such  credit  as  I  have 
heard  (to  my  greefe)  some  of  the  ministerie  afifirme,  that  they  have 
had  in  their  parish  at  one  instant,  xvii.  or  xviii.  witches  :  meaning 
such  as  could  worke  miracles  supernaturallie.  Whereby  they 
manifested  as  well  their  infidelitie  and  ignorance,  in  conceiving  Gods 
word  ;  as  their  negligence  and  error  in  instructing  their  flocks.  For 
they  themselves  might  understand,  and  also  teach  their  parishoners, 
that  ^  God  onelie  worketh  great  woonders  ;  and  that  it  is  he  which    ''Psai.  72,  &  136. 

IGrfciiiic    S« 

sendeth  such  punishments  to  the  wicked,  and  such  trials  to  the  elect  : 

according  to  the  saieng  of  the  Prophet  Haggai,'^  I  smote  you  with    c  Hag.  2, 23. 

blasting  and  mildeaw,  and  with  haile,  in  all  the  labours  of  your  hands  ; 

and  yet  you  turned  not  unto  me,  saith  the  Lord.     And  therefore  saith 

the  same  Prophet  in  another  place  ;  "^  You  have  sowen  much,  and  bring   ''  Idem.  cap.  i,  6. 

in  little.  And  both  in  ^  Joel  a.nd  ^Leviticus,  the  like  phrases  and  proofes    «Joei.  i. 

are  used  and  made.     But  more  shalbe  said  of  this  hereafter. 

S.  Paiile  fore-sawe  the  blindnesse  and  obstinacie,  both  of  these 
blind  shepheards,  and  also  of  their  scabbed  sheepe,  when  he  said  ;/  j, 
8  They  will  not  suffer  wholsome  doctrine,  but  having  their  eares  itching,    s  2  Tim.  4, 34. 
shall  get  them  a  heape  of  teachers  after  their  own  lusts  ;  and  shall 

4  Chap.  2.  The  discoverie 

turne  their  eares  from  the  truth,  and  shall  be  given  to  fables.     And 
1'  I  Tim.  4.  I  h  jj^  j-j^g  latter  time  some  shall  depart  from  the  faith,  and  shall  give  heed 

to  spirits  of  errors,  and  doctrines  of  divels,  which  speake  lies  (as 
witches  and  conjurers  doo)  but  cast  thou  awaie  such  prophane  and 
old  wives  fables.  In  which  sense  Basil  saith  ;  Who  so  giveth  heed  to 
inchanters,  hearkeneth  to  a  fabulous  and  frivolous  thing.  But  I  will 
rehearse  an  example  whereof  I  my  selfe  am  not  onelie  OculaUis  testis, 
but  have  examined  the  cause,  and  am  to  justifie  the  truth  of  my 
report :  not  bicause  I  would  disgrace  the  ministers  that  are  godlie, 
but  to  confirme  my  former  assertion,  that  this  absurd  error  is  growne 
into  the  place,  which  should  be  able  to  expell  all  such  ridiculous  follie 
and  impietie. 
Margaret*Siraons,  ^"^  the  assiscs  hoMcn  at  Rochester,  Anno  1581,  one  Margaret 
a  supposed  witch.  Szmo7is,l  the  wife  ofjohfi  Siino7is,  of  Brenchlie  in  Kent,  was  araigned 
for  witchcraft,  at  the  instigation  and  complaint  of  divers  fond  and 
malicious  persons  ;  and  speciallie  by  the  meanes  of  or\&  JoJui  Ferrall 
vicar  of  that  parish  :  with  whom  I  talked  about  that  matter,  and 
found  him  both  fondlie  assotted  in  the  cause,  and  enviouslie  bent 
towards  hir  :  and  (which  is  worse)  as  unable  to  make  a  good  account 
of  his  faith,  as  shee  whom  he  accused.  That  which  he,  for  his  part, 
laid  to  the  poore  womans  charge,  was  this. 

His  Sonne  (being  an  ungratious  boie,  and  prentise  to  one  Robert 
Scotcliford  clothier,  dwelling  in  that  parish  of  Brenchlie')  passed  on  a 
dale  by  hir  house  ;  at  whome  by  chance  hir  little  dog  barked.  Which 
thing  the  boie  taking  in  evill  part,  drewe  his  knife,  &  pursued  him 
therewith  even  to  hir  doore  :  whom  she  rebuked  with  some  such 
words  as  the  boie  disdained,  &  yet  neverthelesse  would  not  be  per- 
suaded to  depart  in  a  long  time.  At  the  last  he  returned  to  his 
maisters  house,  and  within  five  or  sixe  daies  fell  sicke.  Then  was 
called  to  mind  the  fraie  betwixt  the  dog  and  the  boie  :  insomuch  as 
the  vicar  (who  thought  himselfe  so  privileged,  as  he  little  mistrusted 
that  God  would  visit  his  children  with  sicknes)  did  so  calculate  ;  as 
he  found,  partlie  through  his  owne  judgement,  and  partlie  (as  he  him- 
6.  selfe  told/  me)  by  the  relation  of  other  witches,  that  his  said  sonne  was 
by  hir  bewitched.  Yea,  he  also  told  me,  that  this  his  sonne  (being  as 
it  were  past  all  cure)  received  perfect  health  at  the  hands  of  another 

He  proceeded  yet  further  against  hir,  affirming,  that  alwaies  in  his 
parish  church,when  he  desired  to  read  most  plainelie,  his  voice  so  failed 
him,  as  he  could  scant  be  heard  at  all.  Which  hee  could  impute,  he 
said,  to  nothing  else,  but  to  hir  inchantment.  When  I  advertised  the 
poore  woman  hereof,  as  being  desirous  to  heare  what  she  could  saie 
for  hir  selfe  ;  she  told  me,  that  in  verie  deed  his  voice  did  much  faile 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  3. 

him,  speciallie  when  he  strained  himselfe  to  speake  lowdest.  How 
beit,  she  said  that  at  all  times  his  voice  was  hoarse  and  lowe  :  which 
thing  I  perceived  to  be  true.  But  sir,  said  she,  you  shall  understand, 
that  this  our  vicar  is  diseased  with  such  a  kind  of  hoarsenesse,  as 
divers  of  our  neighbors  in  this  parish,  not  long  since,  doubted  that  he 
had  the  French  pox  ;  &  in  that  respect  utterly  refused  to  communi- 
cate with  him:  untill  such  time  as  (being  therunto  injoined  by 
M,  D.  Lewen  the  Ordinarie)  he  had  brought  fro  London  a  certificat, 
under  the  hands  of  two  physicians,  that  his  hoarsenes  proceeded  from 
a  disease  in  the  lungs.  Which  certificat  he  published  in  the  church, 
in  the  presence  of  the  whole  congregation  :  and  by  this  meanes  hee 
was  cured,  or  rather  excused  of  the  shame  of  his  disease.  And  this  I 
knowe  to  be  true  by  the  relation  of  divers  honest  men  of  that  parish. 
And  truelie,  if  one  of  the  Jurie  had  not  beene  wiser  than  the  other,  she 
had  beene  condemned  thereupon,  and  upon  other  as  ridiculous  matters 
as  this.  For  the  name  of  a  witch  is  so  odious,  and  hir  power  so 
feared  among  the  common  people,  that  if  the  honestest  bodie  living 
chance  to  be  arraigned  therupon,  she  shall  hardlie  escape  condem- 

The  third  Chapter. 

Who  they  be  that  are  called  witches,  with  a  manifest  declaratioft  of 
the  cause  that  tnooveth  men  so  commonlie  to  thijike^  and  witches 
themselves  to  beleeve  that  they  can  htirt  children,  cattell,  S^c.  with 
words  and  imaginatiofts  :  and  of  coosening  witches. 

[;NE  sort  of  such  as  are  said  to  bee  witches,  are  women 
which  be  commonly  old,  lame,  bleare-eied,  pale,  fowle, 
and  full  of  wrinkles  ;  poore,  sullen,  superstitious,  and 
papists  ;  or  such  as  knowe  no  religion  :  in  whose 
drousie  minds  the  divell  hath  goten  a  fine  seat ;  so  as,  what 
mischeefe,  mischance,  calamitie,  or  slaughter  is  brought  to  passe, 
they  are  easilie  persuaded  the  same  is  doone  by  themselves ; 
inprinting  in  their  minds  an  earnest  and  constant  imagination  Cardan,  devar. 
hereof.  They  are  leane  and  deformed,  shewing  melancholie  in  their 
faces,  to  the  horror  of  all  that  see  them.  They  are  doting,  scolds, 
mad,  divelish ;  and  not  much  differing  from  them  that  are  thought  to 
be  possessed  with  spirits  ;  so  firme  and  stedfast  in  their  opinions,  as 
whosoever  shall  onelie  have  respect  to  the  constancie  of  their  words 
uttered,  would  easilie  beleeve  they  were  true  indeed. 

These  miserable  wretches  are  so  odious  unto  all  their  neighbors, 
and  so  feared,  as  few  dare  offend  them,  or  denie  them  anie  thing  they 
aske  :  whereby  they  take  upon  them  ;  yea,  and  sometimes  thinke, 
that  they  can  doo  such  things  as  are  beyond  the  abilitie  of  humane 

7.  5. 


6  Chap  3.  The  discoverie 

nature.  These  go  from  house  to  house,  and  from  doore  to  doore  for  a 
pot  full  of  milke,  yest,  drinke,  pottage,  or  some  such  releefe  ;  without 
the  which  they  could  hardlie  live  :  neither  obtaining  for  their  service 
and  paines,  nor  by  their  art,  nor  yet  at  the  divels  hands  (with  whome 
they  are  said  to  make  a  perfect  and  visible  bargaine)  either  beautie, 
monie,  promotion,  welth,  worship,  pleasure,  honor,  knowledge, 
S.    learning,  or  anie  other  benefit  whatsoever.  / 

It  falleth  out  many  times,  that  neither  their  necessities,  nor  their 
expectation  is  answered  or  served,  in  those  places  where  they  beg  or 
borrowe  ;  but  rather  their  lewdnesse  is  by  their  neighbors  reprooved. 
And  further,  in  tract  of  time  the  witch  waxeth  odious  and  tedious  to 
hir  neighbors  ;  and  they  againe  are  despised  and  despited  of  hir  :  so 
as  sometimes  she  cursseth  one,  and  sometimes  another  ;  and  that 
from  the  maister  of  the  house,  his  wife,  children,  cattell,  &c.  to  the 
little  pig  that  lieth  in  the  stie.  Thus  in  processe  of  time  they  have  all 
displeased  hir,  and  she  hath  wished  evill  lucke  unto  them  all  ;  perhaps 
with  cursses  and  imprecations  made  in  forme.  Doubtlesse  (at  length) 
some  of  hir  neighbors  die,  or  fall  sicke  ;  or  some  of  their  children  are 
visited  with  diseases  that  vex  them  strangelie  :  as  apoplexies, 
epilepsies,  convulsions,  hot  fevers,  wormes,  &c.  Which  by  ignorant 
parents  are  supposed  to  be  the  vengeance  of  witches.  Yea  and  their 
opinions  and  conceits  are/  confirmed  and  maintained  by  unskilfull 
physicians  :  according  to  the  common  saieng  ;  Inscitice  pallium 
malejiciuni  &r^  iticantatio,  Witchcraft  and  inchantment  is  the  cloke 
of  ignorance  :  whereas  indeed  evill  humors,  &  not  strange  words, 
witches,  or  spirits  are  the  causes  of  such  diseases.  Also  some  of  their 
cattell  perish,  either  by  disease  or  mischance.  Then  they,  upon  whom 
such  adversities  fall,  weighing  the  fame  that  goeth  upon  this  woman 
(hir  words,  displeasure,  and  cursses  meeting  so  justlie  with  their  mis- 
fortune) doo  not  onelie  conceive,  but  also  are  resolved,  that  all  their 
mishaps  are  brought  to  passe  by  hir  onelie  meanes. 

The  witch  on  the  other  side  exspecting  hir  neighbours  mischances, 

and  seeing  things  sometimes  come  to  passe  according  to  hir  wishes, 

Bodjn   cursses,  and  incantations  (for  Boditi   himselfe  confesseth,  that  not 

dismono :  cap.  3.   above  two  in  a  hundred  of  their  witchings  or  wishings  take  effect) 

being  called  before  a  Justice,  by  due  examination  of  the  circumstances 

is  driven  to  see  hir  imprecations   and   desires,  and   hir   neighbors 

harmes  and  losses  to  concurre,  and  as  it  were  to  take  effect  :  and  so 

confesseth  that  she  (as  a  goddes)  hath  brought  such  things  to  passe. 

Wherein,  not  onelie  she,  but  the  accuser,  and  also  the  Justice  are 

fowhe  deceived  and  abused  ;  as  being  thorough  hir  confession  and 

other  circumstances  persuaded  (to  the  injurie  of  Gods  glorie)  that  she 

Q    hath  doone,  or  can  doo  that  which  /  is  proper  onelie  to  God  himselfe. 

of  WitcJicraft.  chap.  4.  7 

Another  sort  of  witches  there  are,  which  be  absolutehe  cooseners. 
These  take  upon  them,  either  for  gloria,  fame,  or  gaine,  to  doo  anie 
thing,  which  God  or  the  divell  can  doo  :  either  for  foreteUing  of  things 
to  come,  bewraieng  of  secrets,  curing  of  maladies,  or  working  of 
miracles.     But  of  these  I  will  talke  more  at  large  heereafter. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

What  miraculous  actions  a7'e  imputed  to  ivitches  by  witchftwugers, 
papists,  and  poets. 

jLTHOUGH  it  be  quite  against  the  haire,  and  contrarie  to 
the  divels  will,  contrarie  to  the  witches  oth,  promise,  and 
homage,  and  contrarie  to  all  reason,  that  witches   should 

helpe  anie  thing  that  is  bewitched ;  but  rather  set  forward 

their  maisters  businesse :     yet    we    read    hi    malleo    malejicarum,   Mai.  Male/. par. 

.  T  ,  ,1     1  •  2.  quast.i.cap,2. 

of  three  sorts  of  witches ;  and  the  same  is  affirmed  by  all  the  writers 
heereupon,  new    and  old.     One  sort   (they  say)  can  hurt   and  not 
helpe,  the  second  can  helpe  and  not  hurt,  the  third  can  both  helpe 
and  hurt.     And   among  the  hurtfull  witches  he  saith  there  is   one 
sort  more  beastlie  than  any  kind  of  beasts,  saving  woolves  :  for  these 
usuallie  devoure  and  eate  yong  children  and  infants  of  their  owne 
kind.     These  be  they  (saith  he)  that  raise  haile,  tempests,  and  hurtfull 
weather  ;  as  lightening,  thunder,  &c.     These  be  they  that  procure 
barrennesse  in  man,  woman,  and  beast.     These  can  throwe  children 
into   waters,  as  they  walke  with  their  mothers,  and  /  not  be  scene.    7- 
These  can  make  horsses  kicke,  till  they  cast  the  riders.     These  can 
passe  from  place  to  place  in  the  aire  invisible.     These  can  so  alter 
the  mind  of  judges,  that  they  can  have  no  power  to  hurt  them.  These 
can  procure  to  themselves  and  to  others,  taciturnitie  and  insensibilitie 
in  their  torments.     These  can  bring  trembling   to    the  hands,    and 
strike  terror  into  the  minds  of  them  that  apprehend  them.    These  can 
manifest  unto  others,  things  hidden  and  lost,  and  foreshew/  things    10. 
to  come  ;  and  see  them  as  though  they  were  present.     These  can 
alter  mens  minds  to  inordinate  love  or  hate.     These  can  kill  whom 
they  list  with  lightening  and  thunder.     These  can  take  awaie  mans 
courage,  and  the  power  of  generation.     These  can  make  a  woman 
miscarrie  in  childbirth,  and  destroie  the  child  in  the  mothers  wombe, 
without  any  sensible  meanes  either  inwardhe  or  outwardlie  applied. 
These  can  with  their  looks  kill  either  man  or  beast. 

All  these  things  are  avowed  by  James  Spre7tger  and  Henrie  Institor 
III  malleo  malejicarum,  to  be  true,  &  confirmed  by  Nider,  and  the 
inquisitor  Cumanus ;  and  also  by  Danceus,  Hyperius,  Hemingius,  and 
multiplied  by  Bodinus,  and  frier  Bartholomccus  Spineus.  But  bicause 
I  will  in  no  wise  abridge  the  authoritie  of  their  power,  you  shall  have 

Chap.  4. 

TJie  discoverie 

*Ovid.  lib. 
fhoseon  7. 
Danceiis  in 
Pselhis  in 
deem.  Da  mo 
Horn.  epod.  5. 
lib.  I.  eUg.  2. 
Ovid  epist  4. 
Lex.  12. 
Mai.  Male/. 
Luc  a.  de  bello 
civili.  lib.  6. 
Virg.  eclog.  8. 
Cv  remedio 
amoris.  lib.  i. 

Rich.  Gal.  in  his 
horrible  treatise. 
Bar.  Spineus. 
Bryan  Darcy 
Virgil.  A  eneid.  4. 
C.  Matilius 
astrol.  lib.  i. 

Mai.  Male/, 
part.  2.  quccst 
I.  cap.  14.  8. 

I.  Cor  9,  9. 

also  the  testimonies  of  manic  other  grave  authors  in  this  behalfe ;  as 

*And  first  CT/zV/affirmethjthat  they  can  raise  and  suppresse  Hghtening 
and  thunder,  raine  and  haile,  clouds  and  winds,  tempests  and  earth- 
quakes. Others  doo  write,  that  they  can  pull  downe  the  moone  and 
the  starres.  Some  write  that  with  wishing  they  can  send  needles  into 
the  livers  of  their  enimies.  Some  that  they  can  transferre  corne  in 
the  blade  from  one  place  to  another.  Some,  that  they  can  cure 
diseases  supernaturallie,  flie  in  the  aire,  and  danse  with  divels.  Some 
write,  that  they  can  plaie  the  part  of  Succubus,  and  contract  them- 
selves to  Incttbus;  and  so  yoong  prophets  are  upon  them  begotten,  &c. 
Som  sale  they  can  transubstantiate  themselves  and  others,  and  take 
the  forms  and  shapes  of  asses,  woolves,  ferrets,  cowes,  apes,  horsses, 
dogs,  &c.  Some  say  they  can  keepe  divels  and  spirits  in  the  likenesse 
of  todes  and  cats. 

They  can  raise  spirits  (as  others  affirme)  drie  up  springs,  turne  the 
course  of  running  waters,  inhibit  the  sunne,  and  staie  both  day  and 
night,  changing  the  one  into  the  other.  They  can  go  in  and  out 
at  awger  holes,  &  saile  in  an  egge  shell,  a  cockle  or  muscle  shell, 
through  and  under  the  tempestuous  seas.  They  can  go  invisible, 
and  deprive  men  of  their  privities,  and  otherwise  of  the  act  and 
use  of  venerie.  They  can  bring  soules  out  of  the  graves.  They 
can  teare  snakes  in  peeces  with  words,  and  with  looks  kill 
lambes.  But  in  this  case  a  man  may  sale,  that  Miranda  cafinnt  j 
sed  non  credenda  Poetcc.  They  can  also  bring  to  passe,  that  chearne 
as  long  as  you  list,  your  butter  will  not  come  ;  especiallie,  if  either 
the  maids  have  eaten  up  the  creame  ;  or  the  goodwife  have  sold  the 
butter  before  in  the  market.  Whereof  I  have  had  some  triall, 
although  there  may  be  true  and  naturall  causes  to  hinder  the  common 
course  thereof  :  as  for  example.  Put  a  little  sope  or  sugar  into  your 
chearne  of  creame,  and  there  will  never  come  anie  butter,  chearne  as 

long  as  you  list.     But  M.  Mai.  saith,  that  there  is  not  so  little  a 

village,  where  manie  women  are  not  that  /  bewitch,  infect, 

and  kill  kine,  and  drie  up  the  milke:  alledging  for  the 

strengthening  of  that  assertion,  the  saie- 

ing  of  the   Apostle,  Niitiquid 

Deo   atra   est  de    bobiis  f 

Dooth    God    take 

anie  care  of 


of  Witchcraft.  chap.  5.  9 

The   fift    Chapter. 

A  confutation  of  the  common  coticeived  opinion  of  witches  and 
witchcraft,  and  how  detestable  a  sinne  it  is  to  repaire  to  them  for 
cotinsell  or  helpe  in  time  of  affliction. 

UT  whatsoever  is  reported  or  conceived  of  such  maner  of 
witchcrafts,  I  dare  avow  to  be  false  and  fabulous  (coosin- 
age,  dotage,  and  poisoning  excepted  :)  neither  is  there 
any  mention  made  of  these  kind  of  witches  in  the  Bible. 
If  Christ  had  knowne  them,  he  would  not  have  pretermitted  to 
invaie  against  their  presumption,  in  taking  upon  them  his  office  : 
as,  to  heale  and  cure  diseases  ;  and  to  worke  such  miraculous  and 
supernaturall  things,  as  whereby  he  himselfe  was  speciallie  knowne, 
beleeved,  and  published  to  be  God  ;  his  actions  and  cures  consist- 
ing (in  order  and  effect)  according  to  the  power  by  our  witch- 
moongers  imputed  to  witches.  Howbeit,  if  there  be  any  in  these 
daies  afflicted  in  such  strange  sort,  as  Christs  cures  and  patients 
are  described  in  the  new  testament  to  have  beene  :  we  flie  from 
trusting  in  God  to  trusting  in  witches,  who  doo  not  onelie  in  their 
coosening  art  take  on  them  the  office  of  Christ  in  this  behalfe  ;  but 
use  his  verie  phrase  of  speech  to  such  idolaters,  as  com  to  seeke 
divine  /  assistance  at  their  hands,  saieng  ;  Go  thy  waies,  thy  sonne  or  j^. 
thy  daughter,  &c.  shall  doo  well,  and  be  whole.  John,  s :  6. 

It  will  not  suffice  to  dissuade  a  witchmonger  from  his  credulitie,  that      ^"^^  ^'  '^''' 
he  seeth  the  sequele  and  event  to  fall  out  manie  times  contrarie  to  their 
assertion  ;  but  in  such  case  (to  his  greater  condemnation)  he  seeketh 
further  to  witches  of  greater  fame.     If  all  faile,  he  will  rather  thinke 
he  came  an  houre  too  late  ;  than  that  he  went  a  mile  too  far.     Trulie 
I  for  my  part  cannot  perceive  what  is  to  go  a  whoring  after  strange   to  go  to  witches, 
gods,  if  this  be  not.     He  that  looketh  upon  his  neighbors  wife,  and   &c.  is  idolatrie. 
lusteth  after  hir,  hath  committed  adulterie.     And  truelie,  he  that  in 
hart  and  by  argument  mainteineth  the  sacrifice  of  the  masse  to  be 
propitiatorie  for  the  quicke  and  the  dead,  is  an  idolater  ;  as  also  he 
that  alloweth  and  commendeth  creeping  to  the  crosse,  and  such  like 
idolatrous  actions,  although  he  bend  not  his  corporall  knees. 

In  like  manner  I  say,  he  that  attributeth  to  a  witch,  such  divine 
power,  as  dulie  and  onelie  apperteineth  unto  GOD  (which  all  witch- 
mongers  doo)  is  in  hart  a  blasphemer,  an  idolater,  and  full  of  grosse 
impietie,  although  he  neither  go  nor  send  to  hir  for  assistance.  / 


Chap.  6. 

The  discoverie 


Aristoi.  de 
anima.  lib,  2 . 
Acts.  %. 

Why  shuld  not 
the  divell  be  as 
readie  to  helpe  a 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

A  ftirther  conftitation  of  'witches  miraculous  and  ovmipotent 
power,,  by  invincible  reasons  and  authorities,  with  dissuasions 
frojn  such  fond  credulitie. 

I'F  witches  could  doo  anie  such  miraculous  things,  as  these 
and  other  which  are  imputed  to  them,  they  might  doo 
them  againe  and  againe,  at  anie  time  or  place,  or  at 
anie  mans  desire  :  for  the  divell  is  as  strong  at  one 
time  as  at  another,  as  busie  by  daie  as  by  night,  and  readie  enough 
to  doo  all  mischeefe,  and  careth  not  whom  he  abuseth.  And 
in  so  much  as  it  is  confessed,  by  the  most  part  of  witchmoongers 
themselves,  that  he  knoweth  not  the  cogitation  of  mans  heart,  he 
should  (me  thinks)  sometimes  appeere  /  unto  honest  and  credible 
persons,  in  such  grosse  and  corporall  forme,  as  it  is  said  he  dooth 
unto  witches  :  which  you  shall  never  heare  to  be  justified  by  one 
sufficient  witnesse.  For  the  divell  indeed  entreth  into  the  mind,  and 
that  waie  seeketh  mans  confusion. 

The  art  alwaies  presupposeth  the  power  ;  so  as,  if  they  saie  they 
can  doo  this  or  that,  they  must  shew  how  and  by  what  meanes  they 
doo  it;  as  neither  the  witches,  nor  the  witchmoongers  are  able  to  doo. 
For  to  everie  action  is  required  the  facultie  and  abilitie  of  the  agent  or 
dooer;  the  aptnes  of  the  patient  or  subject;  and  a  convenient  and 
possible  apphcation.  Now  the  witches  are  mortall,  and  their  power 
dependeth  upon  the  analogie  and  consonancie  of  their  minds  and 
bodies  ;  but  with  their  minds  they  can  but  will  and  understand  ;  and 
with  their  bodies  they  can  doo  no  more,  but  as  the  bounds  and  ends 
of  terrene  sense  will  suffer  :  and  therefore  their  power  extendeth  not 
to  doo  such  miracles,  as  surmounteth  their  owne  sense,  and  the 
understanding  of  others  which  are  wiser  than  they  ;  so  as  here 
wanteth  the  vertue  and  power  of  the  efficient.  And  in  reason,  there 
can  be  no  more  vertue  in  the  thing  caused,  than  in  the  cause,  or  that 
which  proceedeth  of  or  from  the  benefit  of  the  cause.  And  we  see, 
that  ignorant  and  impotent  women,  or  witches,  are  the  causes  of 
incantations  and  charmes  ;  wherein  we  shall  perceive  there  is  none 
effect,  if  we  will  credit  our  owne  experience  and  sense  unabused,  the 
rules  of  philosophic,  or  the  word  of  God.  For  alas!  What  an  unapt 
instrument  is  a  toothles,  old,  impotent,  and  unweldie  woman  to  flie  in 
the  aier  ?  Truelie,  the  divell  little  needs  such  instruments  to  bring  his 
purposes  to  passe. 

It  is  strange,  that  we  should  suppose,  that  such  persons  can  worke 
such  feates:  and  it  is  more  strange,  that  we  will  imagine  that  to  be 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  7. 


possible  to  be  doone  by  a  witch,  which  to  nature  and  sense  is  impos- 
sible ;  speciallie  when  our  neighbours  life  dependeth  upon  our 
credulitie  therein  ;  and  when  we  may  see  the  defect  of  abilitie,  which 
alwaies  is  an  impediment  both  to  the  act,  and  also  to  the  presumption 
thereof.  And  bicause  there  is  nothing  possible  in  lawe,  that  in  nature 
is  impossible  ;  therefore  the  judge  dooth  not  attend  or  regard  what 
the  accused  man  saith  ;  or  yet  would/  doo  :  but  what  is  prooved  to 
have  beene  committed,  and  na/turallie  falleth  in  mans  power  and  14. 
will  to  doo.  For  the  lawe  saith,  that  To  will  a  thing  unpossible,  is  a 
signe  of  a  mad  man,  or  of  a  foole,  upon  whom  no  sentence  or  judge- 
ment taketh  hold.  Fui'thermore,  what  Jurie  will  condemne,  or  what 
Judge  will  give  sentence  or  judgement  against  one  for  killing  a  man 
at  Berxvicke  ;  when  they  themselves,  and  manie  other  sawe  that  man 
at  London^  that  verie  dale,  wherein  the  murther  was  committed  ;  yea 
though  the  partie  confesse  himself  guiltie  therein,  and  twentie  wit- 
nesses depose  the  same  ?  But  in  this  case  also  I  sale  the  judge  is  not 
to  weigh  their  testimonie,  which  is  weakened  by  lawe  ;  and  the  judges 
authoritie  is  to  supplie  the  imperfection  of  the  case,  and  to  mainteine 
the  right  and  equitie  of  the  same. 

Seeing  therefore  that  some  other  things  might  naturallie  be  the 
occasion  and  cause  of  such  calamities  as  witches  are  supposed  to 
bring  ;  let  not  us  that  professe  the  Gospell  and  knowledge  of  Christ, 
be  bewitched  to  beleeve  that  they  doo  such  things,  as  are  in  nature  im- 
possible, and  in  sense  and  reason  incredible.  If  they  sale  it  is  doone 
through  the  divels  helpe,  who  can  work  miracles ;  whie  doo  not  theeves 
bring  their  busines  to  passe  miraculouslie,  with  whom  the  divell  is  as 
conversant  as  with  the  other?  Such  mischeefes  as  are  imputed  to 
witches,  happen  where  no  witches  are  ;  yea  and  continue  when  witches 
are  hanged  and  burnt :  whie  then  should  we  attribute  such  effect  to  that 
cause,  which  being  taken  awaie,  happeneth  neverthelesse  ? 

theefe  reallie  a.s 
a  witch  ? 

The    seventh    Chapter. 

L,  mitUuni.  I.  si 
quis  alteri,  vel 


An  objection 

By  what  meaties  the  name  of  witches  becomineth  so  famous,  and 
how  diverslie  people  be  opinioned  concerning  them  and  their 

URELIE  the  naturall  power  of  man  or  woman  cannot 
be  so  inlarged,  as  to  doo  anie  thing  beyond  the  power 
and  vertue  given  and  ingrafifed  by  God.  But  it  is 
the  will  and  mind  of  man,  which  is  vitiated  and  de- 
praved by  the  divell  :  neither  dooth  God  permit  anie  more, 
than  that  which  the  naturall  order  appointed  by  /  him  dooth 
require.  Which  naturall  order  is  nothing  else,  but  the  ordinarie 
power  of  God,  powred  into  everie  creature,  according  to   his  state 

are  ceased. 



Chap.  8. 

The  discoverie 

The  opinions  of 
people  concern- 
ing witchcraft 
are  diverse  and 


Card,  de  var. 
rerum.  lib.  15. 
tap.  go. 

and  condition.  But  hereof  more  shall  be  said  in  the  title  of  witches 
confessions.  Hovvbeit  you  shall  understand,  that  few  or  none  are 
throughlie  persuaded,  resolved,  or  satisfied,  that  witches  can  indeed 
accomplish  all  these  impossibilities  :  but  some  one  is  bewitched  in 
one  point,  and  some  is  coosened  in  another,  untill  in  fine,  all  these 
impossibihties,  and  manie  mo,  are  by  severall  persons  affirmed  to  be 

And  this  I  have  also  noted,  that  when  anie  one  is  coosened  with  a 
coosening  toie  of  witchcraft,  and  maketh  report  thereof  accordinglie 
verifieng  a  matter  most  impossible  and  false  as  it  were  upon  his  owne 
knowledge,  as  being  overtaken  with  some  kind  of  illusion  or  other 
(which  illusions  are  right  inchantments)  even  the  selfe-same  man  will 
deride  the  /  like  lie  proceeding  out  of  another  mans  mouth,  as  a 
fabulous  matter  unworthie  of  credit.  It  is  also  to  be  woondered,  how 
men  (that  have  seene  some  part  of  witches  coosenages  detected,  and 
see  also  therein  the  impossibilitie  of  their  owne  presumptions,  & 
the  follie  and  falsehood  of  the  witches  confessions)  will  not  suspect, 
but  remaine  unsatisfied,  or  rather  obstinatelie  defend  the  residue  of 
witches  supernaturall  actions  :  like  as  when  a  juggler  hath  discovered 
the  slight  and  illusion  of  his  principall  feats,  one  would  fondlie  continue 
to  thinke,  that  his  other  petie  juggling  knacks  of  legierdemaine  are 
done  by  the  helpe  of  a  familiar  :  and  according  to  the  follie  of  some 
papists,  who  seeing  and  confessing  the  popes  absurd  religion,  in  the 
erection  and  maintenance  of  idolatrie  and  superstition,  speciallie  in 
images,  pardons,  and  relikes  of  saints,  will  yet  persevere  to  thinke, 
that  the  rest  of  his  doctrine  and  trumperie  is  holie  and  good. 

Finallie,  manie  mainteine  and  crie  out  for  the  execution  of  witches,* 
that  particularlie  beleeve  never  a  whit  of  that  which  is  imputed  unto 
them  ;  if  they  be  therein  privatelie  dealt  withall,  and  substantiallie 
j6.   opposed  and  tried  in  argument./ 

The    eight    Chapter. 

Causes  that  moove  as  well  witches  themselves  as  others  to  thinke  that 
they  can  worke  impossibilities,  with  answers  to  certeine  objec- 
tio7is  :  where  also  their  ptmishment  by  lawe  is  touched. 

\ARDANUS  writeth,   that   the  cause   of  such  credulitie 
consisteth    in    three    points ;    to   wit,   in    the    imagina- 
tion  of  the  melancholike,   in   the   constancie   of  them 
that  are   corrupt   therewith,  and  in  the   deceipt  of  the 
Judges  ;    who  being  inquisitors   themselves   against    heretikes   and 
witches,   did   both    accuse    and    condemne    them,   having    for   their 
labour    the    spoile  of  their  goods.     So    as    these  inquisitors    added 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  5. 


manie  fables  hereunto,  least  they  should  seeme  to  have  doone 
injurie  to  the  poore  wretches,  in  condemning  and  executing  them  for 
none  offense.  But  sithens  (saith  he)  the  springing  up  of  Luthers  sect, 
these  priests  have  tended  more  diligentlie  upon  the  execution  of  them  ; 
bicause  more  wealth  is  to  be  caught  from  them  :  insomuch  as  now 
they  deale  so  looselie  with  witches  (through  distrust  of  gaines)  that 
all  is  seene  to  be  malice,  foUie,  or  avarice  that  hath  beene  practised 
against  them.  And  whosoever  shall  search  into  this  cause,  or  read 
the  cheefe  writers  hereupon,  shall  find  his  words  true. 

It  will  be  objected,  that  we  here  in  England  are  not  now  directed   An  objection 
by  the  popes  lawes  ;  and  so  by  consequence  our  witches  not  troubled 
or  convented  by  the  inquisitors  Ha:reticce pravitatis.     I  answer,  that 
in   times  past  here   in  England,  as  in  other  nations,  this   order  of 
discipline  hath  beene  in  force  and  use  ;  although  now  some  part  of 
old   rigor  be  qualified  by  two   severall  statutes   made  in   the  fift  of 
Elizabeth,  and  xxxiii  of  Henrie  the  eight.     Nevertheles  the  estimation 
of  the  omnipotencie  of  their  words  and  charmes  seemeth   in   those 
statutes  to  be  somewhat  mainteined,  as  a  matter  hitherto  generallie 
received ;  and  not  yet  so  looked  into,  as  /  that  it  is  refuted  and  decided.    12. 
But  how  wiselie  so  ever  the  Parle/ment  house  hath  dealt  therin,  or  77. 
how  mercifuUie  soever  the  prince  beholdeth  the  cause  :   if  a  poore 
old  woman,  supposed  to  be  a  witch,  be  by  the   civill  or   canon   lawe 
convented  ;  I  doubt,  some  canon  will  be  found  in  force,  not  onelie  to 
give  scope  to  the  tormentor,  but  also  to  the  hangman,  to  exercise  their 
offices  upon  hir.     And  most  certaine  it  is,  that  in  what  point  soever 
anie  of  these  extremities,  which  I  shall  rehearse  unto  you,  be  mitigated, 
it  is  thorough  the  goodnesse  of  the  Queenes  Majestic,  and  hir  excellent 
magistrates  placed  among  us.     For  as  touching  the  opinion  of  our 
writers  therein  in  our  age  ;  yea  in  our  owne  countrie,  you  shall  see 
it  doth  not  onlie  agree  with  forren  crueltie,  but  surmounteth  it  farre. 
If  you  read  a  foolish  pamphlet  dedicated  to  the  lord  Darcy  by  W.  W   booke.'prin- 
1582.  you  shall  see  that  he  affirmeth,  that  all  those  tortures  are  farre   Do^^f'j"^"" 
too   light,  and  their  rigor  too  mild ;    and  that  in  that   respect  he 
impudentlie  exclameth  against  our  magistrates,  who  suffer  them  to  be 
but  hanged,  when  murtherers,  &  such  malefactors  be  so  used,  which 
deserve  not  the  hundreth  part  of  their  punishments.     But  if  you  will 
see  more  foUie  and  lewdnes  comprised  in  one  lewd  booke,  I  com- 
mend you  to  Ri.  Ga.  a  Windsor  man  ;  who  being  a  mad  man  hath 
written  according  to  his  frantike  humor  :   the  reading  wherof  may 
satisfie  a  wise  man,  how  mad  all  these  witchmoongers  dealings  be  in 
this  behalfe. 


Cliap.  9. 

The  discoverie 

The   ninth    Chapter. 

A  conclusion  of  the  first  booke,  wherein  is  fore-shewed  the  tyrannicall 
crtieltie  of  witchmongers  and  inquisitors,  with  a  request  to  the 
reader  to  peruse  the  same. 

jJND  bicause  it  may  appeare  unto  the  world  what  trecher- 
ous  and  faithlesse  dealing,  what  extreame  and  intollerable 
tyrannic,   what   grosse    and   fond  absurdities,  what    un- 
naturall  &  uncivil  discourtisie,  what  cancred  and  spiteful! 
malice,      what     outragious     and     barbarous     crueltie,    what    lewd 
18.    and    false    packing,    what    cunning    and   craftie   intercepting,    what 
bald  and  peevish  inter  /  pretations,  what  abhominable  and  divelish 
inventions,  and  what  flat   and  plaine  knaverie  is  practised    against 
these    old    women  ;    I    will    set    downe    the    whole    order    of    the 
inquisition,  to   the    everlasting,    inexcusable,   and    apparent    shame 
of  all  witchmoongers.     Neither  will  I  insert  anie  private   or  doubt- 
full    dealings    of  theirs  ;  or    such    as  they  can  either  denie    to   be 
usuall,  or  justlie  cavill  at  ;  but  such  as  are  published  and  renewed  in 
all  ages,  since  the  commensement  of  poperie,  established  by  lawes, 
practised  by  inquisitors,  privileged  by  princes,  commended  by  doctors, 
[*  ?  beleeved.]       confirmed  by  popes,  councels,  decrees,  and  canons  ;  and  finallie  *be 
left  of  all  witchmoongers  ;  to  wit,  by  such  as  attribute  to  old  women, 
and   such  like   creatures,  the   power   of  the   Creator.     I  praie  you 
therefore,  though  it  be   tedious   &   intollerable    (as   you    would   be 
heard  in  your  miserable  calamities)  so  heare  with  compassion,  their 
accusations,  examinations,  matters  given  in  evidence,  confessions, 
presumptions,  interrogatories,  conjurations,  cautions, 
crimes,  tortures  and  condemnations, 
devised   and   practised 
usuallie  against 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  2. 


\  The  second  Booke, 

The    first    Chapter. 

What  testimonies  ajtd  witiiesses  are  allowed  to  give  evidence  against 
repJited  luitches,  by  the  report  Sr*  allowance  of  the  inquisitors 
themselves,  aJid  such  as  are  speciall  writers  heerein. 

XCOMMUNICAT  persons,  partakers  of  the  fait,  infants, 
wicked  servants,  and  runnawaies  are  to  be  admitted  to 
beare  witnesse  against  their  dames  in  this  mater  of 
witchcraft  :  bicause  (saith  Bodin  the  champion  of  witch- 
moongers)  none  that  be  honest  are  able  to  detect  them.  Here- 
ikes  also  and  witches  shall  be  received  to  accuse,  but  not  to 
excuse  a  witch.  And  finallie,  the  testimonie  of  all  infamous  per- 
sons in  this  case  is  good  and  allowed.  Yea,  one  lewd  person  (saith 
Bodin)  may  be  received  to  accuse  and  condemne  a  thousand  suspected 
witches.  And  although  by  lawe,  a  capitall  enimie  may  be  challenged  ; 
yet  James  Sprenger,  and  Henrie  Institor,  (from  whom  Bodin,  and  all 
the  writers  that  ever  I  have  read,  doo  receive  their  light,  authorities 
and  arguments)  sale  (upon  this  point  of  lawe)  that  The  poore  frend- 
lesse  old  woman  must  proove,  that  hir  capitall  enimie  would  have 
illed  hir,  and  that  hee  hath  both  assalted  &  wounded  hir  ;  otherwise 
she  pleadeth  all  in  vaine.  If  the  judge  aske  hir,  whether  she  have 
anie  capitall  enimies  ;  and  she  rehearse  other,  and  forget  hir  accuser  5 
or  else  answer  that  he  was  hir  capitall  enimie,  but  now  she  hopeth  he 
is  not  so  :  such  a  one  is  nevertheles  admitted  for  a  witnes.  And 
though  by  lawe,  single  witnesses  are  not  admittable  ;  yet  if  one  depose 
she/  hath  bewitched  hir  cow  ;  another,  hir  sow  ;  and  the  third,  hir 
butter  :  these  saith  (saith  M.  Mai.  a.nd  Bodin)  are  no  single  witnesses  ; 
bicause  they  agree  that  she  is  a  witch. 

The    second    Chapter. 

The  order  of  examination  of  witches  by  the  inquistors. 

OMEN   suspected  to  be  witches,  after  their  apprehension 

may  not  be  suffered  to  go  home,  or  to  other  places,  to 

seek  suerties  :  for  then  (saith  Bodin)  the  people  would 

be   woorse    willing    to    accuse    them ;    for    feare    least 

returne  home,  they  worke  revenge  upon  them.      In  which 

Bodin  commendeth  much    the  Scottish  custome    and   order 

behalfe  :     where    (he    saith)    a    hollowe    peece    of   wood 

ig.  13. 

at  their 
in    this 

Mai.  Male/, 
quest.  5.  fa.  3. 
/.  Bod.  lib.  4. 
cap.  2,  de  da- 

Arch,  in  C.  al- 
in  §.  Iz.  super, 

I.Bod.  lib.  4. 
cap.  I.  de  dae- 

Mai.  Malef 
quest.  56. 
pa.  3,   &  quae. 
S,part.  3. 


Que.  7.   act  2. 



The  Scottish 
custOe  of  ac- 
cusing a  witch. 

1 6  Chap.  2.  The  discoverie 

or  a  chest  is  placed  in  the  church,  into  the  which  any  bodie  may 
freelie  cast  a  little  scroll  of  paper,  wherein  may  be  conteined  the 
name  of  the  witch,  the  time,  place,  and  fact,  &c.  And  the  same  chest 
being  locked  with  /  three  severall  locks,  is  opened  everie  fifteenth  daie 
by  three  inquisitors  or  officers  appointed  for  that  purpose  ;  which 
keepe  three  severall  kaies.  And  thus  the  accuser  need  not  be 
knowne,  nor  shamed  with  the  reproch  of  slander  or  malice  to  his 
poore  neighbour. 

Item,  there  must  be  great  persuasions  used  to  all  men,  women,  and 
children,  to  accuse  old  women  of  witchcraft. 

Item,  there  may  alwaies  be  promised  impunitie  and  favour  to 
witches,  that  confesse  and  detect  others  ;  and  for  the  contrarie,  there 
may  be  threatnings  and  violence  practised  and  used. 

Item,  the  little  children  of  witches,  which  will  not  confesse,  must  be 
attached  ;  who  (if  they  be  craftilie  handled  saith  Bodin)  will  confesse 
against  their  owne  mothers. 

Item,  witches  must  be  examined  as  suddenlie,  and  as  unawares  as 

is  possible  :  the  which  will  so  amaze  them,  that  they  will  confesse 

any  thing,  supposing  the  divell  hath  forsaken  them  ;  wheras  if  they 

21.    should  first  be  comitted  to  prison,  the  divell  would  tem/per  with  them, 

and  informe  them  what  to  doo. 

Item,  the  inquisitor,  judge,  or  examiner,  must  begin  with  small 
matters  first. 

Item,  they  must  be  examined,  whether  their  parents  were  witches 
or  no  :  for  witches  (as  these  Doctors  suppose)  come  by  propagation. 
/.  Bod.  lib.  dt  And  Bodm  setteth  downe  this  principle  in  witchcraft,  to  wit,  Si  saga 
L.^arenltes"'  '^'  sit  mater,  sic  etiam  estfilia:  howbeit  the  la  we  forbiddeth  it,  Ob  san- 
guinis reverentiam. 

Item,  the  examiner  must  looke  stedfastlie  upon  their  eies  :  for  they 
cannot  looke  directlie  upon  a  mans  face  (as  Bodin  affirmeth  in  one 
place,  although  in  another  he  saith,  that  they  kill  and  destrcie  both 
men  and  beasts  with  their  lookes.) 

Item,  she  must  be  examined  of  all  accusations,  presumptions,  and 
faults,  at  one  instant  ;  least  sathan  should  afterwards  dissuade  hir 
from  confession. 

Item,  a  witch  may  not  be  put  in  prison  alone,  least  the  divell  dis- 
suade hir  from  confession,  through  promises  of  her  indemnitie.  For 
(saith  Bodin)  some  that  have  beene  in  the  gaole  have  prooved  to  flie 
awaie,  as  they  were  woont  to  doo  when  they  met  with  Diana  and 
Minerva,  Gr>c.  :  and  so  brake  their  owne  necks  against  the  stone 

Item,  if  anie  denie  hir  owne  confession  made  without  torture,  she 

dt  testibus. 

of  Witchci-aft. 




is  neverthelesse  by  that  confession  to  be  condemned,  as  in  anie  other 

Item,  the  judges  must  seeme  to  put  on  a  pittifuU  countenance  and 
to  mone  them  ;  saieng,  that  It  was  not  they,  but  the  divell  that  com- 
mitted the  murther,  and  that  he  compelled  them  to  doo  it  ;  and  must 
make  them  beleeve  that  they  thinke  them  to  be  innocents. 

Item,  if  they  will  confesse  nothing  but  upon  the  racke  or  torture  ; 
their  apparell  must  be  changed,  and  everie  haire  in  their  bodie  must 
be  shaven  off  with  a  sharpe  razor. 

Item,  if  they  have  charmes  for  taciturnitie,  so  as  they  feele  not 
the  common  tortures,    and    therefore   confesse   nothing  :  then  some 
sharpe  instrument  must  be  thrust  betwixt  everie  naile  of  their  fingers 
and  toes  :  which  (as  /  Bodin  saith)  was  king  Childeberts  devise,  and  is    k.  chiideberts 
to  this  daie  of  all  others  the  most  effectuall.     For  by  meanes  of  that    ^^^eii  devise. 
extreme  paine,  they  will  (saith  he)  confesse  anie  /  thing.  22. 

Item,   Pmilus  Grillafidus,  being  an  old  dooer  in  these   matters,    p.  GrUlandus. 
wisheth   that  when  witches   sleepe,   and   feele   no   paine    upon    the 
torture,  Dojiiiiie  labia  mea  aperies  should  be  said,  and  so  (saith  he) 
both  the  torments  will  be  felt,  and  the  truth  will  be  uttered  :  Et  sic  ars 
debiditur  arte. 

Item,  Bodin  saith,  that  at  the  time  of  examination,  there  should 
be  a  semblance  of  great  a  doo,  to  the  terrifieing  of  the  witch  :  and 
that  a  number  of  instruments,  gieves,  manacles,  ropes,  halters,  fetters, 
&c.  be  prepared,  brought  foorth,  and  laid  before  the  examinate  :  and 
also  that  some  be  procured  to  make  a  most  horrible  and  lamentable 
crie,  in  the  place  of  torture,  as  though  he  or  she  were  upon  the  racke, 
or  in  the  tormentors  hands  :  so  as  the  examinate  may  heare  it  whiles 
she  is  examined,  before  she  hir  selfe  be  brought  into  the  prison  ;  and 
perhaps  (saith  he)  she  will  by  this  meanes  confesse  the  matter. 

Item,  there  must  be  subborned  some  craftie  spie,  that  may  seeme 
to  be  a  prisoner  with  hir  in  the  like  case  ;  who  perhaps  may  in  con- 
ference undermine  hir,  and  so  bewraie  and  discover  hir. 

Item,  if  she  will  not  yet  confesse,  she  must  be  told  that  she  is  detected, 
and  accused  by  other  of  hir  companions  ;  although  in  truth  there  be 
no  such  matter  :  and  so  perhaps  she  will  confesse,  the  rather  to  be 
revenged  upon  hir  adversaries  and  accusers. 

The    third    Chapter. 

Matters  of  evidence  against  witches. 

F  an  old  woman  threaten  or  touch  one  being  in  health, 

who  dieth    shortlie   after  ;    or   else  is   infected  with  the 

leprosie,  apoplexie,  or  anie  other  strange  disease  :  it  is 

(saith  Bodin  a  permanent  fact,   and  such  an  evidence, 


A  subtill 
and  dive- 
lish  devise 


Chap.  3. 

The  discoverie 

as    condemnation    or    death    must    insue,    without   further   proofe  ; 
if  anie  bodie   have  mistrusted  hir,  or  said   before  that   she  was  a 
23.    witch.  / 

Item,  if  anie  come  in,  or  depart  out  of  the  chamber  or  house,  the 
doores  being  shut  ;  it  is  an  apparent  and  sufficient  evidence  to  a 
witches  condemnation,  without  further  triall  :  which  thing  Bodin 
never  sawe.  If  he  can  shew  me  that  feat,  I  will  subscribe  to  his 
follie.  For  Christ  after  his  resurrection  used  the  same  :  not  as  a 
ridiculous  toie,  that  everie  witch  might  accomplish  ;  but  as  a  speciall 
miracle,  to  strengthen  the  faith  of  the  elect. 

Item,  if  a  woman  bewitch  anie  bodies  eies,  she  is  to  be  executed 
without  further  proofe. 

Item,  if  anie  inchant  or  bewitch  mens  beasts,  or  corne,  or  flie  in  the 
aire,  or  make  a  dog  speake,  or  cut  off  anie  mans  members,  and  unite 
them  againe  to  men  or  childi'ens  bodies  ;  it  is  sufficient  proofe  to  con- 

Item,  presumptions  and  conjectures  are  sufficient  proofes  against 
16.    witches.  / 

Item,  if  three  witnesses  doo  but  saie,  Such  a  woman  is  a  witch ; 
then  is  it  a  cleere  case  that  she  is  to  be  executed  with  death.  Which 
matter  Bodin  saith  is  not  onelie  certeine  by  the  canon  and  civill 
lawes,  but  by  the  opinion  of  pope  Innocent^  the  wisest  pope  (as  he 
saith)  that  ever  was. 

Item,  the  complaint  of  anie  one  man  of  credit  is  sufficient  to  bring 
a  poore  woman  to  the  racke  or  pullie. 

Item,  a  condemned  or  infamous  persons  testimonie  is  good  and 
allowable  in  matters  of  witchcraft. 

Item,  a  witch  is  not  to  be  delivered,  though  she  endure  all  the 
tortures,  and  confesse  nothing  ;  as  all  other  are  in  anie  criminall 

Item,  though  in  other  cases  the  depo.sitions  of  manie  women  at  one 
instant  are  disabled,  as  insufficient  in  lawe  ;  bicause  of  the  imbecillitie 
and  frailtie  of  their  nature  or  sex  :  yet  in  this  matter,  one  woman, 
though  she  be  a  partie,  either  accuser  or  accused,  and  be  also 
infamous  and  impudent  (for  such  are  Bodins  words)  yea  and  alreadie 
condemned  ;  she  may  neverthelesse  serve  to  accuse  and  condemne  a 

Item,  a  witnesse  uncited,  and  offering  himselfe  in  this  case  is  to  be 
heard,  and  in  none  other. 

Item,  a  capitall  enimie  (if  the  enimitie  be  pretended  to  growe  by 
24,  meanes  of  witchcraft)  may  object  against  a  witch  ;  and  none  /  exception 
is  to  be  had  or  made  against  him. 
Par.  Ill  L.  Item,  although  the  proofe  of  perjurie  may  put  backe  a  witnesse  in 

Bai  .Spineus, 
&•,  /.  Bod.  de 
damon.  lib.  2. 
cap.  2. 

L.  ubi  nume- 
rus  de  testibus. 
J.  Bod.  de  dae- 
mon, lib.  2. 
cap.  2. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  4 


all  other  causes  ;  yet  in  this,  a  perjured  person  is  a  good  and  lawful!  post.h-gatum 

9.  his,  de  us 


quibus  ut  indig. 
Alex.  cap.  72. 
L.  2.  (Jc. 

Item,  the  proctors  and  advocats  in  this  case  are  compelled  to  be 
witnesses  against  their  clients,  as  in  none  other  case  they  are  to  be 
constrained  there  unto. 

Item,  none  can  give  evidence  against  witches,  touching  their 
assemblies,  but  witches  onelie  :  bicause  (as  Bodin  saith)  none  other 
can  doo  it.     Howbeit,  AV.  Ga.  writeth,  that  he  came  to  the  God  speed,    in  his  foolish 

',,,,,,,,,.,,  ,        ,  ,         pamphlet  of  the 

and  with  his  sword  and  buckler  killed  the  divell  ;  or  at  the  least  he   execution  of 
wounded  him  so  sore,  that  he  made  him  stinke  of  brimstone.  Windsor  witches. 

Item,  Bodin  saith,  that  bicause  this  is  an  extraordinarie  matter  ; 
there  must  heerein  be  extraordinarie  dealing  :  and  all  maner  of  waies 
are  to  be  used,  direct  and  indirect. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

Confessions  of  witches,  whereby  they  are  condemned. 

|OME  witches  confesse  (saith  Bodin)  that  are  desirous  to 
die  ;  not  for  glorie,  but  for  despaire  :  bicause  they  are 
tormented  in  their  life  time.  But  these  may  not  be 
spared  (saith  he)  although  the  lawe  dooth  excuse  them. 

The  best  and  surest  confession  is  at  shrift,  to  hir  ghostlie  father. 

Item,  if  she  confesse  manie  things  that  are  false,  and  one  thing  that 
may  be  true  ;  she  is  to  be  taken  and  executed  upon  that  confession.  / 

Item,  she  is  not  so  guiltie  that  confesseth  a  falshood  or  lie,  and 
denieth  a  truth  ;  as  she  that  answereth  by  circumstance. 

Item,  an  equivocall  or  doubtfull  answer  is  taken  for  a  confession 
against  a  witch.  / 

Item,  Bodin  reporteth,  that  one  confessed  that  he  went  out,  or 
rather  up  into  the  aire,  and  was  transported  manie  miles  to  the  fairies 
danse,  onelie  bicause  he  would  spie  unto  what  place  his  wife  went  to 
bagging,  and  how  she  behaved  hir  selfe.  Whereupon  was  much  a  doo 
among  the  inquisitors  and  lawyers,  to  discusse  whether  he  should  be 
executed  with  his  wife  or  no.  But  it  was  concluded  that  he  must  die, 
bicause  he  bewraied  not  his  wife  :  the  which  he  forbare  to  doo, 
Propter  reverentiam  honoris  &^  families. 

Item,  if  a  woman  confesse  freelie  herein,  before  question  be  made; 
and  yet  afterward  denie  it  :  she  is  neverthelesse  to  be  burned. 

Item,  they  affirme  that  this  extremitie  is  herein  used,  bicause  not 
one  among  a  thousand  witches  is  detected.  And  yet  it  is  affirmed  by 
Sprefiger,  in  M.  Mai.  that  there  is  not  so  little  a  parish,  but  there  are 
manie  witches  knowne  to  be  therein. 

/.  Bod.  lib.  4. 
cap.  3. 

Is  there  anie 
probabilitie  that 
such  would  con- 
tinue witches  ? 
Idem  Ibid. 

Joan.  An.  ad 
speculat.  tit.  »  m 
de  litis  con- 
test, part.  2. 

L.  nan  alie- 
nuni  eodem. 


L.  de  (Flat.  5. 
nihil  eodem. 

I.  Bod.  de  doe- 
mono,  lib.  4. 
cap.  3. 


Chap.  5. 

The  discoverie 

I.  Bod.  dc  da- 
mono,  lib.  4 
cap.  4. 


I.  Bod.  de  dee- 
mono,  lib.  4. 
cap.  4. 

L.  decurionl 
de  pisnis. 
Panorm.  (sf 
Felin.  in  C. 
veniens.  i. 
de  testib.  parsi 
causa.  154. 
Lib.  4.  tiumero. 
12.  usq;  a  18. 


The    fift    Chapter. 

Presic/nptions,  whereby  witches  are  condemned. 

I F  anie  womans  child  chance  to  die  at  hir  hand,  so  as  no 
bodie  knoweth  how  ;  it  may  not  be  thought  or  presumed 
that  the  mother  killed  it,  except  she  be  supposed  a  witch  : 
and  in  that  case  it  is  otherwise,  for  she  must  upon  that 
presumption  be  executed  ;  except  she  can  proove  the  negative  or 

Item,  if  the  child  of  a  woman  that  is  suspected  to  be  a  witch,  be 
lacking  or  gone  from  hir  ;  it  is  to  be  presumed,  that  she  hath  sacrificed 
it  to  the  divell  :  except  she  can  proove  the  negati^ve  or  contrarie. 

Item,  though  in  other  persons,  certeine  points  of  their  confessions 
may  be  thought  erronious,  and  imputed  to  error  :  yet  (in  witches 
causes)  all  oversights,  imperfections,  and  escapes  must  /  be  adjudged 
impious  and  malicious,  and  tend  to  hir  confusion  and  condemnation. 

Item,  though  a  theefe  be  not  said  in  lawe  to  be  infamous  in  any 
other  matter  than  in  theft  ;  yet  a  witch  defamed  of  witchcraft  is  said 
to  be  defiled  with  all  maner  of  faults  and  infamies  universallie, 
though  she  were  not  condemned  ;  but  (as  I  said)  defamed  with  the 
name  of  a  witch.  For  rumors  and  reports  are  sufficient  (saith  Boditi) 
to  condemne  a  witch. 

Item,  if  any  man,  woman,  or  child  doo  saie,  that  such  a  one  is  a 
witch  ;  it  is  a  most  vehement  suspicion  (saith  Bodin)  and  sufficient 
to  bring  hir  to  the  racke  :  though  in  all  other  cases  it  be  directlie 
against  lawe. 

Item,  in  presumptions  and  suspicions  against  a  witch,  the  common 
brute  or  voice  of  the  people  cannot  erre. 

Item,  if  a  woman,  when  she  is  apprehended,  crie  out,  or  saie  ;  I 
am  undoone  ;  Save  my  life  ;  I  will  tell  you  how  the  matter  standeth, 
&c  :  she  is  thereupon  most  vehementlie  to  be  suspected  and  con- 
demned to  die.  / 

Item,  though  a  conjurer  be  not  to  be  condemned  for  curing  the 
diseased  by  vertue  of  his  art  :  yet  must  a  witch  die  for  the  like  case. 

Item,  the  behaviour,  looks,  becks,  and  countenance  of  a  woman, 
are  sufficient  signes,  whereby  to  presume  she  is  a  witch  :  for  alwais 
they  looke  downe  to  the  ground,  and  dare  not  looke  a  man  full  in 
the  face. 

Item,  if  their  parents  were  thought  to  be  witches,  then  is  it 
certeinlie  to  be  presumed  that  they  are  so  :  but  it  is  not  so  to  be 
thought  of  whoores. 

Item,  it   is  a  vehement  presumption  if  she  cannot  weepe,  at  the 

of  Witchcraft, 

Chap.  6. 


time  of  hir  examination  :  and  yet  Bodin  saith,  that  a  witch  may  shed 
three  drops  out  of  hir  right  eie. 

Item,  it  is  not  onelie  a  vehement  suspicion,  and  presumption,  but 
an  evident  proofe  of  a  witch,  if  any  man  or  beast  die  suddenhe  where 
she  hath  beene  seene  latelie  ;  although  hir  witching  stuffe  be  not 
found  or  espied. 

Item,  if  any  bodie  use  familiaritie  or  companie  with  a  witch 
convicted  ;  it  is  a  sufficient  presumption  against  that  person  to  be 
adjudged  a  witch.  / 

Item,  that  evidence  that  may  serve  to  bring  in  any  other  person  to 
examination,  may  serve  to  bring  a  witch  to  her  condemnation. 

Item,  herein  judgment  must  be  pronounced  &  executed  (as  Bodin 
saith)  without  order,  and  not  like  to  the  orderlie  proceeding  and  forme 
of  judgement  in  other  crimes. 

Item,  a  witch  may  not  be  brought  to  the  torture  suddenlie,  or  before 
long  examination,  least  she  go  awaie  scotfree  :  for  they  feele  no 
torments,  and  therefore  care  not  for  the  same  (as  Bodin  affirmeth.) 

Item,  little  children  may  be  had  to  the  torture  at  the  first  dash  ; 
but  so  may  it  not  be  doone  with  old  women  :  as  is  aforesaid. 

Item,  if  she  have  anie  privie  marke  under  hir  arme  pokes,  under 
hir  haire,  under  hir  lip,  or  in  hir  buttocke,  or  in  hir  privities  :  it  is  a 
presumption  sufficient  for  the  judge  to  proceed  and  give  sentence  of 
death  upon  hir. 

The  onlie  pitie  they  shew  to  a  poore  woman  in  this  case,  is ;  that 
though  she  be  accused  to  have  slaine  anie  bodie  with  her  inchant- 
ments  ;  yet  if  she  can  bring  foorth  the  partie  alive,  she  shall  not  be 
put  to  death.  Whereat  I  marvell,  in  as  much  as  they  can  bring  the 
divell  in  any  bodies  likenesse  and  representation. 

Item,  their  lawe  saith,  that  an  uncerteine  presumption  is  sufficient, 
when  a  certeine  presumption  faileth. 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

Particular  Interogatories  icsed  by  the  inquisitors  against  witches. 

NEEDE  not  stale  to  confute  such  parciall  and  horrible 
dealings,  being  so  apparentlie  impious,  and  full  of  tyrannic 
which  except  I  should  have  so  manifestlie  detected,  even 
with  their  owne  writings  and  assertions,  few  or  none 
would  have  beleeved.  But  for  brevities  sake  I  will  passe  over  the 
same  ;  supposing  that  the  ci  /  ting  of  such  absurdities  may  stand  for 
a  suffici  /ent  confutation  thereof.  Now  therefore  I  will  proceed  to  a 
more  particular  order  and  maner  of  examinations,  &c  :  used  by  the 
inquisitors,  and  allowed  for  the  most  part  throughout  all  nations. 


L.  5.  de  adult. 
§.  gl.  &r  Bart. 
c.  veiicrabihs 
de  electio.  (^c 
I.  Bod.  de  dce- 
viono.  lib.  4. 
cap.  4. 

Idem  Ibid. 

Cap.  pmterea 
cum  glos.  exit  a 
de  test. 
Panormii.  iu 
C.  vencr.  col. 
2.  codem,  (i/i . 



Chap.  7. 

The  discoverie 

Mai.  male/, 
super,  inter- 

Semca  in 

Mai.  malef. 
fart.  3.  queest 
15.  act.  10. 

Num.  II,  4. 

1.  Sam.  II,  4. 

2.  Sa.  15,23. 
Mat.  g.  &  13  & 
22.  &  24.  &  25. 
Luke  3.&C. 

Seneca  in 

Eccl.  35,  15. 


Triall  of  teares. 

Mai.  Malef. 
qua.  15.  pa.  3. 


First  the  witch  must  be  demanded,  why  she  touched  such  a  child, 
or  such  a  cow,  &c  :  and  afterward  the  same  child  or  cow  fell  sicke 
or  lame,  &c. 

Item,  why  hir  two  kine  give  more  milke  than  hir  neighbors.  And 
the  note  before  mentioned  is  heere  againe  set  downe,  to  be  speciallie 
observed  of  all  men  :  to  wit  ;  that  Though  a  witch  cannot  weepe,  yet 
she  may  speake  with  a  crieng  voice.  Which  assertion  of  weeping  is 
false,  and  contrarie  to  the  saieng  of  Seneca.,  Cato,  and  manie  others  ; 
which  affirme,  that  A  woman  weepeth  when  she  meaneth  most  deceipt : 
and  therefore  saith  AI.  Mai.  she  must  be  well  looked  unto,  otherwise 
she  will  put  spettle  privilie  upon  hir  cheeks,  and  seeme  to  weepe  : 
which  rule  also  Bodin  saith  is  infallible.  But  alas  that  teares  should 
be  thought  sufficient  to  excuse  or  condemne  in  so  great  a  cause,  and  so 
weightie  a  triall  !  I  am  sure  that  the  woorst  sort  of  the  children  of 
Israel  wept  bitterlie  :  yea,  if  there  were  any  witches  at  all  in  Israel, 
they  wept.  For  it  is  written,  that  all  the  children  of  Israel  wept. 
Finallie,  if  there  be  any  witches  in  hell,  I  am  sure  they  weepe  :  for 
there  is  weeping,  wailing,  and  gnashing  of  teeth. 

But  God  knoweth,  many  an  honest  matrone  cannot  sometimes  in 
the  heavines  of  her  heart  shed  teares  ;  the  which  oftentimes  are 
more  readie  and  common  with  craftie  queanes  and  strumpets,  than 
with  sober  women.  For  we  read  of  two  kinds  of  teares  in  a  womans 
eie,  the  one  of  true  greefe,  the  other  of  deceipt.  And  it  is  written, 
that  Dediscere  flet-e  faininam  est  mendaciiivi :  which  argueth,  that 
they  lie  which  say,  that  wicked  women  cannot  weepe.  But  let  these 
tormentors  take  heed,  that  the  teares  in  this  case  which  runne  downe  the 
widowes  cheeks,  with  their  crie  spoken  of  by  Jesus  Sirach,  be  not 
heard  above.  But  lo  what  learned,  godlie,  and  lawfull  meanes  these 
popish  inquisitors  have  invented  for  the  triall  of  true  or  false  teares.  / 

The   seventh    Chapter. 

The  inquisitors  triall  of  weeping  by  conjuration. 

CONJURE  thee  by  the  amorous  teares,  which  Jesus 
Christ  our  Saviour  shed  upon  the  crosse  for  the  salvation 
of  the  world  ;  and  by  the  most  earnest  and  burning  teares 
of  his  mother  the  most  glorious  virgine  Marie.,  sprinkled 
upon  his  wounds  late  in  the  evening ;  and  by  all  the  teares,  which 
everie  saint  and  elect  vessell  of  God  hath  powred  out  heere  in  the 
world,  and  from  whose  eies  he  hath  wiped  awaie  all  teares  ;  that  if 
thou  be  without  fault,  thou  maist  powre  downe  teares  aboundantlie  ; 
and  if  thou  be  guiltie,  that  thou  weepe  in  no  wise  :  In  the  name  of  the 
father,  of  the  sonne,  and  of  the  holie  ghost  ;  Amen.  And  note  (saith 
he)  that  the  more  you  conjure,  the  lesse  she  weepeth.  / 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  8.  23 

The   eight    Chapter. 

Certaine  cautions  agaitist  witches,  and  of  their  tortures  to  procure 

|UT  to  manifest  their  further  follies,  I  will  recite  some  of 
their  cautions,  which  are  published  by  the  ancient  inquisi- 
tors, for  perpetuall  lessons  to  their  successors  :  as  followeth. 
The  first  caution  is  that,  which  was  last  rehearsed  con- 
cerning weeping  ;  the  which  (say  they)  is  an  infallible  note. 

Secondlie,    the  judge   must  beware    she   touch    no   part   of    him, 
speciallie  of  his  bare  ;  and  that  he  alwaies  weare  about  his  necke 
conjured  salt,  palme,  herbes,  and  waxe  halowed  :  which  (say  they)  are    Ja.  Sprenger. 
not  onelie  approoved  to  be  good  by  the  witches  confessions  ;  but  /  also      '  '"  '  °^' 
by  the  use  of  the  Romish  church,  which  halloweth  them  onelie  for 
that  purpose. 

Item,  she  must  come  to  hir  arreignement  backward,  to  wit,  with  hir   Mai.  male/. 
taile  to  the  judges  face,  who  must  make  manie  crosses,  at  the  time  of  ^*'  ^'  ^"'^'  '^' 
hir  approching  to  the  barre.     And  least  we  should  condemne  that 
for  superstition,  they  prevent  us  with  a  figure,  and  tell  us,  that  the   proUpsis  or 
same  superstition  may  not  seeme  superstitious  unto  us.     But  this    P' inoccupation. 
resembleth  the  persuasion  of  a  theefe,  that  dissuadeth  his  sonne  from 
stealing ;  and  neverthelesse  telleth  him  that  he  may  picke  or  cut  a 
pursse,  and  rob  by  the  high  waie. 

One  other  caution  is,  that  she  must  be  shaven,  so  as  there  remaine 
not  one  haire  about  hir  :  for  sometimes  they  keepe  secrets  for  tacitur- 
nitie,  and  for  other  purposes  also  in  their  haire,  in  their  privities,  and 
betweene  their  skinne  and  their  flesh.     For  which  cause  I  marvell 
they  flea  them  not:  for  one  of  their  witches  would  not  burne,  being  in 
the   middest  of  the   flame,  as  M.  Mai.  reporteth  ;  untill  a  charme   3[al.  male/. 
written  in  a  little  scroll  was  espied  to  be  hidden  betweene  hir  skin 
and  flesh,  and  taken  awaie.     And  this  is  so  gravelie  and  faithfullie 
set  downe  by  the  inquisitors  themselves,  that  one  may  beleeve  it  if 
he  list,  though  indeed  it  be  a  verie  lie.     The  like  lie  citeth  Bodin,  of  John.  Bod. 
a  witch  that  could  not  be  strangled  by  the  executioner,  doo  what  he   ^.nno  14S5  a 
could.     But  it  is  most  true,  that  the  inquisitor  Cumamcs  in  one  yeare   i^nave  inquisi- 
did  shave  one  and  fourtie  poore  women,  and  burnt  them  all  when  he 
had  done. 

Another  caution  is,  that  at  the  time  and  place  of  torture,  the  hal-   Q.  id.detem- 
lowed  things  aforesaid,  with  the  seaven  words  spoken  on  the  crosse,  be  ^inurrog^  " 
hanged  about  the  witches  necke  ;  and  the  length  of  Christ  in  waxe  be 
knit  about  hir  bare  naked  bodie,  with  relikes  of  saints,  &c.     All  which 
stuffe  (saie  they)  will  so  worke  within  and  upon  them,  as  when  they 

24  Chap.  g.  The  discoverie 

are  racked  and  tortured,  they  can  hardlie  staie  or  hold  themselves 

from  confession.     In  which  case   I  doubt  not  but  that  pope,  which 

Blasphemous         blasphemed  Christ,  and  curssed  his  mother  for  a  pecocke,  and  curssed 

thafname'the         ^^"^  ^^'*-^^  great  despights  for  a  peece  of  porke,  with  lesse  compulsion 

third.  would  have  renounced  the  trinitie,  and  have  worshipped  the  divell 

1.    upon  his  knees./ 

Another  caution  is,  that  after  she  hath  beene  racked,  and  hath 

passed  over  all  tortures  devised  for  that  purpose  ;  and  after  that  she 

3^-    hath  beene  compelled  to  drinke  holie  water,  she  be  conveied  /  againe 

to  the  place  of  torture  :  and  that  in  the  middest  of  hir  torments,  hir 

accusations  be  read  unto  hir  ;  and  that  the  witnesses  (if  they  will)  be 

brought  face  to  face  unto  hir :  and  finallie,  that  she  be  asked,  whether 

Mai.  male/.  for  triall  of  hir  innocencie  she  will  have  judgement,  Candentis/errz, 

par.  3,  qua.     .      ^y^jf^jj  jg  .  '^q  carrie  a  certeine  weight  of  burning  iron  in  hir  bare  hand. 

But  that  may  not   (saie  they)  in  anie  wise  be  granted.     For   both 

Af.  Mai.  and  Bodin  also  affirme,  that  manie  things  may  be  promised, 

but  nothing  need   be  performed  :  for  whie,  they  have  authoritie  to 

promise,  but  no  commission  to  performe  the  same. 

Another  caution  is,  that  the  judge  take  heed,  that  when  she  once 
beginneth  to  confesse,  he  cut  not  off  hir  examination,  but  continue  it 
night  and  dale.  For  many-times,  whiles  they  go  to  dinner,  she  re- 
turneth  to  hir  vomit. 

Another  caution  is,  that  after  the  witch  hath  confessed  the  annoie- 
ing  of  men  and  beasts,  she  be  asked  how  long  she  hath  had  Incicbiis, 
when  she  renounced  the  faith,  and  made  the  reall  league,  and  what 
that  league  is,  &c.  And  this  is  indeede  the  cheefe  cause  of  all  their 
incredible  and  impossible  confessions  :  for  upon  the  racke,  when  they 
have  once  begunne  to  lie,  they  will  saie  what  the  tormentor  list. 

The  last  caution  is,  that  if  she  will  not  confesse,  she  be  had  to  some 
strong  castle  or  gaole.  And  after  certeine  dales,  the  gaolor  must 
make  hir  beleeve  he  goeth  foorth  into  some  farre  countrie  :  and  then 
some  of  hir  freends  must  come  in  to  hir,  and  promise  hir,  that  if  she 
will  confesse  to  them,  they  will  suffer  hir  to  escape  out  of  prison  : 
which  they  may  well  doo,  the  keeper  being  from  home.  And  this 
Mai.  male/.  waie  (saith  M.  Mai.)  hath  served,  when  all  other  meanes  have  failed, 

fl^r^^"^  '^  "^"^  ^^  '•^'^  place  it  may  not  be  omitted,  that  above  all  other  times, 

they  confesse  upon  fridaies.  Now  ssXih  James  Spretiger,  and  Henrie 
Instifor,  we  must  saie  all,  to  wit :  If  she  confesse  nothing,  she  should 
be  dismissed  by  lawe ;  and  yet  by  order  she  may  in  no  wise  be  bailed, 
but  must  be  put  into  close  prison,  and  there  be  talked  withall  by 
some  craftie  person  (those  are  the  words)  and  in  the  meane  while 
there  must  be  some  eves-dropers  with  pen  and  inke  behind  the  wall, 
to  hearken  and  note  what  she  confesseth  :  or  else  some  of  hir  old 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  9.  25 

companions  and  acquain  /tance  may  come  in  and  taike  with  hir  of  old  32. 
matters,  and  so  by  eves-droppers  be  also  bewraied  ;  so  as  there  shall 
be  no  end  of  torture  before  she  have  confessed  what  they  will./  22 

The    Ninth    Chapter. 

The  fifteene  crlvtes  laid  to  the  charge  of  witches,  by  witchmongers ; 
speciallie  by  Bodin,  in  Dccmonomania. 

HEY  denie  God,  and  all  religion.  I 

Aiistvere*  Then  let  them  die  therefore,  or  at  the  least    [*Rom.] 
be  used  like  infidels,  or  apostataes. 

They   cursse,   blaspheme,  and   provoke  God  with  all       2 

AnsTuere*  Then  let  them  have  the  law  expressed  in  Levit.  24.  and 
Deut.  13.  &  17. 

They  give  their  faith  to  the  divell,  and  they  worship  and  offer  sacri-       3 
fice  unto  him. 

Atts.  Let  such  also  be  judged  by  the  same  lawe. 

They  doo  solemnelie  vow  and  promise  all  their  progenie  unto  the      4 

Alls.  This  promise  proceedeth  from  an  unsound  mind,  and  is  not 
to  be  regarded  ;  bicause  they  cannot  performe  it,  neither  will  it  be 
prooved  true.  Howbeit,  if  it  be  done  by  anie  that  is  sound  of  mind, 
let  the  cursse  of  Jefemie.  32.  36.  light  upon  them,  to  wit,  the  sword, 
famine  and  pestilence. 

They  sacrifice  their  owne  children  to  the  divell  before  baptisme,       5 
holding  them  up  in  the  aire  unto  him,  and  then  thrust  a  needle  into 
their  braines. 

Afis.  If  this  be  true,  I  maintaine  them  not  herein :  but  there  is  a 
lawe  to  judge  them  by.  Howbeit,  it  is  so  contrarie  to  sense  and 
nature,  that  it  were  foUie  to  beleeve  it  ;  either  upon  Bodins  bare  word, 
or  else  upon  his  presumptions  ;  speciallie  when  so  small  commoditie 
and  so  great  danger  and  inconvenience  insueth  to  the  witches  thereby. 

They  burne  their  children  when  they  have  sacrificed  them.  5 

A71S.  Then  let  them  have  such  punishment,  as  they  that  offered 
their  children  unto  Moloch  :  Levit.  20.  But  these  be  meere  /  devises  33- 
of  witchmoongers  and  inquisitors,  that  with  extreame  tortures 
have  Avroong  such  confessions  from  them  ;  or  else  with  false  reports 
have  beelied  them  ;  or  by  flatterie  &  faire  words  and  promises  have 
woon  it  at  their  hands,  at  the  length. 

They  sweare  to  the  divell  to  bring  as  manie  into  that  societie  as      pr 
they  can. 

Alls.  This  is  false,  and  so  prooved  elsewhere. 



2.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

8  They  sweare  by  the  name  of  the  divell. 

Ans.  I  never  heard  anie  such  oth,  neither  have  we  warrant  to  kill 
them  that  so  doo  sweare ;  though  indeed  it  be  verie  lewd  and  impious. 

9  They  use  incestuous  adulterie  with  spirits. 

Ans.  This  is  a  stale  ridiculous  lie,  as  is  prooved  apparentlie 

10  They  boile  infants  (after  they  have  murthered  them  unbaptised) 
untill  their  flesh  be  made  potable. 

23.        A7ts.  This  is  untrue,  incredible,  and  impossible./ 

1 1  They  eate  the  ilesh  and  drinke  the  bloud  of  men  and  children 

Ans.  Then  are  they  kin  to  the  Anthropophagi  and  Canibals.  But 
I  beleeve  never  an  honest  man  in  Englatid  nor  in  France,  will  affirme 
that  he  hath  seene  any  of  these  persons,  that  are  said  to  be  witches, 
do  so  ;  if  they  shuld,  I  beleeve  it  would  poison  them. 

12  They  kill  men  with  poison. 

Ans.  Let  them  be  hanged  for  their  labour. 

13  They  kill  mens  cattell. 

Ans.  Then  let  an  action  of  trespasse  be  brought  against  them  for 
so  dooing. 

14  They  bewitch  mens  corne,  and  bring  hunger  and  barrennes  into 
the  countrie  ;  they  ride  and  flie  in  the  aire,  bring  stormes,  make 
tempests,  &c. 

Ans.  Then  will  I  worship  them  as  gods  ;  for  those  be  not  the 
works  of  man,  nor  yet  of  witch  :  as  I  have  elsewhere  prooved  at 

1 5  They  use  venerie  with  a  divell  called  Incubus,  even  when  they  lie 
in  bed  with  their  husbands,  and  have  children  by  them,  which  become 
the  best  witches. 

Ans.  This  is  the  last  lie,  verie  ridiculous,  and  confuted  by  me  else- 
34    where.  / 

The    tenth    Chapter. 

A  refutation  of  the  former  surmised  crimes  patched  togither  by 
Bodi7t,  and  the  onelie  waie  to  escape  the  inquisitors  hands. 

IF   more   ridiculous   or   abhominable   crimes   could   have 

beene  invented,  these  poore  women  (whose  cheefe  fault 

is  that  they  are  scolds)  should  have  beene  charged  with 


In  this  libell  you  dooe  see  is  conteined  all  that  witches  are  charged 

with  ;  and  all  that  also,  which  anie  witchmoonger  surmiseth,  or  in 

malice  imputeth  unto  witches  power  and  practise. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  10. 


Some  of  these  crimes  may  not  onelie  be  in  the  power  and  will  of  a 
witch,  but  may  be  accomplished  by  naturall  meanes  :  and  therefore  by 
them  the  matter  in  question  is  not  decided,  to  wit  ;  Whether  a  witch 
can  worke  woonders  supernaturallie  ?  For  manie  a  knave  and  whore 
dooth  more  commonlie  put  in  execution  those  lewd  actions,  than  such 
as  are  called  witches,  and  are  hanged  for  their  labour. 

Some  of  these  crimes  also  laid  unto  witches  charge,  are  by  me 
denied,  and  by  them  cannot  be  prooved  to  be  true,  or  committed  by 
any  one  witch.  Othersome  of  these  crimes  likewise  are  so  absurd, 
supernaturall,  and  impossible,  that  they  are  derided  almost  of  all  men, 
and  as  false,  fond,  and  fabulous  reports  condemned  :  insomuch  as  the 
very  witchmoongers  themselves  are  ashamed  to  heare  of  them. 

If  part  be  untrue,  why  may  not  the  residue  be  thought  false  1  For 
all  these  things  are  laid  to  their  charge  at  one  instant,  even  by  the 
greatest  doctors  and  patrones  of  the  sect  of  witchmongers,  producing 
as  manie  proofs  for  witches  supernaturall  and  impossible  actions,  as 
for  the  other.  So  as,  if  one  part  of  their  accusation  be  false,  the  other 
part  deserveth  no  credit.  If  all  be  true  that  is  alledged  of  their 
dooings,  why  should  we  beleeve  in  Christ,  bicause  of  his  miracles, 
when  a  witch  dooth  as  great/  wonders  as/  ever  he  did  1 

But  it  will  be  said  by  some  ;  As  for  those  absurd  and  popish 
writers,  they  are  not  in  all  their  allegations,  touching  these  matters,  to 
be  credited.  But  I  assure  you,  that  even  all  sorts  of  writers  heerein 
(for  the  most  part)  the  very  doctors  of  the  church  to  the  schoolemen, 
protestants  and  papists,  learned  and  unlearned,  poets  and  historio- 
graphers, Jewes,  Christians,  or  Gentiles  agree  in  these  impossible 
and  ridiculous  matters.  Yea  and  these  writers,  out  of  whome  I  gather 
most  absurdities,  are  of  the  best  credit  and  authoritie  of  all  writers  in 
this  matter.  The  reason  is,  bicause  it  was  never  throughlie  looked 
into  ;  but  everie  fable  credited  ;  and  the  word  (Witch)  named  so  often 
in  scripture. 

They  that  have  scene  further  of  the  inquisitors  orders  and  customes, 
sale  also  ;  that  There  is  no  waie  in  the  world  for  these  poore  women 
to  escape  the  inquisitors  hands,  and  so  consequentlie  burning  :  but  to 
gild  their  hands  with  monie,  wherb}^  oftentimes  they  take  pitie  upon 
them,    and   deliver   them,  as   sufficientlie   purged.      For   they   have 
authoritie  to  exchange  the  punishment  of  the  bodie  with  the  punish- 
ment of  the  pursse,  applieng  the  same  to  the  office  of  their  inquisi- 
tion ;  whereby  they  reape  such  profit,  as  a  number  of 
these  seelie  women  paie  them  yeerelie  pen- 
sions, to  the  end  they  may 
not  be  punished 

The  question 
or  matter  in 
controversie  : 
that  is  to  say, 
the  proposition 
or  theme. 



A  generall  errur. 

The  onelie  way 
for  witches  to 
avoid  the  in- 
quisitors handfc. 


2.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

The   eleventh    Chapter. 



A  bitter  invec- 
tive against  a 
cruell  inquisitor. 

The  opinion  of  Corjielius  Agrippa  concerning  witches,  of  his 
pleading  for  a  poore  woman  accused  of  witchcraft,  and  how  he 
convinced  the  inquisitors. 

\ORNELIUS  AGRIPPA  saith,  that  while  he  was  in 
Italic,  mania  inquisitors  in  the  dutchie  oiMillen  troubled 
divers  most  honest  &  noble  matrones,  privilie  wringing 
much  monie  from  them,  untill  their  knaverie  was 
detected.  Further  he  saith,  that  being  an  advocate  or  councellor 
in  the  Commonwelth  of  Maestriglit  in  Brabant,  he  had  sore 
contention  with  an  inquisitor,  who  through  un/just  accusations 
drew  a  poore  woman  of  thp  countrie  into  his  butcherie,  and  to  an  unfit 
place  ;  not  so  much  to  examine  hir,  as  to  torment  hir.  Whom  when 
C.  Agrippa  had  undertaken  to  defend,  declaring  that  in  the  things 
doone,  there  was  no  proofe,  no  signe  or  token  that  could  cause  hir  to 
be  tormented  ;  the  inquisitor  stoutlie  denieng  it,  said  ;  One  thing 
there  is,  which  is  proofe  and  matter  sufficient  :  for  hir  mother  was  in 
times  past  burned  for  a  witch.  Now  when  Agrippa  replied,  affirming 
that  this  article  was  impertinent,  and  ought  to  be  refused  by  the  judge, 
as  being  the  deed  of  another  ;  alledging  to  the  inquisitor,  reasons  and 
lawe  for  the  same  :  he  replied  againe  that  this  was  true,  bicause  they 
used  to  sacrifice  their  children  to  the  divell,  as  soone  as  they  were 
borne  ;  and  also  bicause  they  usuallie  conceived  by  spirits  transformed 
into  mans  shape,  and  that  thereby  witchcraft  was  naturallie  ingraffed 
into  this  child,  as  a  disease  that  commeth  by  inheritance.  / 

C.  Agrippa  replieng  against  the  inquisitors  foUie  &  superstitious 
blindnesse,  said  ;  O  thou  wicked  preest  !  Is  this  thy  divinitie.''  Doost 
thou  use  to  drawe  poore  guiltlesse  women  to  the  racke  by  these  forged 
devises  ?  Doost  thou  with  such  sentences  judge  others  to  be  heretikes, 
thou  being  a  more  heretike  than  either  Faiistiis  or  Donatus  ?  Be  it 
as  thou  saiest,  dooest  thou  not  frustrate  the  grace  of  Gods  ordinance  ; 
namelie  baptisme?  Are  the  words  in  baptisme  spoken  in  vaine?  Or 
shall  the  divell  rem.aine  in  the  child,  or  it  in  the  power  of  the  divell, 
being  there  and  then  consecrated  to  Christ  Jesus,  in  the  name  of  the 
father,  the  sonne,  and  the  holie  ghost  ?  And  if  thou  defend  their 
false  opinions,  which  affirm,  that  spirits  accompanieng  with  women, 
can  ingender  ;  yet  dotest  thou  more  than  anie  of  them,  which  never 
beleeved  that  anie  of  those  divels,  togither  with  their  stolne  seed,  doo 
put  part  of  that  their  seed  or  nature  into  the  creature.  But  though 
indeed  we  be  borne  the  children  of  the  divell  and  damnation,  yet 
in  baptisme,  through  grace  in  Christ,  sathan  is  cast  out,  and  we  are 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   12. 



John  Fo.x  in 
the  acts  and 

made  new  creatures  in  the  Lord,  from  whome  none  can  be  separated 
by  another  mans  deed.  The  inquisitor  being  hereat  offended, 
threatened  the  advocate  to  proceed  against  him,  as  a  supporter  of 
heretikes  or  witches  ;  yet  neverthelesse  he  ceased  not  to  defend  the 
seehe  woman,  and  through  the  power  of  the  lawe  he  deHvered  hir  / 
from  the  clawes  of  the  bloodie  moonke,  who  with  hir  accusers,  were 
condemned  in  a  great  summe  of  monie  to  the  charter  of  the  church 
oi  Mentz,  and  remained  infamous  after  that  time  almost  to  all  men. 

But  by  the  waie  you  must  understand,  that  this  was  but  a  petie  in- 
quisitor, and  had  not  so  large  a  commission  as  Ctunanns,  Sprenger, 
and  such  other  had  ;  nor  yet  as  the  Spanish  inquisitors  at  this  dale 
have.  For  these  will  admit  no  advocats  now  unto  the  poore  soules, 
except  the  tormentor  or  hangman  may  be  called  an  advocate.  You 
may  read  the  summe  of  this  inquisition  in  few  words  set  out  by  M. 
John  Fox  in  the  Acts  and  monuments.  For  witches  and  heretikes 
are  among  the  inquisitors  of  like  reputation  ;  saving  that  the  ex- 
tremitie  is  greater  against  witches,  bicause  through  their  simplicitie, 
they  may  the  more  boldlie  tyrannize  upon  them,  and  triumph  over 

The   twelfe    Chapter. 

What  the  feare  of  death  and  feeling  of  torments  may  force  one  to 
doo,  and  that  it  is  no  marvell  though  witches  condemne  the7nselves 
by  their  owne  confessions  so  tyrannicallie  extorted. 

E  that  readeth  the  ecclesiasticall  histories,  or  remembreth 
the  persecutions  in  Queene  Maries  time,  shall  find,  that 
manie  good  men  have  fallen  for  feare  of  persecution,  and 
returned  unto  the  Lord  againe.  What  marvell  then, 
though  a  poore  woman,  such  a  one  as  is  described  else-where,  & 
tormented  as  is  declared  in  these  latter  leaves,  be  made  to  confesse 
such  absurd  and  false  impossibilities ;  when  flesh  and  bloud  is 
unable  to  endure  such  triall  ?  Or  how  can  she  in  the  middest  of  such 
horrible  tortures/  and  torments,  promise  unto  hir  selfe  constancie  ;  or  34. 
forbeare  to  confesse  anie  thing  ?  Or  what  availeth  it  hir,  to  persevere 
in  the  deniall  of  such  matters,  as  are  laid  to  her  charge  unjustlie  ; 
when  on  the  one  side  there  is  never  anie  end  of  hir  torments  ;  on 
the  other  side,  /  if  she  continue  in  hir  assertion,  they  saie  she  hath  38. 
charmes  for  taciturnitie  or  silence  ? 

Peter  the  apostle  renounced,  curssed,  and  forsware  his  maister  and   Peters  apostacie 
our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  for  feare  of  a  wenches  manaces  ;  or  rather   of  Christ. 
at  a  question  demanded  by  hir,  wherein  he  was  not  so  circumvented, 
as  these  poore  witches  are,  which  be  not  examined  by  girles,  but  by 

30  2.  BooUe.  TJie  discoverie 

cunning  inquisitors,  who  having  the  spoile  of  their  goods,  and  bringing 
with  them  into  the  place  of  judgement  minds  to  maintaine  their  bloudie 
purpose,  spare  no  maner  of  aUurements,  thretenings,  nor  torments, 
untill  they  have  wroong  out  of  them  all  that,  which  either  maketh 
to  their  owne  desire,  or  serveth  to  the  others  destruction. 

Peter  (I  sale)  in  the  presence  of  his  Lord  and  maister  Christ,  who 
had  instructed  him  in  true  knowledge  manie  yeares,  being  fore- 
warned, not  passing  foure  or  five  houres  before,  and  having  made  a 
reall  league  and  a  faithfull  promise  to  the  contrarie,  without  anie 
other  compulsion  than  (as  hath  beene  said)  by  a  question  proposed  by 
a  girle,  against  his  conscience,  forsooke,  thrise  denied,  and  aban- 
doned his  said  maister :  and  yet  he  was  a  man  illuminated,  and  placed 
in  dignitie  aloft,  and  neerer  to  Christ  by  manie  degrees,  than  the 
witch,  whose  fall  could  not  be  so  great  as  Peters ;  bicause  she  never 
ascended  halfe  so  manie  steps.  A  pastors  declination  is  much  more 
abhominable  that  the  going  astraie  of  anie  of  his  sheepe  :  as  an  ambas- 
sadors conspiracie  is  more  odious  than  the  falshood  of  a  common 
person  :  or  as  a  capteins  treason  is  more  mischeevous  than  a  private 
soldiers  mutinie.  If  you  saie,  Peter  repented  ;  I  answer  that  the 
witch  dooth  so  likewise  sometimes,  and  I  see  not  in  that  case,  but 
mercie  may  be  emploied  upon  hir.  It  were  a  mightie  temptation  to  a 
seelie  old  woman,  that  a  visible  divell  (being  in  shape  so  ugglie,  as 
Danceus  in  DaucEus  and  Others  saie  he  is)  should  assalt  hir  in  maner  and  forme 

as  is  supposed,  or  rather  avowed  ;  speciallie  when  there  is  promise 
I  Cor.  10.  made  that  none  shall  be  tempted  above  their  strength.     The  poore 

old  witch  is  commonlie  unlearned,  unwarned,  and  unprovided  of 
counsell  and  freendship,  void  of  judgement  and  discretion  to  moderate 
hir  life  and  communication,  hir  kind  and  gender  more  weake  and 
fraile  than  the  masculine,  and  much  more  subject  to  melancholie  ;  hir 
39-  bringing  up  and  companie  is  so  base,  that  nothing  is  to  be  /  looked  for 
in  hir  speciallie  of  these  extraordinarie  qualities  ;  hir  age  also  is  com- 
monlie such,  as  maketh  her  decrepite,  which  is  a  disease  that  mooveth 
them  to  these  follies. 

Finallie,  Christ  did  cleerelie  remit  Peter,  though  his  offense  were 
committed  both  against  his  divine  and  humane  person  :  yea  after- 
wards he    did  put  him  in  trust  to  feed  his  sheepe,  and  shewed 
great  countenance,  freendship  and  love  unto  him.     And  there- 
fore I  see  not,  but  we  may  shew  compassion  upon 
these  poore  soules  ;  if  they  shew  themselves 
sorrowfull  for  their  misconceipts 
and  wicked  imagina- 

of  Witchcraft.  ciwp.  i.  3 1 

\  The  third  Booke. 

The    first    Chapter. 

40.    35. 

The  witches  bargaine  with  the  divell,  according  to  M.  Mai.  Bodin, 
Nider,  Dmiaus,  Pselltts,  Erasfies,  Hemingins,  Ct<jnantes,  Aqitifias, 
Bartholomaus  Spinetes,  ^'c. 

|HAT  which  in  this  matter  of  witchcraft  hath  abused  so 
mania,  and  seemeth  both  so  horrible  and  intollerable,  is 
a  plaine  bargaine,  that  (they  saie)  is  made  betwixt  the 
divell  and  the  witch.  And  manie  of  great  learning  con- 
ceive it  to  be  a  matter  of  truth,  and  in  their  writings  publish  it 
accordinglie  :  the  which  (by  Gods  grace)  shall  be  prooved  as  vaine 
and  false  as  the  rest. 

The   order    of  their  bargaine  or  profession  is  double  ;    the  one    The  double 
solemne  and  publike  ;  the  other  secret  and  private.     That    which   is   witches  with 
called  solemne  or  publike,  is  where  witches  come  togither  at  certeine   ''^®  ti'vell. 
assemblies,  at  the  times  prefixed,  and  doo  not  onelie  see  the  divell  in 
visible  forme  ;  but  confer  and  talke  familiarlie  with  him.     In  which 
conference  the  divell  exhorteth  them  to  observe  their  fidelitie  unto 
him,  promising  them  long  life  and  prosperitie.     Then  the  witches 
assembled,  commend  a  new  disciple  (whom  they  call  a  novice)  unto 
him  :  and  if  the  divell  find  that  yoong  witch  apt  and  forward  in  re- 
nunciation of  christian  faith,  in  despising  anie  of  the  seven  sacra- 
ments,  in   treading   upon   crosses,  in    spetting  at   the  time   of  the 
elevation,  in  breaking  their  fast  on  fasting  dales,  and  fasting  on  sun- 
daies  ;  then  the  divell  giveth  foorth  /  his  hand,  and  the  novice  joining   41. 
hand  in  hand  with  him,  promiseth  to  observe  and  keepe  all  the  divels 

This  done,  the  divell  beginneth  to  be  more  bold  with  hir,  telling 
hir  plainlie,  that  all  this  will  not  serve  his  turne ;  and  there- 
fore requireth  homage  at  hir  hands  :  yea  he  also  telleth  hir,  that  she  ■^^«^-  male/. 
must  grant  him  both  hir  bodie  and  soule  to  be  tormented  in  ever-  fesTionis.'^ 
lasting  fire  :  which  she  yeeldeth  unto.  Then  he  chargeth  hir,  to  pro- 
cure as  manie  men,  women,  and  children  also,  as  she  can,  to  enter 
into  this  societie.  Then  he  teacheth  them  to  make  ointments  of  the 
bowels  and  members  of  children,  whereby  they  ride  in  the  aire,  and 
accomplish  all  their  desires.  So  as,  if  there  be  anie  children  unbap- 
tised,  or  not  garded  with  the  signe  of  the  crosse,  or  orizons  ;  then  the 
witches  may  and  doo  catch  them  from  their  mothers  sides  in  the 
night,  or  out  of  their  cradles,  or  otherwise  kill  them  with  their  cere- 


3-  Booke. 

77/6'  discoverie 


Homage  of 
witches  to  the 


Bat.  Sfineus, 
cap.  I.  in  novo 
Mai.  male/. 

Idem  Ibid. 

I.  Bod.  de 
damon.  lib. 
cap.  4. 

monies  ;  and  after  buriall  steale  them  out  of  their  graves,  and  seeth 
them  in  a  caldron,  untill  their  flesh  be  made  potable.  Of  the  thickest 
whereof  they  make  ointments,  whereby  they  ride  in  the  aire  ;  but  the 
thinner  potion  they  put  into  flaggons,  whereof  whosoever  drinketh, 
observing  certeine  ceremonies,  immediatlie  becommeth  a  maister  or 
rather  a  mistresse  in  that  practise  and  facultie./ 

The    second    Chapter. 

The  order  of  the  witches  homage  done  {as  it  is  written  by  lewd 
inquisitors  and  peevish  witchmoongers)  to  the  divell  in  person ;  of 
their  songs  and  danses,  and  nanielie  of  La  volta,  and  of  other 
ceremonies,  also  of  their  exconrses. 

[jOMETIMES  their  homage  with  their  oth  and  bai'gaine 
is  received  for  a  certeine  terme  of  yeares  ;  sometimes  for 
ever.  Sometimes  it  consisteth  in  the  deniall  of  the 
whole  faith,  sometimes  in  part.  The  first  is,  when  the 
soule  is  absolutelie  yeelded  to  the  divell  and  hell  fier  :  the  other  is, 
when  they  have  but  bargained  [not]  to  /  observe  certeine  ceremonies 
and  statutes  of  the  church ;  as  to  conceale  faults  at  shrift,  to  fast  on 
sundaies,  &c.  And  this  is  doone  either  by  oth,  protestation  of  words, 
or  by  obligation  in  writing,  sometimes  sealed  with  wax,  sometimes 
signed  with  bloud,  sometimes  by  kissing  the  divels  bare  buttocks  ;  as 
did  a  Doctor  called  Edliti,  who  as  {Bodift  saith)  was  burned  for 

You  must  also  understand,  that  after  they  have  delicatlie  banketted 
with  the  divell  and  the  ladie  of  the  fairies  ;  and  have  eaten  up  a  fat 
oxe,  and  emptied  a  butt  of  malmesie,  and  a  binne  of  bread  at  some 
noble  mans  house,  in  the  dead  of  the  night,  nothing  is  missed  of  all 
this  in  the  morning.  For  the  ladie  Sibylla,  Minerva,  or  Diana  with 
a  golden  rod  striketh  the  vessell  &  the  binne,  and  they  are  fuUie  re- 
plenished againe.  Yea,  she  causeth  the  bullocks  bones  to  be  brought 
and  laid  togither  upon  the  hide,  and  lappeth  the  foure  ends  thereof 
togither,  laieng  her  golden  rod  thereon  ;  and  then  riseth  up  the  bul- 
locke  againe  in  his  former  estate  and  condition  :  and  yet  at  their 
returne  home  they  are  like  to  starve  for  hunger ;  as  Spineus  saith.  And 
this  must  be  an  infallible  rule,  that  everie  fortnight,  or  at  the  least  everie 
moneth,  each  witch  must  kill  one  child  at  the  least  for  hir  part. 

And  here  some  of  Monsieur  Bodins  lies  may  be  inserted,  who  saith 
that  at  these  magicall  assemblies,  the  witches  never  faile  to  danse  ; 
and  in  their  danse  they  sing  these  words  ;  Har  har,  divell  divell, 
danse  here,  danse  here,  plaie  here,  plaie  here.  Sabbath,  sabbath.  And 
whiles  they  sing  and  danse,  everie  one  hath  a  broome  in  hir  hand, 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  3.  33 

and  holdeth  it  up  aloft.  Item  he  saith,  that  these  night-walking  or 
rather  night-dansing  witches,  brought  out  of  Italie  into  France,  that 
danse,  which  is  called  La  volta. 

A  part  of  their  league  is,  to  scrape  off  the  oile,  which  is  received  Mai.  maUf. 
in  extreame  follie  (unction  I  should  have  said).  But  if  that  be  so 
dangerous,  they  which  socke  the  corps  had  neede  to  take  great 
care,  that  they  rub  not  off  the  oile,  which  divers  other  waies  may 
also  be  thrust  out  of  the  forehead  ;  and  then  I  perceive  all  the  ver- 
tue  thereof  is  gone,  and  farewell  it.  But  I  marvell  how  they 
take  on  to  preserve  the  water  powred  on  them  in  baptisme, 
which  I  take  to  be  largelie  of  as  great  force  as  the  other  ;  and  yet 
I  thinke  is  commonlie  wiped  and  washed  off,  within  foure  and 
twentie  houres  /  after  baptisme  :  but  this  agreeth  with  the  residue  /  ST.  43- 
of  their  follie. 

And  this  is  to  be  noted,  that  the  inquisitors  affirme,  that  during  the 
whole  time  of  the  witches  excourse,  the  divell  occupieth  the  roome 
and  place  of  the  witch,  in  so  perfect  a  similitude,  as  hir  husband  in 
his  bed,  neither  by  feeling,  speech,  nor  countenance  can  discerne  hir 
from  his  wife.  Yea  the  wife  departeth  out  of  her  husbands  armes 
insensiblie,  and  leaveth  the  divell  in  hir  roome  visiblie.  Wherein  their 
incredulitie  is  incredible,  who  will  have  a  verie  bodie  in  the  feined 
plaie,  and  a  phantasticall  bodie  in  the  true  bed  :  and  yet  (forsooth)  at 
the  name  of  Jesus,  or  at  the  signe  of  the  crosse,  all  these  bodihe  Griiiandus. 
witches  (they  saie)  vanish  awaie.  tofiraci'' 

The   third    Chapter. 

How  witches  are  staufiioned  to  appeere  before  the  divell,  of  their 
ridinff  in  the  aire,  of  their  accornpis,  of  their  co?ifere>ice  with  the 
divell,  of  his  supplies,  and  their  coiiference,  of  their  farewell  and 
sacrifices  :  according  to  DancBiis,  Pselliis,  Gr^c. 

'ITHERTO,  for  the  most  part,  are  the  verie  words 
conteined  in  M.  Mai.  or  Bodin,  or  rather  in  both  ; 
or  else  in  the  new  M.  Mai.  or  at  the  least-wise  of 
some  writer  or  other,  that  mainteineth  the  almightie 
power  of  witches.  But  Danceus  saith,  the  divell  oftentimes  in  Danausin 
the  likenes  of  a  sumner,  meeteth  them  at  markets  and  faires,  '^'■'^'■°&-  '^"■f"  4 
and  warneth  them  to  appeere  in  their  assemblies,  at  a  certeine 
houre  in  the  night,  that  he  may  understand  whom  they  have  slaine, 
and  how  they  have  profited.  If  they  be  lame,  he  saith  the  divell 
delivereth  them  a  staffe,  to  conveie  them  thither  invisiblie  through  the 
aire  ;  and  that  then  they  fall  a  dansing  and  singing  of  bawdie  songs, 
wherein  he  leadeth  the  danse  himselfe.  Which  danse,  and  other 
conferencies  being  ended,  he  supplieth  their  wants  of  powders  and 



3.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Ide.  Ibidem. 

Idem,  in  dia- 
log, cap.  3. 

Card.  lib.  de 
var.  rerum. 
15.  cap.%0. 

Mai.  Male/, 
par.  2.  quoe.y. 
cap.  i. 

roots  to  intoxicate  withall ;  and  giveth  to  everie  novice  a  marke,  either 
with  his  teeth  or  with  his  clawes,  and  so  they  kisse  the  divels  bare 

44.  buttocks,  and  depart :  /  not  forgetting  every  daie  afterwards  to  offer  to 
him,  dogs,  cats,  hens,  or  bloud  of  their  ovvne.  And  all  this  dooth 
DancEUS  report  as  a  troth,  and  as  it  were  upon  his  owne  knowledge. 
And  yet  else-where  he  saieth  ;  In  these  matters  theydoo  but  dreame, 
and  doo  not  those  things  indeed,  which  they  confesse  through  their 
distemperature,  growing  of  their  melancholike  humor  :  and  there- 
fore (saith  he)  these  things,  which  they  report  of  themselves,  are  but 
meere  illusions. 

Psellus  addeth  hereunto,  that  certeine  magicall  heretikes,  to  wit  ; 
the  Eutychians,  assemblie  themselves  everie  good  fridaie  at  night  ; 
and  putting  out  the  candles,  doo  commit  incestuous  adulterie,  the 
father  with  the  daughter,  the  sister  with  the  brother,  and  the  sonne 
with  the  mother ;  and  the  ninth  moneth  they  returne  and  are  delivered ; 
and  cutting  their  children  in  peeces,  fill  their  pots  with  their  bloud  ; 
then  burne  they  the  carcases,  and  mingle  the  ashes  therewith,  and  so 
preserve  the  same  for  magicall  purposes.     Cardamis  writeth  (though 

38.  in  mine  opinion  not  verie/  probablie)  that  these  excourses,  dansmgs, 
&c  :  had  their  beginning  from  certeine  heretikes  called  Dukinz,  vvho 
devised  those  feasts  of  Bacchus  which  are  named  Orgi'a,  whereunto 
these  kind  of  people  openlie  assembled  ;  and  beginning  with  riot, 
ended  with  this  follie.  Which  feasts  being  prohibited,  they  never- 
theles  hanted  them  secretlie  ;  and  when  they  rould  not  doo  so,  then 
did  they  it  in  cogitation  onelie,  and  even  to  this  daie  (saith  he)  there 
remaineth  a  certeine  image  or  resemblance  thereof  among  our 
melancholike  women. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

That  there  cajt  no  reall  league  be  made  with  the  divell  the  first 
author  of  the  league.^  and  the  iveake  proof es  of  the  adi'crsaries  for 
the  same. 

If  the  league  be  untrue,  as  are  the  residue  of  their 
confessions,  the  witchmongers  arguments  fall  to  the 
ground  :  for  all  the  writers  herein  hold  this  bargaine 
for  certeine,  good,  and  granted,  and  as  their  onelie 
43.  maxime.  But  surelie  the/  indentures,  conteining  those  covenants, 
are  sealed  with  butter  ;  and  the  labels  are  but  babies.  What  firme 
bargaine  can  be  made  betwixt  a  carnall  bodie  and  a  spirituall }  Let 
any  wise  or  honest  man  tell  me,  that  either  hath  beene  a  partie,  or  a 
witnesse  ;  and  I  will  beleeve  him.  But  by  what  authoritie,  proofe,  or 
testimonie ;  and  upon  what  ground  all  this  geere  standeth,  if  you  read 
M.  Mai.  you  shall  find,  to  the  shame  of  the  reporters  (who  doo  so 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  5.  35 

varie  in  their  tales,  and  are  at  such  contrarietie  :)  and  to  the  reproch 
of  the  beleevers  of  such  absurd  lies. 

For  the  beginning  of  the  credit  hereof,  resteth  upon  the  confession  Upon  what 
of  a  baggage  yoong  fellow  condemned  to  be  burnt  for  witchcraft ;  feaUeague 
who  said  to  the   inquisitors,  of  likelihood  to  prolong  his  life,  (if  at    'o<^&^  50 

.  ,  ^  ,  .         growe  in 

leastwise  the  storie  be  true,  which  is  taken  out  of  Nider ;)   If  I  wist   credit. 
(quoth  he)  that  I  might  obteine  pardon,  1  would  discover  all  that  I 
knowe  of  witchcraft.      The   which   condition   being   accepted,   and 
pardon  promised  (partlie  in  hope  thereof,  and  partlie  to  be  rid  of  his 
wife)  he  said  as  followeth. 

The  novice  or  yoong  disciple  goeth  to  some  church,  togither  with 
the  mistresse  of  that  profession,  upon  a  sundaie  morning,  before  the 
conjuration  of  holie  water,  &^  there  the  said  novice  renounceth  the 
faith,  promiseth  obedience  in  observing,  or  rather  omitting  of 
ceremonies  in  meetings,  and  such  other  follies ;  and  finallie,  that 
they  doo  homage  to  their  yoong  maister  the  divell,  as  they  covenanted. 

But  this  is  notable  in  that  storie,  that  this  yoong  witch,  doubting 
that  his  wives  examination  would  bewraie  his  knaverie,  told  the 
inquisitor;  that  in  truth  his  wife  was  guiltie  as  well  as  he,  but  she  will 
never,  I  am  sure  (quoth  he)  though  she  should  be  burned  a  thousand 
times,  confesse  any  of  these  circumstances. 

And  this  is  in  no  wise  to  be  forgotten,  that  notwithstanding  his 
contrition,  his  confession,  and  his  accusation  of  his  owne  wife  (con- 
trarie  to  the  inquisitors  /  promise  and  oth)  he  and  his  wife  were  both  39- 
burned  at  a  stake,  being  the  first  discoverers  of  this  notable  league, 
whereupon  the  fable  of  witchcraft  is  mainteined ;  and  whereby  such 
other  confessions  have  beene  from  the  like  persons,  since  that  time, 
extorted  and  augmented.  / 

The    fift    Chapter.  46- 

Of  the  private  league,  a  notable  tale  of  Bodins  concerning  a  French 
ladie,  with  a  confutation. 

HE  maner  of  their  private  league  is  said  to  be,   when    Themanerof 
the    divell    invisible,    and    sometimes    visible,    in    the   J^agurwUh^  * 
middest   of   the    people    talketh    with    them  privatelie;    the  divell. 
promising,    that    if  they   will   followe   his    counsell,  he 
will  supplie  all    their    necessities,    and    make    all    their    endevors 
prosperous  :  and  so  beginneth  with  small  matters  :  whereunto  they 
consent  privilie,  and  come  not  into  the  fairies  assemblie. 

And  in  this  case  (mee  thinks)  the  divell  sometimes,  in  such  exlernall 
or  corporall  shape,  should  meete  with  some  that  would  not  consent  to 
his  motions  (except  you  will  saie  he  knoweth  their  cogitations)  and  so 


3-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

J.  Bod.  lib.  2. 
de  dcemono- 
mania.  cap.  4. 

This  agreeth 
not  with  their 
that  saie,  this 
is  onlie  done    .^ 
by  vertue  of  ^1  ' 
the  legue  ;  nor 
yet  to  them 
that  referre  it 
unto  words: 
quoth  nota. 


C.  Agrippa. 
cap.  51. 

should  be  bewraied.  They  also  (except  they  were  idiots)  would  spie 
him,  and  forsake  him  for  breach  of  covenants.  But  these  bargaines, 
and  these  assemblies  doo  all  the  writers  hereupon  mainteine  :  and 
Bodin  confirmeth  them  with  a  hundred  and  odd  lies  ;  among  the 
number  whereof  I  will  (for  diverse  causes)  recite  one. 

There  was  (saith  he)  a  noble  Gentlewoman  at  Lions,  that  being  in 
bed  with  a  lover  of  hirs,  suddenlie  in  the  night  arose  up,  and  lighted 
a  candle  :  which  when  she  had  done,  she  tooke  a  box  of  ointment, 
wherewith  she  annointed  her  bodie  ;  and  after  a  few  words  spoken, 
she  was  carried  awaie.  Hir  bedfellow  seeing  the  order  hereof,  lept 
out  of  his  bed,  tooke  the  candle  in  his  hand,  and  sought  for  the  ladie 
round  about  the  chamber,  and  in  everie  corner  thereof  But  though 
he  could  not  find  hir,  yet  did  he  find  hir  box  of  ointment  :  and  being 
desirous  to  know  the  vertue  thereof,  besmeered  himselfe  therewith, 
even  as  he  perceived  hir  to  have  done  before.  And  although  he  were 
not  so  superstitious,  as  to  use  anie  words  to  helpe  him  forward  in  his 
busines,  yet  by  the  vertue  of  that  ointment  (saith  Bodhi)  he  was 
immediatlie  conveied  /  to  Lorreine,  into  the  assemblie  of  witches. 
Which  when  he  sawe,  he  was  abashed,  and  said  ;  In  the  name  of 
God,  what  make  I  heere?  And  upon  those  words  the  whole  assemblie 
vanished  awaie,  and  left  him  there  alone  starke  naked  ;  and  so  was 
he  faine  to  returne  to  Lions.  But  he  had  so  good  a  conscience  (for 
you  may  perceive  by  the  first  part  of  the  historie,  he  was  a  verie 
honest  man)  that  he  accused  his  true  lover  for  a  witch,  and  caused 
hir  to  be  burned.  But  as  for  his  adulterie,  neither  M.  Mai.  nor  Bodin 
doo  once  so  much  as  speake  in  the  dispraise  thereof 

It  appeareth  throughout  all  Bodins  booke,  that  he  is  sore  offended 
with   Cornelius  Agrippa,  and  the  rather  (as  I   suppose)  bicause  the 
said  C.  Agrippa  recanted  that  which  Bodin  mainteineth,  who  thinketh 
he  could  worke  wonders  by  magicke,  and  speciallie  by  his  blacke  dog. 
It  should  seeme  he/  had  prettie  skill  in  the  art  of  divination.     For 
though  he  wrote  before  Bodin  mania  a  yeare,  yet  uttereth  he  these 
words   in   his   booke  De   vanitate  scientiarum :  A  certeine  French 
protonotarie  (saith  he)  a  lewd  fellow  and  a  coosener,  hath  written 
a    certeine    fable    or    miracle    done    at    Lions,    &^c.      What 
Bodin  is,  I  knowe  not,  otherwise  than  by  report  ;  but 
I  am  certeine  this  his  tale  is  a  fond  fable :  and 
Bodin  saith  it  was  performed  at  Lions  ; 
and  this  man  (as    I  under- 
stand) by  profession 
is    a    civill 

of  VVitcJicraJt. 

Ch;ip.  6. 


The   sixt    Chapter. 

A  disproof e  of  their  assemblies,  and  of  their  bargaifte. 

Tatianus        4' 
co?iira  Grcpcos. 

HAT  the  joining  of  hands  with  the  divell,  the  kissing 
of  his  bare  buttocks,  and  his  scratching  and  biting 
of  them,  are  absurd  lies  ;  everie  one  having  the  gift 
of  reason  may  plainHe  perceive  :  in  so  much  as  it 
is  manifest  unto  us  by  the  word  of  God,  that  a  spirit  hath  no 
flesh,  bones,  nor  sinewes,  whereof  hands,  buttocks,  claws,  teeth, 
and  lips  doo  consist.  For  admit  that  the  constitution  of  a  divels 
bodie  (as  Tatian  and  other  afifirme)  consisteth  in  spirituall  /  congela- 
tions, as  of  fier  and  aire  ;  yet  it  cannot  be  perceived  of  mortall 
creatures.  What  credible  witnesse  is  there  brought  at  anie  time,  of 
this  their  corporall,  visible,  and  incredible  bargaine  ;  saving  the  con- 
fession of  some  person  diseased  both  in  bodie  and  mind,  wilfuUie 
made,  or  injuriouslie  constrained?  It  is  mervell  that  no  penitent 
witch  that  forsaketh  hir  trade,  confesseth  not  these  things  without 
compulsion.  Mee  thinketh  their  covenant  made  at  baptisme  with 
God,  before  good  witnesses,  sanctified  with  the  word,  confirmed  with 
his  promises,  and  established  with  his  sacraments,  should  be  of  more 
force  than  that  which  they  make  with  the  divell,  which  no  bodie 
seeth  or  knoweth.  For  God  deceiveth  none,  with  whom  he  bargaineth ; 
neither  dooth  he  mocke  or  disappoint  them,  although  he  danse  not 
among  them. 

Their  oth,  to  procure  into  their  league  and  fellowship  as  manie  as 
they  can  (whereby  everie  one  witch,  as  Bodin  afifirmeth,  augmenteth 
the    number   of    fiftie)    bewraieth    greatlie    their    indirect    dealing. 
Hereof  I  have  made  triall,  as  also  of  the  residue  of  their  coosening   The  author 
devices ;  and  have  beene  with  the  best,  or  rather  the  woorst  of  them,    u^^n^d* 
to  see  what  might   be   gathered   out  of  their   counsels;    and  have   proofeand 
cunninglie  treated  with  them  thereabouts  :    and  further,  have  sent 
certeine  old  persons  to  indent  with  them,  to  be  admitted  into  their 
societie.      But   as  well  by  their  excuses   and   delaies,  as  by  other 
circumstances,  I  have  tried  and  found  all  their  trade   to  be  meere 

I  praie  you  what  bargaine  have  they  made  with  the  divell,  that 
with  their  angrie  lookes  beewitch  lambs,  children,  &c?  Is  it  not 
confessed,  that  it  is  naturall,  though  it  be  a  lie?  What  bargaine 
maketh  the  soothsaier,  which  hath  his  severall  kinds  of  witchcraft 
and  divination  expressed  in  the  scripture?  Or  is  it  not  granted  that 
they  make  none?  How  chanceth  it  that  we  heare  not  of  this  bargaine 
in  the  scriptures?/ 


3.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

49-  41. 

compulsorie  ; 
as  by  Hispani- 
call  inquisition  : 
Looke  Mai. 
malef.  6^  Jo. 
persuasorie  ;  as 
by  flatterie  : 
Looke  Bry. 
ZJarr/i"  against 
Ursu.  Kempe. 

John.  Bod. 
Mai.  Malef. 

L.  absent,  de 
poenis.  cq^ 

L.  2.  cumglos. 
de  Us,  qui  ante 
sentent.  mor- 
tui  sunt,  sibi 
necem  con- 
sciscentes . 

The   seventh    Chapter, 

A  confutation  of  the  objection  concerning  witches  confessions. 

It  is  confessed  (saie  some  by  the  waie  of  objection) 
even  of  these  women  themselves,  that  they  doo  these 
and  such  other  horrible  things,  as  deserveth  death, 
with  all  extremitie,  &c.  Whereunto  I  answer,  that 
whosoever  consideratelie  beholdeth  their  confessions,  shall  perceive 
all  to  be  vaine,  idle,  false,  inconstant,  and  of  no  weight;  except  their 
contempt  and  ignorance  in  religion  :  which  is  rather  the  fault  of  the 
negligent  pastor,  than  of  the  simple  woman. 

First,  if  their  confession  be  made  by  compulsion,  of  force  or 
authoritie,  or  by  persuasion,  and  under  colour  of  freendship,  it  is  not 
to  be  regarded  ;  bicause  the  extremitie  of  threts  and  tortures  pro- 
vokes it  ;  or  the  qualitie  of  faire  words  and  allurements  constraines  it. 
If  it  be  voluntarie,  manie  circumstances  must  be  considered,  to  wit ; 
whether  she  appeach  not  hir  selfe  to  overthrow  hir  neighbour,  which 
manie  times  happeneth  through  their  cankered  and  malicious  melan- 
cholike  humor  :  then  ;  whether  in  that  same  melancholike  mood 
and  frentike  humor,  she  desire  not  the  abridgment  of  hir  owne  dales. 
Which  thing  Aristotle  saith  dooth  oftentimes  happen  unto  persons 
subject  to  melancholike  passions  :  and  (as  Bodin  and  Sprenger  saie) 
to  these  old  women  called  witches,  which  manie  times  (as  they 
affirme)  refuse  to  live  ;  thretning  the  judges,  that  if  they  may  not  be 
burned,  they  will  laie  hands  upon  themselves,  and  so  make  them 
guiltie  of  their  damnation. 

I  my  selfe  have  knowne,  that  where  such  a  one  could  not  prevaile, 
to  be  accepted  as  a  sufficient  witnesse  against  himselfe,  he  presentlie 
went  and  threw  himselfe  into  a  pond  of  water,  where  he  was  drowned. 
But  the  lawe  saith  ;  Volenti  niori  non  est  habenda  fides,  that  is  ; 
His  word  is  not  to  be  credited  that  is  desirous  to/  die.  Also  some- 
times (as  else-where  I  have  prooved)  they  confesse  that  whereof  they 
were  never  guiltie  ;  supposing  that  they  did  that  which  they  did  not, 
by  meanes  of  certeine  circumstances.  And  as  they  sometimes  con- 
fesse impossibilities,  as  that  they  flie  in  the  aire,  transubstantiate 
themselves,  raise  tempests,  transfer  or  remoove  corne,  &c  :  so  doo 
they  also  (I  saie)  confesse  voluntarilie,  that  which  no  man  could 
proove,  and  that  which  no  man  would  ghesse,  nor  yet  beleeve,  except 
he  were  as  mad  as  they ;  so  as  they  bring  death  wilfullie  upon  them- 
selves :  which  argueth  an  unsound  mind. 

If  they  confesse  that,  which  hath  beene  indeed  committed  by  them, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   7. 


as  poisoning,  or  anie  other  kind  of  murther,  which  falleth  into  the 
power  of  such  persons  to  accomplish  ;  I  stand  not  to  defend  their 
cause.  Howbeit,  I  would  wish  that  even  in  that  case  there  be  not  too 
rash  credit  given,  nor  too  hastie  proceedings  used  against  them:  but 
that  the  causes,  properties,  and  circumstances  of  everie  thing  be  dulie 
considered,  and  diligentlie  examined.  For  you  shall  understand,  that 
as  sometimes  they  confesse  they  have  murthered  their  neighbours  with 
a  wish,  sometimes  with  a  word,  sometimes  with  a  looke,  &c:  so  they 
confesse,  that  with/  the  delivering  of  an  apple,  or  some  such  thing,  to 
a  woman  with  child,  they  have  killed  the  child  in  the  mothers  wombe, 
when  nothing  was  added  thereunto,  which  naturallie  could  be  noisome 
or  hurtfull. 

In  like  maner  they  confesse,  that  with  a  touch  of  their  bare  hand, 
they  sometimes  kill  a  man  being  in  perfect  health  and  strength  of 
bodie  ;  when  all  his  garments  are  betwixt  their  hand  and  his  flesh. 

But  if  this  their  confession  be  examined  by  divinitie,  philosophie, 
physicke,  lawe  or  conscience,  it  will  be  found  false  and  insufficient. 
First,  for   that  the  working  of  miracles    is    ceased.     Secondlie,    no 
reason  can  be  yeelded  for  a  thing  so  farre  beyond  all  reason.     Third- 
lie,  no  receipt  can  be  of  such  efficacie,  as  when  the  same  is  touched 
with  a  bare  hand,  from  whence  the  veines  have  passage  through  the 
bodie  unto  the  hart,  it  should  not  annoie  the  poisoner  ;  and  yet  reteine 
vertue  and  force  enough,  to  pearse  through  so  manie  garments  and 
'the  verie  flesh  incurablie,  to  the  place  of  death  in  another  person. 
Cid  ari^ionefito  (saith  Bodin)  nescio  qtdd  /  7'esponderi  possit.     Fourth- 
lie,  no  lawe   will    admit    such  a  confession,  as   yeeldeth    unto   im- 
possibilities,  against  the  which  there  is  never  any  lawe  provided  ; 
otherwise  it  would  not  serve  a  mans  turne,  to  plead  and  proove  that 
he  was  at  Berwicke  that  dale,  that  he  is  accused  to  have  doone  a 
murther  in  Cajihirdurie  ;  for  it  might  be  said  he  was  conveied  to 
Berwicke,  and  backe  againe  by  inchantment.  Fiftlie,  he  is  not  by  con- 
science  to  be   executed,    which    hath   no    sound    mind    nor 
perfect  judgement.      And   yet   forsooth  we  read,    that 
one  mother  Stile  did  kill  one  Saddocke  with  a  touch 
on  the  shoulder,  for  not  keeping  promise  with 
hir  for  an  old  cloake,  to  make  hir  a 
safegard  ;  and  that  she  was 
hanged   for    hir 

in  witches 


J.  Bod.  de 
deejnon.  lib, 
2.t-ap.  8. 


In  a  little  pam- 
phlet of  the 
acts  and  hang- 
ing of  foure 
witches,  in 
anno.  1579. 


3.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

John  Bod.     52 

L.  si  per  crro- 
rem  jurisd, 
omni  cum 

C.  sed  hoc  d. 

defubl.  be. 

Bal.  ill  leg. 

The   eight    Chapter. 

IVliat  follie  it  were  for  witches  to  enter  into  such  desperate  per  ill, 
and  to  endure  such  intolterable  tortures  for  no  gaine  or  commodi- 
tie,  and  how  it  comes  to  passe  that  witches  are  overthrowne  by 
their  cofifessions. 

LAS  !  if  they  were  so  subtill,  as  witchmongers  make 
them  to  be,  they  would  espie  that  it  were  meere  follie 
for  them,  not  onelie  to  make  a  bargaine  with  the 
divell  to  throw  their  soules  into  hell  fire,  but  their 
bodies  to  the  tortures  of  temporall  fire  and  death,  for  the  accom- 
plishment of  nothing  that  might  benefit  themselves  at  all :  but 
they  would  at  the  leastwise  indent  with  the  divell,  both  to  inrich 
them,  and  also  to  enoble  them  ;  and  finallie  to  endue  them  with  all 
worldlie  felicitie  and  pleasure  :  which  is  furthest  from  them  of  all 
other.  Yea,  if  they  were  sensible,  they  would  saie  to  the  divell ;  Whie 
should  I  hearken  to  you,  when  you  will  deceive  me  ?  Did  you  not 
promise  my  neighbour  mother  Button  to  save  and  rescue  hir  ;  and  yet 
lo  she  is  hanged  1  Surelie  this  would  appose  the  divell  verie  sore. 
And  it  is  a  woonder,  that  none,  from  the  beginning  of  the  world,  till 
this  dale,  hath  made  this  and  such  like  objections,  whereto  the  divell 
could  never  /  make  answer.  But  were  it  not  more  madnes  for  them 
to  serve  the  divell,  under  these  conditions  ;  and  yet  to  endure/ 
43.  whippings  with  iron  rods  at  the  divels  hands  ;  which  (as  the  witch- 
mongers  write)  are  so  set  on,  that  the  print  of  the  lashes  remaine 
upon  the  witches  bodie  ever  after,  even  so  long  as  she  hath  a  daie 
to  live  ? 

But  these  old  women  being  daunted  with  authoritie,  circumvented 
with  guile,  constrained  by  force,  compelled  by  feare,  induced  by  error, 
and  deceived  by  ignorance,  doo  fall  into  such  rash  credulitie,  and  so 
are  brought  unto  these  absurd  confessions.  Whose  error  of  mind  and 
blindnes  of  will  dependeth  upon  the  disease  and  infirmitie  of  nature  : 
and  therefore  their  actions  in  that  case  are  the  more  to  be  borne 
withall  ;  bicause  they,  being  destitute  of  reason,  can  have  no  consent. 
For,  Delictum  sine  consensu  non  potest  coinmitti.,  neque  injuria 
sine  animo  iitjuriandi  ;  that  is.  There  can  be  no  sinne  without 
consent,  nor  injurie  committed  without  a  mind  to  doo  wrong. 
Yet  the  lawe  saith  further,  that  A  purpose  reteined  in  mind,  dooth 
nothing  to  the  privat  or  publike  hurt  of  anie  man ;  and  much  more 
that  an  impossible  purpose  is  unpunishable.  Sance  mentis  voluntas., 
volimtas  rei  possibilis  est ;  A  sound  mind  willeth  nothing  but  that 
which  is  possible. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  9.  41 

The    ninth    Chapter. 

How  melancholie  abuseih  old  wojnen,  and  of  the  effects  thereof  by 
sundrie  examples. 

F  anie  man  advisedlie  marke  their  words,  actions,  cogi- 
tations, and  gestures,  he  shall  perceive  that  melancholie 
abounding  in  their  head,  and  occupieng  their  braine,  hath 
deprived  or  rather  depraved  their  judgements,  and  all  their 
senses:  I  meane  not  of  coosening  witches,  but  of  poore  melancholike 
women,  which  are  themselves  deceived.  For  you  shall  understand,  that 
the  force  which  melancholie  hath,  and  the  effects  that  it  worketh  in  the 
bodie  of  a  man,  or  rather  of  a  woman,  are  almost  incredible.  For  as 
some  of  these  melancholike  persons  imagine,  they  are  witches/  and  by  53' 
witchcraft  can  worke  woonders,  and  doo  what  they  list  :  so  doo  other, 
troubled  with  this  disease,  imagine  manie  strange,  incredible,  and  im- 
possible things.  Some,  that  they  are  monarchs  and  princes,  and  that  all 
other  men  are  their  subjects  :  some,  that  they  are  brute  beasts  :  some, 
that  they  be  urinals  or  earthen  pots,  greatlie  fearing  to  be  broken :  some, 
that  everie  one  that  meeteth  them,  will  conveie  them  to  the  gallowes  ; 
and  yet  in  the  end  hang  themselves.  One  thought,  that  Atlas,  whome 
the  poets  feigne  to  hold  up  heaven  with  his  shoulders,  would  be 
wearie,  and  let  the  skie  fall  upon  him  :  another  would  spend  a 
whole  dale  upon  a  stage,  imagining  that  he  both  heard  and  saw 
interludes,  and  therewith  made  himselfe  great  sport.  One  Theophilus 
a  physician,  otherwise  sound  inough  of  mind  (as  it  is  said)  imagined 
that  he  heard  and  sawe  musicians  continuallie  plaieng  on  instruments, 
in  a  certeine  place  of  his  house.  0's\t.Bessus,  that  had  killed  his  father, 
was  notablie  detected  ;  by  imagining  that  a  swallowe  upraided  him 
therewith  :  so  as  he  himselfe  thereby  revealed  the  murther. 

But  the  notablest  example  heereof  is,  of  one  that  was  in  great   44. 
perplexi/tie,  imagining  that  his  nose  was  as  big  as  a  house  ;  insomuch    Of  one  that 
as  no  freend  nor  physician  could  deliver  him  from  this  conceipt,  nor   meSlfchoiie 
yet  either  ease  his  greefe,  or  satisfie  his  fansie  in  that  behalfe  :  till  at   ^^s  induced 

•'  .  .  to  thinke  that 

the  last,  a  physician  more  expert  in  this  humor  than  the  rest,  used  he  had  a  nose 
this  devise  following.  First,  when  he  was  to  come  in  at  the  chamber  house, X-c. 
doore  being  wide  open,  he  suddenlie  staled  and  withdrew  himselfe  ; 
so  as  he  would  not  in  any  wise  approch  neerer  than  the  doore.  The 
melancholike  person  musing  heereat,  asked  him  the  cause  why  he  so 
demeaned  himselfe  ?  Who  answered  him  in  this  maner  :  Sir,  your 
nose  is  so  great,  that  I  can  hardlie  enter  into  your  chamber  but  I 
shall  touch  it,  and  consequentlie  hurt  it.  Lo  (quoth  he)  this  is  the 
man  that  must  doo  me  good ;  the  residue  of  my  freends  flatter  me, 



^.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 


Danceus  in 
dialog,  cap.  3. 

J.  Baptist.  P, 
N.  cap.  2. 
Card,  de 
var.  rerum. 
prestigiis  dce- 
rno7ium,  is'c, 
A  ristotle. 

John.  Bod. 



and  would  hide  mine  infirmitie  from  me.  Well  (said  the  physician)  I 
will  cure  you,  but  you  must  be  content  to  indure  a  little  paine  in  the 
dressing  :  which  he  promised  patientlie  to  susteine,  and  conceived 
certeine  hope  of  his  recoverie.  Then  entred  the  physician  into  the 
chamber,  creeping  close  by  the  walles,  seeming  to  feare  the  touching 
and  hurting  of  his  nose.  Then  did  he  blindfold  him,  which  /  being 
doone,  he  caught  him  by  the  nose  with  a  paire  of  pinsors,  and  threw 
downe  into  a  tub,  which  he  had  placed  before  his  patient,  a  great 
quantitie  of  bloud,  with  manie  peeces  of  bullocks  livers,  which  he  had 
conveied  into  the  chamber,  whilest  the  others  eies  were  bound  up, 
and  then  gave  him  libertie  to  see  and  behold  the  same.  He  having 
doone  thus  againe  twoo  or  three  times,  the  melancholike  humor  was 
so  qualified,  that  the  mans  mind  being  satisfied,  his  greefe  was  eased, 
and  his  disease  cured. 

Thrasibuhis,  otherwise  called  Thrasilhis,  being  sore  oppressed 
with  this  melancholike  humor,  imagined,  that  all  the  ships,  which 
arrived  at  port  Pyrcetts,  were  his  :  insomuch  as  he  would  number 
them,  and  command  the  mariners  to  lanch,  &c  :  triumphing  at  their 
safe  returnes,  and  moorning  for  their  misfortunes.  The  Italian,  whom 
we  called  here  in  England,  the  Monarch,  was  possessed  with  the  like 
spirit  or  conceipt.  Danceus  him.selfe  reporteth,  that  he  sawe  one,  that 
affirmed  constantlie  that  he  was  a  cocke  ;  and  saith  that  through 
melancholie,  such  were  alienated  from  themselves. 

Now,  if  the  fansie  of  a  melancholike  person  may  be  occupied  in 
causes  which  are  both  false  and  impossible  ;  why  should  an  old  witch 
be  thought  free  from  such  fantasies,  who  (as  the  learned  philosophers 
and  physicians  sale)  upon  the  stopping  of  their  monethlie  melancholike 
flux  or  issue  of  bloud,  in  their  age  must  needs  increase  therein,  as 
(through  their  weaknesse  both  of  bodie  and  braine)  the  aptest 
persons  to  meete  with  such  melancholike  imaginations  :  with  whome 
their  imaginations  remaine,  even  when  their  senses  are  gone.  "Which 
Bodin  laboureth  to  disproove,  therein  shewing  himselfe  as  good  a 
physician,  as  else-where  a  divine. 

But  if  they  may  imagine,  that  they  can  transforme  their  owne 
bodies,  which  neverthelesse  remaineth  in  the  former  shape  :  how 
much  more  credible  is  it,  that  they  may  falselie  suppose  they  can  hurt 
and  infeeble  other  mens  bodies  ;  or  which  is  lesse,  hinder  the  com- 
ming  of  butter  ?  &c.  But  what  is  it  that  they  will  not  imagine,  and 
consequentlie  confesse  that  they  can  doo ;  speciallie  being  so  earnestlie 
persuaded  thereunto,  so  sorelie  tor/mented,  so  craftilie  examined, 
with  such  promises  of  favour,  as  wherby  they  imagine,  that  they  shall 
ever  after  live  in  great  credit  &  welth  ?  &c. 

If  you  read  the  executions  doone  upon  witches,  either  in  times/  past 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  lo.  41 

in  other  countries,  or  latelie  in  this  land  ;  you  shall  see  such  im- 
possibilities confessed,  as  none,  having  his  right  wits,  will  beleeve. 
Among  other  like  false  confessions,  we  read  that  there  was  a  witch  Ant.Houin. 
confessed  at  the  time  of  hir  death  or  execution,  that  she  had  raised 
all  the  tempests,  and  procured  all  the  frosts  and  hard  weather  that 
happened  in  the  winter  1565  :  and  that  manie  grave  and  wise  men 
beleeved  hir. 

The  tenth  Chapter. 

That  voluniarie  confessions  may  be  unirulie  made,  to  the  tindooing 
of  the  confessors,  and  of  the  strana^e  operation  of  melattcholie, 
prooved  by  a  familiar  and  late  example. 

UT  that  it  may  appeere,  that  even  voluntarie  confession 
(in  this  case)  may  be  untrulie  made,  though  it  tend  to  the 
destruction  of  the  confessor  ;  and  that  melancholic  may 
nioove  imaginations  to  that  effect  :  I  will  cite  a  notable 
instance  concerning  this  matter,  the  parties  themselves  being  yet 
alive,  and  dwelling  in  the  parish  of  Sellenge  in  Kent,  and  the  matter 
not  long  sithence  in  this  sort  performed. 

One  Ade  Davie,  the  wife  of  Simon  Davie,  husbandman,  being  a  Kentish 
reputed  a  right  honest  bodie,  and  being  of  good  parentage,  grew  Lte'Lcident. 
suddenlie  (as  hir  husband  informed  mee,  and  as  it  is  well  knovvne  in 
these  parts)  to  be  somewhat  pensive  and  more  sad  than  in  times  past. 
Which  thing  though  it  greeved  him,  yet  he  was  loth  to  make  it  so 
appeere,  as  either  his  wife  might  be  troubled  or  discontented  there- 
with, or  his  neighbours  informed  thereof ;  least  ill  husbandrie  should 
be  laid  to  his  charge  (which  in  these  quarters  is  much  abhorred.)  But 
when  she  grew  from  pensivenes,  to  some  perturbation  of  mind  ;  so  as 
hir  accustomed  rest  began  in  the  night  season  to  be  withdrawne  from 
hir,  through  sighing  and  secret  lamentation  ;  and  that,  not  without 
teares,  hee  could  not  but  demand  the  cause  of  hir  conceipt  and  extra- 
ordina/rie  moorning.  But  although  at  that  time  she  covered  the  same,  ^6. 
acknowledging  nothing  to  be  amisse  with  hir  :  soone  after  notwith- 
standing she  fell  downe  before  him  on  hir  knees,  desiring  him  to 
forgive  hir,  for  she  had  greevouslie  offended  (as  she  said)  both  God 
&  him.  Hir  poore  husband  being  abashed  at  this  hir  behaviour, 
comforted  hir,  as  he  could  ;  asking  hir  the  cause  of  hir  trouble  & 
greefe  :  who  told  him,  that  she  had,  (contrarie  to  Gods  lawe)  &  to 
the  offense  of  all  good  christians,  to  the  injurie  of  him,  &  speciallie  to 
the  losse  of  hir  owne  soule,  bargained  and  given  hir  soule  to  the 
divell,  to  be  delivered  unto  him  within  short  space.  Whereunto  hir  didstian 
husband  answered,  saieng  ;  Wife,  be  of  good  cheere,  this  thybargaine   comfort  of  the 

•  J  1        r  rr  r  ,  ,  .,,.-,■  ,     husbad  to 

IS  void  and  of  none  effect  :  for  thou  hast  sold  that  which  is  none  of  his  wiio. 


3.  Boolie. 

The  discoverie 

thine  to  sell ;  sith  it  belongeth  to  Christ,  who  hath  bought  it,  and 
''deerelie  paid  for  it,  even  with  his  bloud,  which  he  shed  upon  the 
46.  crosse  ;  so  as  the  divell  hath  no  interest  in  thee./  After  this,  with  like 
submission,  teares,  and  penitence,  she  said  unto  him  ;  Oh  husband,  I 
have  yet^^mmitted  another  fault,  and  doone  you  more  injurie  :  for  I 
have  bewitched  you  and  your  children.  Be  content  (quoth  he)  by  the 
grace  of  God,  Jesus  Christ  shall  unwitch  us  :  for  none  evill  can 
happen  to  them  that  feare  God. 

And  (as  trulie  as  the  Lord  liveth)  this  was  the  tenor  of  his  words 
unto  me,  which  I  knowe  is  true,  as  proceeding  from  unfeigned  lips, 
and  from  one  that  feareth  God.  Now  when  the  time  approched  that 
the  divell  should  come,  and  take  possession  of  the  woman,  according 
to  his  bargaine,  he  watched  and  praied  earnestlie,  and  caused  his  wife 
to  read  psalmes  and  praiers  for  mercie  at  Gods  hands :  and  suddenlie 
about  midnight,  there  was  a  great  rumbling  beelowe  under  his 
chamber  windowe,  which  amazed  them  exceedinglie.  For  they  con- 
ceived, that  the  divell  was  beelowe,  though  he  had  no  power  to  come 
up,  bicause  of  their  fervent  praiers. 
Confutation.  He  that  noteth  this  womans  first  and  second  confession,  freelie  and 

voluntarilie  made,  how  everie  thing  concurred  that  might  serve  to 
adde  credit  thereunto,  and  yeeld  matter  for  hir  condemnation,  would 
not  thinke,  but  that  if  Bodhi  were  foreman  of  hir  inquest,  he  would 
crie  ;  Guiltie  :  &  would  hasten  execution  upon  hir  ;  who  would  have 
57-  said  as  much  before  any  judge  in/  the  world,  if  she  had  beene 
examined  ;  and  have  confessed  no  lesse,  if  she  had  beene  arraigned 
therupon.  But  God  knoweth,  she  was  innocent  of  anie  these  crimes : 
howbeit  she  was  brought  lowe  and  pressed  downe  with  the  weight  of 
this  humor,  so  as  both  hir  rest  and  sleepe  were  taken  awaie  from  hir  ; 
&  hir  fansies  troubled  and  disquieted  with  despaire,  and  such  other 
cogitations  as  grew  by  occasion  thereof.  And  yet  I  beleeve,  if  any 
mishap  had  insued  to  hir  husband,  or  his  children  ;  few  witchmongers 
would  have  judged  otherwise,  but  that  she  had  bewitched  them.  And 
she  (for  hir  part)  so  constanthe  persuaded  hir  selfe  to  be  a  witch, 
that  she  judged  hir  selfe  worthie  of  death  ;  insomuch  as  being  reteined 
in  hir  chamber,  she  sawe  not  anie  one  carrieng  a  faggot  to  the  fier, 
but  she  would  saie  it  was  to  make  a  fier  to  burne  hir  for  witcherie. 
But  God  knoweth  she  had  bewitched  none,  neither  insued  there  anie 
hurt  unto  anie,  by  hir  imagination,  but  unto  hir  selfe. 

And  as  for  the  rumbling,  it  was  by  occasion  of  a  sheepe,  which  was 
flawed,  and  hoong  by  the  wals,  so  as  a  dog  came  and  devoured  it  ; 
whereby  grew  the  noise  which  I  before  mentioned  :  and  she  being 
now  recovered,  remaineth  a  right  honest  woman,  far  from  such 
impietie,  and  ashamed  of  hir  imaginations,  which  she  perceiveth  to 
have  growne  through  melancholie. 

A  comicall 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  II. 


The  eleventh  Chapter. 

The  strange  and  divers  effects  of  melancholie,  and  how  the  same 
humor  abounding  in  witches,  or  rather  old  women,  Jilleth  them 
fill  of  tnervellous  imagitiations,  and  that  their  confessions  are 
not  to  be  credited. 

H.  Card,  de 
var.  rerum, 
cap.  8. 

Jo.  IVierus     47. 
de  prcest.  lib.  6. 
cap.  8. 


H.  Card.  lib.  8 
dc  var.  rer. 

fUT  in  truth,  this  melancholike  humor  (as  the  best  phy- 
sicians affirme)  is  the  cause  of  all  their  strange,  impossible, 
and  incredible  confessions  :/  which  are  so  fond,  that  I 
woonder  how  anie  man  can  be  abused  thereby.  Howbeit, 
these  affections,  though  they  appeare  in  the  mind  of  man,  yet  are  they 
bred  in  the  bodie,  and  proceed  from  this  humor,  which  is  the  verie 
dregs  of  bloud,  nourishing  and  feeding  those  places,  from  whence  pro- 
ceed feares,  co/gitations,  superstitions,  fastings,  labours,  and  such  like. 

This  maketh  sufferance  of  torments,  and  (as  some  sale)  foresight  of  Aristotle  de 
things  to  come,  and  preserveth  health,  as  being  cold  and  drie  :  it  ^<-'""''°- 
maketh  men  subject  to  leanenesse,  and  to  the  quartane  ague.  They 
that  are  vexed  therewith,  are  destroiers  of  themselves,  stout  to  suffer 
injuries,  fearefuU  to  offer  violence  ;  except  the  humor  be  hot.  They 
learne  strange  toongs  with  small  Industrie  (as  Aristotle  and  others 

If  our  witches  phantasies  were  not  corrupted,  nor  their  wils  con- 
founded with  this  humor,  they  would  not  so  voluntarilie  and  readilie 
confesse  that  which  calleth  their  life  in  question  ;  whereof  they  could 
never  otherwise  be  convicted.  J.  Bodin  with  his  lawyers  physicke 
reasoneth  contrarilie  ;  as  though  melancholic  were  furthest  of  all 
from  those  old  women,  whom  we  call  witches  :  deriding  the  most 
famous  and  noble  physician  _/(?/;«  JVier  for  his  opinion  in  that  behalfe. 
But  bicause  I  am  no  physician,  I  will  set  a  physician  to  him ;  namelie 
Erastus,  who  hath  these  words,  to  wit,  that  These  witches,  through 
their  corrupt  phantasie  abounding  with  melancholike  humors,  by 
reason  of  their  old  age,  doo  dreame  and  imagine  they  hurt  those 
things  which  they  neither  could  nor  doo  hurt ;  and  so  thinke  they 
knowe  an  art,  which  they  neither  have  learned  nor  yet  understand. 

But  whie  should  there  be  more  credit  given  to  witches,  when  they 
saie  they  have  made  a  reall  bargaine  with  the  divell,  killed  a  cow,  be- 
witched butter,  infeebled  a  child,  forespoken  hir  neighbour,  &c  :  than 
when  she  confesseth  that  she  transubstantiateth  hir  selfe,  maketh  it 
raine  or  haile,  flieth  in  the  aire,  goeth  invisible,  transferreth  corne  in 
the  grasse  from  one  field  to  another?  &:c.  If  you  thinke  that  in  the 
one  their  confessions  be  sound,  whie  should  you  saie  that  they  are 
corrupt  in  the  other  ;  the  confession  of  all  these  things  being  made  at 

Jo.  Bod.  con- 
tra Jo.  Wie- 


August,  lib. 
cle  Tritiit.  3. 
Idem,  de  ci- 
vil.  Dei. 
Clemens,  re- 
eogn.  3 
Jo.  Wienis. 
Pamfia-  Cs'c 


3.  Booke. 

The  discove7'ie 


one  instant,  and  affirmed  with  like  constancie,  or  rather  audacitie  ? 
But  you  see  the  one  to  be  impossible,  and  therefore  you  thinke 
thereby,  that  their  confessions  are  vaine  and  false.  The  other  you 
thinke  may  be  doone,  and  see  them  confesse  it,  and  therefore  you 
conclude,  A  posse  ad  esse  ;  as  being  persuaded  it  is  so,  bicause  you 
thinke  it  may  be  so.  But  I  sale,  both  with  the  divines,  and 
philosophers,  that  that  which  is  imagined  of  witchcraft,  hath  no  truth 
of  action  ;  or  being  besides  their  ima/gination,  the  which  (for  the  most 
part)  is  occupied  in  false  causes.  For  whosoever  desireth  to  bring  to 
passe  an  impossible  thing,  hath  a  vaine,  an  idle,  and  a  childish  per- 
suasion, bred  by  an  unsound  mind  :  for  Sana  vientis  vobaitas, 
vohcntas  rei possibilis  est ;  The  will  of  a  sound  mind,  is  the  desire 
of  a  possible  thing./ 

The  twelfe  Chapter. 

An  objection. 

The  resolution. 

A  forged 


A  confutation  of  witches  confessions,  especiallie  concerning  their 


[UT  it  is  objected,  that  witches  confesse  they  renounce  the 
faith,  and  as  their  confession  must  be  true  (or  else  they 
would  not  make  it :)  so  must  their  fault  be  worthie  of 
\  death,  or  else  they  should  not  be  executed.  Whereunto 
I  answer  as  before  ;  that  their  confessions  are  extorted,  or  else  pro- 
ceed from  an  unsound  mind.  Yea  I  saie  further,  that  we  our  selves, 
which  are  sound  of  mind,  and  yet  seeke  anie  other  waie  of  salvation 
than  Christ  Jesus,  or  breake  his  commandements,  or  walke  not  in 
his  steps  with  a  livelie  faith,  &c  :  doo  not  onlie  renounce  the  faith, 
but  God  himselfe  :  and  therefore  they  (in  confessing  that  they  forsake 
God,  and  imbrace  sathan)  doo  that  which  we  all  should  doo.  As 
touching  that  horrible  part  of  their  confession,  in  the  league  which 
tendeth  to  the  killing  of  their  owne  and  others  children,  the  seething 
of  them,  and  the  making  of  their  potion  or  pottage,  and  the  effects 
thereof ;  their  good  fridaies  meeting,  being  the  dale  of  their  deliver- 
ance, their  incests,  with  their  returne  at  the  end  of  nine  moneths^ 
when  commonlie  women  be  neither  able  to  go  that  journie,  nor  ro 
returne,  &c  ;  it  is  so  horrible,  unnaturall,  unlikelie,  and  unpossible  ; 
that  if  I  should  behold  such  things  with  mine  eies,  I  should  rather 
thinke  my  selfe  dreaming,  dronken,  or  some  waie  deprived  of  my 
senses  ;  than  give  credit  to  so  horrible  and  filthie  matters. 

How  hath  the  oile  or  pottage  of  a  sodden  child  such  vertue,  as  that 
a  staffe  annointed  therewith,  can  carrie  folke  in  the  aire.'  Their 
potable  liquor,  which  (they  saie)  maketh  maisters  of  that  fa/cultie,  is  it 
not  ridiculous  'i    And  is  it  not,  by  the  opinion  of  all  philosophers, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  u. 


physicians,  and  divines,  void  of  such   vertue,  as   is  imputed  there- 
unto ? 

Their  not  fasting  on  fridaies,  and  their  fasting  on  sundaies,  their 
spetting  at  the  time  of  elevation,  their  refusall  of  holie  water,  their 
despising  of  superstitious  crosses,  &c  :  which  are  all  good  steps 
to  true  christianitie,  helpe  me  to  confute  the  residue  of  their  con- 

The  xiii.  Chapter. 

A  confutation  of  witches  confessions^  conce7'ning  vialcing  of  tempests 
and  raine :  of  the  naturall  cause  of  raine,  a7id  that  witches  or 
divels  have  no  power  to  doo  such  things. 

InD  to  speake  more  generallie  of  all  the  impossible  actions 
referred  unto  them,  as  also  of  their  false  confessions  ;  I 
saie,  that  there  is  none  which  acknowledgeth  God  to  be 
onlie  omnipotent,  and  the  onlie  worker  of  all  miracles, 
nor  anie  other  indued  with  meane  sense,  but  will  denie  that  the 
elements  are  obedient  to  witches,  and  at  their  commandement ;  or 
that  they  may  at  their  pleasure  send  raine,  haile,  tempests,  thunder, 
lightening  ;  when  she  being  but  an  old  doting  woman,  casteth  a  flint 
stone  o/ver  hir  left  shoulder,  towards  the  west,  or  hurleth  a  little  sea   T^^  "'?*'^^      ^^" 

'     .  '  ,         ,  .       .  ,     that  witches 

sand  up  mto  the  element,  or  wetteth  a  broome  sprig  m  water,  and    use  to  make 
sprinkleth  the  same  in  the  aire  ;  or  diggeth  a  pit  in  the  earth,  and   "^^.me.&^c. 
putting  water  therein,  stirreth  it  about  with  hir  finger  ;  or  boileth  hogs   ^'f^^S'  ^j'^Bod 
bristles,  or  laieth  sticks  acrosse  upon  a  banke,  where  never  a  drop    Frier  Barth. 
of  water  is  ;  or  burieth  sage  till  it  be   rotten  :  all  which  things  are    i)a'>"J'ifs,&'c. 
confessed  by  witches,  and  affirmed  by  writers  to  be  the  meanes  that 
witches  use  to  moove  extraordinarie  tempests  and  raine,  &c. 

We  read  in  M.  Maleficarum,  that  a  little  girle  walking  abroad 
with  hir  father  in  his  land,  heard  him  complaine  of  drought,  wishing 
for  raine,  &c.  Whie  father  (quoth  the  child)  I  can  make  it  raine/  6i. 
or  haile,  when  and  where  I  list  ?  He  asked  where  she  learned  it. 
She  said,  of  hir  mother,  who  forbad  hir  to  tell  anie  bodie  thereof.  He 
asked  hir  how  hir  mother  taught  hir?  She  answered,  that  hir  mother 
committed  hir  to  a  maister,  who  would  at  anie  time  doo  anie  thing 
for  hir.  Whie  then  (said  he)  make  it  raine  but  onlie  in  my  field.  And 
so  she  went  to  the  streame,  and  threw  up  water  in  hir  maisters  name, 
and  made  it  raine  presentlie.  And  proceeding  further  with  hir  father, 
she  made  it  haile  ni  another  field,  at  hir  fathers  request.  Hereupon 
he  accused  his  wife,  and  caused  hir  to  be  burned  ;  and  then  he  new 
christened  his  child  againe  :  which  circumstance  is  common  among 
papists  and  witchmongers.     And  howsoever  the  first  part  hereof  was 

Itlal.  Male/. 
par.  2.  quce.  ) 
cap.  12. 

48  3  Booke.  The  dtscoverie 

prooved,  there  is  no  doubt  but  the  latter  part  was  throughlie  executed. 
He  that  can  If  they  could  indeed  bring  these  things  to  passe  at  their  pleasure,  then 

arheThat^cln        might  they  also  be  impediments  unto  the  course  of  all  other  naturall 
worke  can  piaie.     things,  and  Ordinances  appointed  by  God:  as,  to  cause  it  to  hold  up, 
when  it  should  raine  ;  and  to  make  midnight,  of  high  noone :  and  by 
those  meanes  (I  saie)  the  divine  power  should  beecome  servile  to  the  will 
of  a  witch,  so  as  we  could  neither  cat  nor  drinke  but  by  their  permission. 
Me  thinks  Seneca  might  satisfie  these  credulous  or  rather  idolatrous 
people,  that  runne  a  whorehunting,  either  in  bodie  or  phansie,  after 
these  witches,  beleeving  all  that  is  attributed  unto  them,  to  the  deroga- 
tion of  Gods  glorie.     He  saith,  that  the  rude  people,  and  our  ignorant 
predecessors  did  beleeve,  that  raine  and  showers  might  be  procured 
and  staled  by  witches  charmes  and  inchantments  :  of  which  kind  of 
things  that  there  can  nothing  be  wrought,  it  is  so  manifest,  that  we  need 
not  go  to  anie  philosophers  schoole,  to  learne  the  confutation  thereof, 
jere.  16, 22.  'But  Jerenue,  by  the  word  of  God,  dooth  utterlie  confound  all  that 

which  may  be  devised  for  the  maintenance  of  that  foolish  opinion, 
Dii  gentium  saicug ;  Are  there  any  among  the  gods  of  the  gentiles,  that  sendeth 
d^monia,  raine,  or  giveth  showers  from  heaven  1    Art  not  thou  the  selfe  same 

T  he  gods  of  the  >  e> 

gentiles  are  our  Lord  God  ?    We  will  trust  m  thee,  for  thou  dooest  and  makest 

'''^^  ^'  all  these  things.     I  may  therefore  with  Brentius  boldlie  saie,  that  It 

is  neither  in  the  power  of  witches  nor  divels,   to   accomplish  that 
matter  ;  but  in  God  onelie.     For  when  exhalations  are  drawne  and 
62.   lifted  up  from  out  of  the  earth,  by  the  power/  of  the  sunne,  into  the 
The  naturall  middle  region  of  the  aire,    the    coldnes   thereof    constreineth    and 

hai'kand"  °fn  thickeucth  those  vapours  ;  which  being  beecome  clouds,  are  dissolved 
againe  by  the  heate  of  the  sunne,  wherby  raine  or  haile  is  ingendred  ; 
50.  raine,  if  by  the  waie  the  drops  be  not  frosen  and  made  haile.  These/ 
circumstances  being  considered  with  the  course  of  the  whole  scrip- 
ture, it  can  neither  be  in  the  power  of  witch  or  divell  to  procure  raine, 
or  faire  weather 

And  whereas  the  storie  of  Job  in  this  case  is  alledged  against  me 
(wherein  a  witch  is  not  once  named)  I  have  particularlie  answered  it 
else-where.  And  therefore  thus  much  onelie  I  sayheere  ;  that  Even 
there,  where  it  pleased  God  (as  Calvhie  saith)  to  set  downe  circum- 
stances for  the  instruction  of  our  grosse  capacities,  which  are  not  able 
to  conceive  of  spirituall  communication,  or  heavenlie  affaires  ;  the 
Job  1,  II.  divell  desireth  God  to  stretch  out  his  hand,  and  touch  all  that  yic^^ 

hath.  And  though  he  seemeth  to  grant  sathans  desire,  yet  God  him- 
selfe  sent  fire  from  heaven,  &c.  Where,  it  is  to  be  gathered,  that 
although  God  said,  He  is  in  thine  hand  :  it  was  the  Lords  hand  that 
lb  verse  16.  punished /^<^,  and  not  the  hand  of  the  divell,  who  said  not,  Give  me 
leave  to  plague  him  ;  but,  Laie  thine  hand  upon  him.     And  \\\i^n  Job 

of  Witchcraft. 

Clnp.  14. 


continued  faithfull  notwithstanding  all  his  afflictions,  in  his  children, 

bodie  and  goods  ;  the  divell  is  said  to  come  againe  to  God,  and  to 

sale  as  before,  to  wit  :  Now  stretch  out  thine  hand,  and  touch  his    Job  2, 5. 

bones  and  his  flesh.     Which  argueth  as  well  that  he  could  not  doo  it, 

as  that  he  himselfe  did  it   not    before.      And   be   it   here   remem- 

bred,    that  M.  Mai.  and    the  residue   of  the   witchmongers  denie,    ,,  ,  ,, 

that  there  were   any   witches   in  Jobs   time.    But   see   more   hereof  pa.  i,  qua.  2. 


The    xiiii.    Chapter. 

What  would  ens7ie,  if  witches  confessiofis  or  iui\t'\chmongers  opiiiions 
ivere  triie,  coiiccrnitig  the  effects  of  witchcraft,  inchantments,  Ssr^c. 

iF  it  were  true  that  witches  confesse,  or  that  all  writers 
write,  or  that  witchmongers  report,  or  that  fooles 
belceve,  we  should  never  have  butter  in  the  chearne, 
nor  cow  in  the  close,  nor  corne  in  the  field,  nor 
faire  weather  abroad,  nor  health  within  doores.  Or  if  that  which 
is  conteined  in  M.  Mai.  Bodin,  &c  :  or  in  the  pamphlets  late  set 
foorth  in  English,  of  witches  executions,  shuld  be  true  in  those 
things  that  witches  are  said  to  confesse,  what  creature  could  live  in 
securitie  1  Or  what  needed  such  preparation  of  warres,  or  such  trouble, 
or  charge  in  that  behalfe  .''  No  prince  should  be  able  to  reigne  or  live 
in  the  land.  For  (as  Danceus  saith)  that  one  Marline  a  witch  killed 
the  emperour  of  Gennanie  with  witchcraft  :  so  would  our  witches  (if 
they  could)  destroie  all  our  magistrates.  One  old  witch  might  over- 
throwe  an  armie  roiall  :  and  then  what  needed  we  any  guns,  or  wild 
fire,  or  any  other  instruments  of  warre  ?  A  witch  might  supplie  all 
wants,  and  accomplish  a  princes  will  in  this  behalfe,  even  without 
charge  or  bloudshed  of  his  people. 

If  it  be  objected,  that  witches  worke  by  the  divell,  and  christian 
princes  are  not  to  deale  that  way  ;  I  answer,  that  few  princes  disposed 
to  battell  would  make  conscience  therin,  speciallie  such  as  take  unjust 
wars  in  hand,  using  other  helpes,  devises,  &  engines  as  unlawful! 
and  divelish  as  that  ;  in  whose  campe  there  is  neither  the  rule  of 
religion  or  christian  order  observed  :  insomuch  as  ravishments, 
murthers,  blasphemies  and  /  thefts  are  there  most  commonlie  and 
freelie  committed.  So  that  the  divell  is  more  feared,  and  better 
served  in  their  camps,  than  God  almightie. 

But  admit  that  souldiers  would  be  scrupulous  herein,  the  pope 
hath  authoritie  to  dispense  therewith  ;  as  in  like  case  he  hath  /  doone, 
by  the  testimonie  of  his  owne  authors  and  friends.  Admit  also,  that 
throughout    all    christendome,   warres   were  justly   mainteined,    and 


But  these 
are  false,  Ergo 
the  consequen- 
cies  are  not 


Mai.  Male/. 
J.  Bodin. 



3-  Booke. 

TJic  discoverie 

Witches  in 


Pumher  an 




religion  dulie  observed  in  their  camps  ;  yet  would  the  Turke 
and  other  infidels  cut  our  throtes,  or  at  least  one  anothers  throte, 
with  the  helpe  of  their  witches  ;  for  they  would  make  no  conscience 

The    XV.    Chapter. 

Examples  of  forrett  tiations,  tvho  in  their  warres  used  the  assist- 
ance  of  witches;  of  eybiting  witches  in  Irela7id,  of  two  archers 
that  shot  with  familiars. 

!!n  the  warres  between  the  kings  of  Dejimarke  and  Sueve- 
land,  is6j.  the  Danes  doo  write,  that  the  king  of 
Siievelattd  caried  about  with  him  in  his  campe,  foure 
old  witches,  who  with  their  charms  so  qualified  the 
they  were  thereby  disabled  to  annoie  their  enimies : 
insomuch  as,  if  they  had  taken  in  hand  anie  enterprise,  they  were 
so  infeebled  by  those  witches,  as  they  could  performe  nothing. 
And  although  this  could  have  no  credit  at  the  first,  yet  in  the  end, 
one  of  these  witches  was  taken  prisoner,  and  confessed  the  whole 
matter  ;  so  as  (saith  he)  the  thrtds,  the  line,  and  the  characters  were 
found  in  the  high  waie  and  water  plashes. 

The  Irishmen  addict  themselves  wonderfullie  to  the  credit  and 
practise  hereof;  insomuch  as  they  affirme,  that  not  onelie  their  children, 
but  their  cattell,  are  (as  they  call  it)  eybitten,  when  they  fall  suddenlie 
sicke,  and  terme  one  sort  of  their  witches  eybiters  ;  onelie  in  that 
respect  :  yea  and  they  will  not  sticke  to  affirme,  that  they  can  rime 
either  man  or  beast  to  death.  Also  the  West  hidians  and  Mttscovits 
doo  the  like  :  and  the  Hunnes  (as  Gregorie  Tttronctisis  writeth)  used 
the  helpe  of  witches  in  time  of  war. 

I  find  another  storie  written  in  M.  Mai.  repeated  by  Bodin  ;  that 
one  souldier  called  Pumher,  dailie  through  witchcraft  killed  with  his 
bowe  and  arrowes  three  of  the  enimies,  as  they  stood  peeping  over 
the  walles  of  a  castell  besieged  :  so  as  in  the  end  he  killed  them 
all  quite,  saving  one.  The  triall  of  the  archers  sinister  /  dealing, 
and  a  proofe  thereof  expressed,  is ;  for  that  he  never  lightly  failed 
when  he  shot,  and  for  that  he  killed  them  by  three  a  dale  ;  and  had 
shot  three  arrowes  into  a  rood.  This  was  he  that  shot  at  a  pennie  on 
his  sonnes  head,  and  made  readie  another  arrow,  to  have  slaine  the 
duke  Remgrave  that  commanded  it.  And  doubtlesse,  bicause  of  his 
singular  dexteritie  in  shooting,  he  was  reputed  a  witch,  as  dooing  that 
which  others  could  not  doo.  nor  thinke  to  be  in  the  power  of  man  to 
doo  :  though  indeed  no  miracle,  no  witchcraft,  no  impossibilitie  nor 
difficultie  consisted  therein./ 

of  Ult  the  raft. 

Chip.  i6. 

But  this  latter  storie  I  can  requite  with  a  famihar  example.  For  at 
Towne  Mailing  in  kent,  one  of  O.  Maries  justices,  upon  the  com- 
plaint of  many  wise  men,  and  a  few  foolish  boies,  laid  an  archer  by 
the  heeles  ;  bicause  he  shot  so  neere  the  white  at  buts.  For  he  was 
informed  and  persuaded,  that  the  poore  man  plaied  with  a  flie,  other- 
wise called  a  divell  or  familiar.  And  bicause  he  was  certified  that  the 
archer  aforesaid  shot  belter  than  the  common  shooting,  which  he 
before  had  heard  of  or  scene,  he  conceived  it  could  not  be  in  Gods 
name,  but  by  inchantment  :  whereby  this  archer  (as  he  supposed  by 
abusing  the  Oueenes  liege  people)  gained  some  one  daie  two  or  three 
shillings,  to  the  detriment  of  the  commonwealth,  and  to  his  owne 
inriching.  And  therefore  the  archer  was  severelie  punished,  to  the 
great  encom-agement  of  archers,  and  to  the  wise  example  of  justice ; 
but  speciallie  to  the  overthrowe  of  witchcraft.  And  now  againe  to 
our  matter. 

The    xvi.    Chapter. 

Authorities  condeinnimj;  tkefaniasticall  coii/essiofis  of  luitches,  and 
Jwiu  a  popish  doctor  taketh  upon  him  to  disproove  the  same. 

ERTEIXE  generall  councels,  by  their  decrees,  have 
condemned  the  confessions  and  erronious  credulitie 
of  witches,  to  be  vaine,  fantasticall  and  fabulous. 
And  even  those,  which  are  parcell  of  their  league, 
whenipon  our  witchmongers  doo  so  build,  to  wit ;  their  night 
walkings  and  meetings  with  Herodias,  and  /  the  Pagatt  gods  :  at 
which  time  they  should  passe  so  farre  in  so  little  a  space  on  cock- 
horsse  ;  their  transubstantiation,  their  eating  of  children,  and  their 
pulling  of  them  from  their  mothers  sides,  their  entring  into  mens 
houses,  through  chinks  and  little  holes,  where  a  flie  can  scarselie 
wring  out,  and  the  disquieting  of  the  inhabitants,  &€:  all  which  are 
not  onelie  said  by  a  generall  councell  to  be  meere  fantasticall,  and 
imaginations  in  dreames ;  but  so  affirmed  by  the  ancient  writers. 
The  words  of  the  councell  are  these  ;  It  may  not  be  omitted,  that 
certeine  wicked  women  following  sathans  provocations,  being  seduced 
by  the  illusion  of  divels,  beleeve  and  professe,  that  in  the  night  times 
they  ride  abroad  with  Diana,  the  goddesse  of  the  Pagans,  or  else  with 
Herodias,  with  an  innumerable  multitude,  upon  certeine  beasts,  and 
passe  over  manie  countries  and  nations,  in  the  silence  of  the  night, 
and  doo  whatsoever  those  fairies  or  ladies  command,  &c.  And  it 
followeth  even  there ;  Let  all  ministers  therefore  in  their  severall  cures, 
preach  to  Gods  people,  so  as  they  may  knowe  all  these  things  to  be 
false,  &c.  It  followeth  in  the  same  councell;  Therefore,  whosoever 
beleeveth  that  any  creature  may  be  either  created  by  them,  or  else 

A  skih'u!! 
archer  punished 
by  an  unskilfull 


Co  « i'll^-i  cq  u  in  lis 
5.  can.  efiscopi. 
August,  de  spiri- 
tu  S^  anima  cap. 
8.     Franc.  Pon- 
zivib.  tract   de 
lam.  numcro  49. 
Grillandus  de 
sort,  numero.  6. 


3-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

In  histor.  vel 
vita  sancti  Ger- 


Novus  Mai. 
Mai  in  qvce.  de 
strigib.  cap.  2i. 
22.  23,  St'c. 


Bar.  Spineus. 
Mai.  Male/, 
lap.  2-?.  in  qzicv. 
de  sirigib. 

changed  into  better  or  worsse,  or  be  any  way  transformed  into  any 
other  kind  or  likenes  of  any,  but  of  the  creator  himselfe,  is  assurcdlie 
an  infidel],  and  woorsse  than  a  Pagan. 

And  if  this  be  credible,  then  all  these  their  bargaines  and  assem- 
blies, &c  :  are  incredible,  which  are  onelie  ratified  by  certeine  foolish 
and  extorted  confessions  ;  and  by  a  fable  of  S.  Germane.,  who 
watched  the  fairies  or  witches,  being  at  a  reere  banket,  and  through 
his  holinesse/ staled  them,  till  he  sent  to  the  houses  of  those  neigh- 
bours, which  seemed  to  be  there,  and  found  them  all  in  bed  ;  and  so 
tried,  that  these  were  divels  in  the  likenesse  of  those  women.  Which 
if  it  were  as  true,  as  it  is  false,  it  might  serve  well  to  confute  this 
their  meeting  and  night-walking.  For  if  the  divels  be  onlie  present 
in  the  likenesse  of  witches,  then  is  that  false,  which  is  attributed  to 
witches  in  this  behalfe. 

But  bicause  the   old   hammar  of  Sprcnger  and  Institor,  in  their 

old   Malleo   Alalejicarum,    was   insufficient   to    knocke    downe    this 

councell ;   a  yoong  beetle-head  called  Frier  BariJioloviccns  Spineus 

hath  made  a  new  leaden  beetle,  to  beate  downe  the  councell,  and 

to  kill  these  old  women.      Wherein  he  counterfeiting  /  Aesops  asse, 

claweth  the  pope  with  his  heeles  :  affirming  upon  his  credit,  that  the 

councell  is  false  and  erronious  ;  bicause  the  doctrine  swarveth  from 

the  popish  church,  and  is  not  authenticall  but  apocryphall ;  saieng 

(though  untrulie)  that  that  councell  was  not  called  by  the  commande- 

ment  and  pleasure  of  the  pope,  nor  ratified  by  his  authoritie,  which 

(saith  he)  is  sufficient  to  disanuU  all  councels.     For  surelie  (saith  this 

frier,  which  at  this  instant  is  a  cheefe  inquisitor)  if  the  words  of  this 

councell  were  to  be  admitted,  both  I,  and  all  my  predecessors  had 

published  notorious  lies,  and  committed  manie  injurious  executions  ; 

whereby  the  popes  themselves  also  might  justlie  be  detected  of  error, 

contrarie  to  the  catholike  beleefe  in  that  behalfe.     Alarrie  he  saith, 

that  although  the  words  and  direct  sense  of  this   councell  be  quite 

contrarie    to    truth    and    his     opinion  ;    yet    he     will    make 

an  exposition    thereof,    that   shall    somewhat   mitigate 

the  lewdnes  of  the  same  ;  and  this  he  saith 

is  not  onlie  allowable  to  doo,  but 

also  meritorious.     Marke 

the   mans   words, 

and  judge  his 


of  WitcJicyaft.  chap. !«.  53 

The    xvii.    Chapter. 

Witchtnojigers  reasons,  to  proove  that  witches  can  worke  wonders, 
Bodlns  tale  of  a  Friseland  preest  ti'atisported,  that  imaginations, 
proceeding  of  melancholie  doo  cause  illiisio7is. 

LD   M.  Maleficartim  also  saith,  that   the   councels   and    ^^'^^l^  Mah-f. 
doctors  were  all  deceived  heerein,  and  alledging  authoritie    Guu'.  Parisl. 
therfore,    confuteth  that  opinion   by   a   notable    reason, 
called   Petitio   principii,  or   rather,   Ignotuni  per   igno- 
tiiis,    in   this   maner  :    They   can    put    changlings    in    the   place   of 
other  children  ;    Ergo  they   can   transferre   and   transforme    them- 
selves and  others,  &c  :  according  to  their  confession  in  that  behalfe. 
Item   he   saith,    and  Bodiji  justifieth  it,  that  a  preest  in  Friseland 
was    corporallie    transferred    into    a    farre   countrie,    as    witnessed 
another    preest    of    Oberdorf  his  companion,    who   saw   him    aloft 
in   the   aire  :    Ergo  saith  M.   Mai.   they  have   all   beene  decei/ved    6S. 
hitherto,  to  the  great  impunitie  of  horrible  witches.      Wherein  he 
opposeth  his  follie  against  God  and  his  church,  against  the  truth,  and 
against    all  possibilitie.       But    surelie    it  is  almost   incredible,  how 
imagination  shall  abuse  such  as  are  subject  unto  melancholie  ;  so  as 
they  shall  beleeve  they  see,  heare,  and  doo  that,  which  never  was 
nor  shall  be ;   as  is  partlie  declared,  if  you  read    Galen    De   locis 
affectis,  and  may  more  /  plainelie  appeere  also  if  you  read  Aristotle   54- 
De  somnio. 

And  thereof  S.  Augustine  saith  well,  that  he  is  too  much  a  foole   Aupist.  de 
and  a  blockhead,  that  supposeth  those  things  to  be  doone  indeed,    ^^"'  " 
and  corporallie,  which  are  by  such  persons  phantasticallie  imagined  : 
which  phantasticall  illusions  do  as  well  agree  and  accord  (as  Algerus   Lib.  i.  caf.  7. 
saith)    with  magicall   deceipts,  as  the   veritie   accompanieth   divine    '^"'''""^"""'• 

The    xvlii.    Chapter. 

That  the  confession  of  witches  is  ijtsufficient  in  civil  I  and  common 
lawe  to  take  azuaie  life.  What  the  sounder  divines,  and  decrees 
of  councels  determine  in  this  case. 

|LAS  !  what  creature  being  sound  in  state  of  mind,  li  is  not  likeiie 
would  (without  compulsion)  make  such  maner  of  con-  d''ou':'£ri^''a'iie. 
fessions  as  they  do  ;   or  would,  fo.    a  trifle,   or  nothing 

.  make  a  perfect   bargaine  with   the  divell  for  hir  soule, 

to  be   yeelded   up  unto  his   tortures    and    everlasting    flames,    and 
that  within  a  verie  short  time  ;    speciallie  being  through  age  most 


3-  Booke. 

The  discoveric 


August,  de  civit. 
Dei.  Is  id  or.  lib. 
(«.  cap.  9.) 
Etymol.  26.  qua:. 
5.  ca.   7iec 
Ponzivibius  de 
la  mi  is,  voluvi. 

L.  error,  &=  L. 
cum  post.  c.  de 
juris  (sf  facti 
ignor.  ac  in  L. 
de  cetat.  §.  item 
de  inter  rag. 

Per  glos.  Bal. 
(^  alios  in  L. 
\.  c.  de  confes. 
glos.  nee.  si  de 
confes.  in  6.  §  ad 
leg.  Aquil  L. 
Neracius.  5.  fiti. 
Ut  per  Bald.  &- 
A  ugust.  in  L.  I. 
c.  de  confess, 
presumt<.  litems. 
Per  Bald,  in  d. 
leg.  ijc. 
Extra,  de  test 
cum  Uteris. 
3  quasi.  5-      55. 
cap.  II. 

commonlie  unlike  to  live  one  whole  yeare  ?  The  terror  of  hell 
fire  must  needs  be  to  them  diverslie  manifested,  and  much  more 
terrible  ;  bicause  of  their  weaknesse,  nature,  and  kind,  than  to  any 
other :  as  it  would  appeere,  if  a  witch  were  but  asked,  Whether 
she  would  be  contented  to  be  hanged  one  yeare  hence,  upon 
condition  hir  displesure  might  be  wreked  upon  hir  enimie  pre- 
sentlie.  As  for  theeves,  &  such  other,  they  thinke  not  to  go 
to  hell  fire;  but  are  either  persuaded  there  is  no  hell,  or  that 
their  crime  deserveth  it  not,  or  else  that  they  have  time  e/nough 
to  repent  :  so  as,  no  doubt,  if  they  were  perfectlie  resolved  heereof, 
they  would  never  make  such  adventures.  Neither  doo  I  thinke,  that 
for  any  summe  of  monie,  they  would  make  so  direct  a  bargaine  to  go 
to  hell  fire.  Now  then  I  conclude,  that  confession  in  this  behalf  is 
insufficient  to  take  awaie  the  life  of  any  body  ;  or  to  atteine  such 
credit,  as  to  be  beleeved  without  further  proofe.  For  as  Augustine 
and  Isidore.,  with  the  rest  of  the  sounder  divines  sale,  that  these 
prestigious  things,  which  are  wrought  by  witches  are  fantasticall  :  so 
doo  the  sounder  decrees  of  councels  and  canons  agree,  that  in  that 
case,  there  is  no  place  for  criminall  action.  And  the  lawe  saith,  that 
The  confession  of  such  persons  as  are  illuded,  must  needs  be 
erronious,  and  therefore  is  not  to  be  admitted  ;  for,  Confessio 
debet  tenere  verum  dr'  possibile.  But  these  things  are  opposite 
both  to  lawe  and  nature,  and  therfore  it  followeth  not;  Bicause  these 
witches  confesse  so.  Ergo  it  is  so.  For  the  confession  ditfereth 
from  the  act,  or  from  the  possibilitie  of  the  act.  And  whatsoever  is 
contrarie  to  nature  faileth  in  his  principles,  and  therefore  is  naturallie 

The  lawe  also  saith.  In  criminalibus  regiilaritcr  non  statur 
soli  confessioni  rei,  In  criminall  cases  or  touching  life,  we  must  not 
absolutelie  stand  to  the  confession  of  the  accused  partie  :  but  in 
these  matters  proofes  must  be  brought  more  cleare  than  the  light  it 
selfe.  And  in  this  crime  no  bodie  must  be  condemned  upon  pre- 
sumptions. And  where  it  is  objected  and  urged,  that  Since  God 
onelie  knoweth  the  thoughts,  therefore  there  is  none  other  %vaie  of 
proofe/  but  by  confession  :  It  is  answered  thus  in  the  lawe,  to  wit: 
Their  confession  in  this  case  conteineth  an  outward  act,  and  the  same 
impossible  both  in  lawe  and  nature,  and  also  unlikelie  to  be  true  ; 
and  therefore  Quod  verisiniile  non  est,  attendi  non  debet.  So 
as,  though  their  confessions  may  be  worthie  of  punishment,  as 
whereby  they  shew  a  will  to  commit  such  mischeefe,  yet  not  worthie 
of  credit,  as  that  they  have  such  power.  For,  Si  factum  absit, 
soldque  opinione  laborent.,  e  stultoruni  genere  sunt  ;  If  they  con- 
fesse   a   fact    performed    but    in    opinion,    they   are    to    be    reputed 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  iq. 


among  the  number  of  fooles.  Neither  may  any  man  be  by  lawe  con- 
demned for  criminall  causes,  upon  presumptions,  nor  yet  by  single 
witnesses  :  neither  at  the  accusation  of  a  capitall  enimie,  who  indeed 
is  not  to  be  admitted  to  give  evidence  in  this  case  ;  though  it  please/  70, 
M.  Mai.  and  Bodin  to  affirme  the  contrarie.  But  beyond  all  equitie, 
these  inquisitors  have  shifts  and  devises  enow,  to  plague  and  kill 
these  poore  soules  :  for  (they  say)  their  fault  is  greatest  of  all  others  ; 
bicause  of  their  carnall  copulation  with  the  divell,  and  therefore  they 
are  to  be  punished  as  heretikes,  foure  maner  of  waies  :  to  wit  ;  with 
excommunication,  deprivation,  losse  of  goods,  and  also  with  death. 

And  indeede  they  find  lawe,  and  provide  meanes  thereby  to 
mainteine  this  their  bloudie  humor.  For  it  is  written  in  their  popish 
canons,  that  As  for  these  kind  of  heretikes,  how  much  soever  they  affirmed  by 
repent  and  returne  to  the  faith,  they  may  not  be  retemed  alive,  or  kept 
in  perpetuall  prison  ;  but  be  put  to  extreame  death.  Yea,  M.  Mai. 
writeth,  that  A  witches  sinne  is  the  sinne  against  the  Holie-ghost  ;  to 
wit,  irremissible  :  yea  further,  that  it  is  greater  than  the  sinne  of  the 
angels  that  fell.  In  which  respect  I  wonder,  that  Moses  delivered  not 
three  tables  to  the  children  of  Israeli  ;  or  at  the  leastwise,  that  he  ex- 
hibited not  commandements  for  it.  It  is  not  credible  that  the  greatest 
should  be  included  in  the  lesse,  (S:c. 

But  when  these  witchmongers  are  convinced  in  the  objection 
concerning  their  confessions  ;  so  as  thereby  their  tyrannicall  argu- 
ments cannot  prevaile,  to  imbrue  the  magistrates  hands  in  so  much 
bloud  as  their  appetite  requireth  :  they  fall  to  accusing  them  of  other 
crimes,  that  the  world  might  thinke  they  had  some  colour  to 
mainteine  their  malicious  furie  against  them. 

Mai.  male/. 
i;tue  J.  14.  pa. 

C.  de  male/.  L. 
nullus.  Lnemo. 
is  L.  culpa,  and 

Mai.  male/, 
quasi.  17. 

The  xix.   Chapter. 

Of  fotci-e  capitall  crimes  objected  against  zuiiches,  allfullie  ansicered 
and  confuted  as  frivolous. 

IRST  therefore  they  laie  to  their  charge  idolatrie.  But 
alas  without  all  reason  :  for  such  are  properlie  knowne 
to  us  to  be  idolaters,  as  doo  externall  worship  to  idols 
or  strange  gods.  The  furthest  point  that  idolatrie  can 
be  stretched  unto,  is,  that  they,  which  are  culpable  therein,  are 
such  as  hope  for  and  seeke  salvation  at  /  the  hands  of  idols,  or  of  7^ 
anie  other  than  God  ;  or  fix  their  whole  mind  and  love  upon 
anie  creature,  so  as  the  power  of  God  be  neglected  and  con- 
temned thereby.  But  witches  nei/ther  seeke  nor  beleeve  to  have 
salvation  at  the  hands  of  divels,  but  by  them  they  are  onlie 
deceived ;   the  instruments   of  their  phantasie  being  corrupted,  and 

I.  Idolatrie,  con- 



56  3.  Booke.  TJie  di score  He 

so  infatuated,  that  they  suppose,  confesse,  and  saie  they  can  doo 
that,  which  is  as  farre  beyond  their  power  and  nature  to  doo,  as  to 
kill  a  man  at  Yorke  before  noone,  when  they  have  beene  scene  at 
Lotidon  in  that  morning,  &c.  But  if  these  latter  idolaters,  whose 
idolatrie  is  spirituall,  and  committed  onelie  in  mind,  should  be 
punished  by  death  ;  then  should  everie  covetous  man,  or  other,  that 
setteth  his  affection  anie  waie  too  much  upon  an  earthlie  creature,  be 
executed,  and  yet  perchance  the  witch  might  escape  scotfree. 
Apostasie,  Sccondlic,  apostasie  is  laid  to  their  charge,  whereby  it  is  inferred, 

that  they  are  worthie  to  die.  But  apostasie  is,  where  anie  of  sound 
judgement  forsake  the  gospell,  learned  and  well  knowne  unto  them  ; 
and  doo  not  onelie  imbrace  impietie  and  infidelitie ;  but  oppugne  and 
resist  the  truth  erstwhile  by  them  pi-ofessed.  But  alas  these  poore 
women  go  not  about  to  defend  anie  impietie,  but  after  good  ad- 
monition repent. 

3.  Seducing  of  Thirdlic,  they  would  have  them  executed  for  seducing  the  people, 
the  people,            g^j.  Qq^  knowcth  they  have  small  store  of  Rhetorike  or  art  to  seduce  : 

contutea.  ■'  _  ' 

except  to  tell  a  tale  of  Robin  good-fellow  be  to  deceive  and  seduce. 
Neither  may  their  age  or  sex  admit  that  opinion  or  accusation  to  be 
just  :  for  they  themselves  are  poore  seduced  soules.  I  for  my  part 
(as  else-where  I  have  said)  have  prooved  this  pomt  to  be  false  in 
most  apparent  sort. 

4.  Carnaii  copu-         Fourthlie,  as  touching  the  accusation,  which  all   the  writers  use 

lation  with  In-  ,  .  .'  ,  ^     ^    .      .  ,,         '       ,      .  .   ,       ^  ,  , 

cubus,  confuted,  herem  agamst  them  for  then-  carnall  copulation  with  riicJibiis  :  the 
follie  of  mens  credulitie  is  as  much  to  be  woondered  at  and  derided,  as 
the  others  vaine  and  iinpossible  confessions.  For  the  divell  is  a 
spirit,  and  hath  neither  flesh  nor  bones,  which  were  to  be  used  in  the 
performance  of  this  action.  And  since  he  also  lacketh  all  instruments, 
substance,  and  seed  ingendred  of  bloud  ;  it  were  follie  to  stale  over- 
long  in  the  confutation  of  that,  which  is  not  in  the  nature  of  things. 
And  yet  must  I  saie  somewhat  heerein,  bicause  the  opinion  hereof  is 
72.  so  stronglie  and  universallie  received,  /  and  the  fables  hereupon  so  in- 
numerable ;  wherby  M.  Mai.  Bodi'n,  Heminguis,  Hyperuis,  Danccus, 
Jtrasfi^s, and  others  that  take  upon  them  to  write  heerein,  are  so  abused, 
or  rather  seeke  to  abuse  others  ;  as  I  woonder  at  their  fond  credulitie 
in  this  behalfe.     For  they  affirme  undoubtedlie,  that  the  divell  plaieth 

How  the  divell      Siiccubtis  to  the  man,  and  carrieth  from  him  the  seed  of  generation, 

plaieth  Succubus  ■,■■<■,■,    t-  ^  t         i  i  i 

and  Incubus.  which  he  delivcreth  as  Incitbus  to  the  woman,  who  manie 

times  that  waie  is  gotten  with  child  ;  which  will 

verie  naturallie  (they  saie)  become  a 

witch,  and  such  a  one  they 

affirme  Merline 

of  Witchcraft.  cimp.  20.  57 

The  XX.   Chapter. 

A  request  to  such  readers  as  loath  to  hcare  or  read  Jilthic  and 
bawdie  matters  (zvhicii  of  iiecessitie  are  heere  to  be  inserted)  to 
passe  over  eight  chapters. 

'UT  in  so  much  as  I   am   driven  (for  the  more  manifest    A  peroration  to 

^     _  _  the  readers. 

bewraieng    and     displaieng    of    this    most    filthie    and 

horrible  error)  to  staine  my  paper  with  /  writing  thereon   57- 

certeine    of  their   beasthe   and   bawdie    assertions  and 

examples,    whereby   they    confirme    this  their   doctrine    (being    my 

selfe    both    ashamed,    and    loth    once   to  thinke   upon    such    filthi- 

nesse,  although  it  be  to  the  condemnation  thereof)  I   must  intreat 

you   that  are  the  readers  hereof,    whose  chaste  eares   cannot   well 

endure  to  heare  of  such  abhominable  lecheries,  as  are  gathered  out  of 

the  bookes  of  those  witchmongers  (although  doctors  of  divinitie,  and 

otherwise  of  great  authoritie  and  estimation)   to  turne  over   a  few 

leaves,  wherein  (I  sale)  I  have  like  a  groome  thrust  their  bawdie 

stufife  (even  that  which  I  my  selfe  loath)  as  into  a  stinking 

corner  :  howbeit,  none  otherwise,  I  hope,  but 

that  the  other  parts  of  my  writing 

shall  remaine  sweet,  and 

this  also  covered  as 

close  as  may 



4.  Buoks. 

The  discoverie 

73-    85. 

3fa/.  male/, 
par.  2.  cap.  4. 
gufFst.  I. 

If  his  bodilie 
eies  were  out,  he 
would  see  but 


Nider  in  forni- 


T.  Brabant  in 

lib.  de  apib. 

If  The  fourth  Booke. 

The    first    Chapter. 

Of  ivitcJanongers  opinions  coficernifig  evill  spirits,  how  they  frame 
themselves  in  more  excellent  sort  than  God  made  us. 

AMES  SPRENGER  and  Henrie  Institor,  in  M.  Mai. 
agreing  with  Bodin,  Earth.  Spineus,  Danaus,  Eras- 
tus,  Hemingius,  and  the  rest,  doo  make  a  bawdie 
discourse  ;  labouring  to  proove  by  a  fooHsh  kind  of 
philosophie,  that  evill  spirits  cannot  onlie  take  earthlie  forms 
and  shapes  of  men  ;  but  also  counterfeit  hearing,  seeing,  &c  ;  and 
likewise,  that  they  can  eate  and  devoure  meats,  and  also  reteine, 
digest,  and  avoid  the  same  :  and  finalHe,  use  diverse  kinds  of  activi- 
ties, but  speciallie  excell  in  the  use  and  art  of  venerie.  For  M.  Mai. 
saith,  that  The  eies  and  eares  of  the  mind  are  farre  more  subtill  than 
bodilie  eies  or  carnall  eares.  Yea  it  is  there  affirmed,  that  as  they 
take  bodies,  and  the  likenesse  of  members  ;  so  they  take  minds  and 
similitudes  of  their  operations.  But  by  the  way,  I  would  have  them 
answer  this  question.  Our  minds  and  soules  are  spirituall  things.  If 
our  corporall  eares  be  stopped,  what  can  they  heare  or  conceive  of 
anie  externall  wisedome?  And  truelie,  a  man  of  such  a  constitution 
of  bodie,  as  they  imagine  of  these  spirits,  which  make  themselves, 
&c  :  were  of  farre  more  excellent  substance,  &c  :  than  the  bodies  of 
them  that  God  made  in  paradise  ;  and  so  the  divels  workmanship 
should  exceed  the  handle  worke  of  God  the  father  and  creator  of  all 
things.  / 

The    second    Chapter. 

Of  bawdie  Incubus  and  Siiccubus,  and  whether  the  action  of 
venerie  may  be  performed  bctweene  witches  and  divels,  and  when 
witches  first  yeelded  to  hicubus. 

JERETOFORE  (they  saie)  Incubus  was  faine  to  ravish 
women  against  their  will,  untill  Anno.  1400  :  but  now 
since  that  time  witches  consent  willinglie  to  their 
desires  :    in    so    much    as   some   one    witch   exerciseth 

that  trade  of  lecherie  with  Incubus  twentie  or  thirtie  yeares  togither  ; 

as  was  confessed  by  fourtie  and  eight  witches  burned  at  Ravcnspurge. 

of  ]]'itcJicraft.  chap.  2.  59 

But    what    goodlie  fellowes  Incubus   begetteth  upon   these  witches, 

is   prooved   by    TJiouias    of    Aquine,    Bodiu,    M.    Mai.    Hypetius,    in.  scn.dist.  ^. 

^  art.  4. 

This  is  prooved  first  by  the  divels  cunning,  in  discerning  the  dif-  Gen,  6,  4. 
ference  of  the  seed  which  falleth  from  men.  Secondlie,  by  his  under- 
standing of  the  aptnes  of  the  women  for  the  receipt  of  such  seed. 
ThirdUe  by  his  knowledge  of  the  constellations,  which  are  freendlie  to 
such  corporall  effects.  And  lastlie,  by  the  excellent  complexion  of 
such  as  the  divell  maketh  choice  of,  to  beget  such  notable  personages 
upon,  as  are  the/  causes  of  the  greatnesse  and  excellencie  of  the  child  59. 
thus  begotten. 

And  to  proove  that   such  bawdie  dooings  betwixt  the  divell  and   Mai.  maUf. 
witches  is  not  fained,  S.  Augustine  is  alledged,  who  saith,  that  All  ^^!^-^;J"f;  ' 
superstitious   arts   had   their   beginning    of  the  pestiferous   societie  doctrina  Chrht. 
betwixt  the  divell  and  man.     Wherein  he  saith  truelie  ;  for  that  in 
paradise,  betwixt  the  divell  and  man,  all  wickednes  was  so  contrived, 
that  man  ever  since  hath  studied  wicked  arts  :  yea  and  the  divell  will 
be  sure  to  be  at  the  middle  and  at  both  ends  of  everie  mischeefe. 
But  that  the  divell  ingendreth  with  a  woman,  in  maner  and  forme 
as  is  supposed,  and  naturallie  begetteth  the  wicked,  neither  is  it  true, 
nor  Augtistines  meaning  in  this  place. 

Howbeit  M.  Mai.  proceedeth,  affirming  that  All  witches  take/  their  75. 
beginning  from  such  filthie  actions,  wherein  the  divell,  in  likenes  of 
a  prettie  wench,  lieth  prostitute  as  Succubics  lo  the  man,  and  reteining 
his  nature  and  seede,  conveieth  it  unto  the  witch,  to  whome  he  deli- 
vereth  it  as  Incubus.  Wherein  also  is  refuted  the  opinion  of  them 
that  hold  a  spirit  to  be  unpalpable.  M.  Mai.  saith,  There  can  be  nai  male/. 
rendred  no  infallible  rule,  though  a  probable  distinction  may  be  set  i"^-  '•/■'«'•  '• 
downe,  whether  Incubus  in  the  act  of  venerie  doo  alwaies  powre  seed 
out  of  his  assumed  bodie.  And  this  is  the  distinction  ;  Either  she  is 
old  and  barren,  or  yoong  and  pregnant.  If  she  be  barren,  then  dooth 
Incubus  use  hir  without  decision  of  seed  ;  bicause  such  seed  should 
serve  for  no  purpose.  And  the  divell  avoideth  superfluitie  as  much 
as  he  may  ;  and  yet  for  hir  pleasure  and  condemnation  togither,  he 
goeth  to  worke  with  hir.  But  by  the  waie,  if  the  divell  were  so  com- 
pendious, what  should  he  need  to  use  such  circumstances,  even  in 
these  verie  actions,  as  to  make  these  assemblies,  conventicles,  cere- 
monies, &c  :  when  he  hath  alreadie  bought  their  bodies,  and  bar- 
gained for  their  soules  ?  Or  what  reason  had  he,  to  make  them  kill 
so  manie  infants,  by  whom  he  rather  loseth  than  gaineth  any  thing  ; 
bicause  they  are,  so  farre  as  either  he  or  we  knowe,  in  better  case  than 
we  of  riper  yeares  by  reason  of  their  innocencie  ?  Well,  if  she  be  not 
past  children,  then  stealeth  he  seed  awaie  (as  hath  beene  said)  from 



The  discoveric 

Mai.  nialef. 
par.  I.  quce.  i. 
Da7ttfus  hi 
dialog,  de 

Ja.  St'rengtr 
in  Mai.  male. 

some  wicked  man  being  about  that  lecherous  busines,  and  therewith 
getteth  yoong  witches  upon  the  old. 

And  note,  that  they  affirme  that  this  businesse  is  better  accomplished 
with  seed  thus  gathered,  than  that  which  is  shed  in  dremes,  through 
superfluitie  of  humors  :  bicause  that  is  gathered  from  the  vertue  of  the 
seed  generative.  And  if  it  be  said  that  the  seed  will  wax  cold  by  the 
waie,  and  so  lose  his  natural!  heate,  and  consequentlie  the  vertue  : 
M.  Mai.  DancEus,  and  the  rest  doo  answere,  that  the  divell  can  so 
Carrie  it,  as  no  heate  shall  go  from  it,  &c. 

Furthermore,  old  witches  are  sworne  to  procure  as  manie  yoong 
virgins  for  Inciibus  as  they  can,  whereby  in  time  they  growe  to  be 
excellent  bawds  :  but  in  this  case  the  preest  plaieth  Incubus.  For 
you  shall  find,  that  confession  to  a  preest,  and  namelie  this  word 
Befiedicite.,  driveth  hicubus  awaie,  when  Ave  Maries,  crosses,  and  all 
other  charmes  faile./ 

This  was  doone 
at  Ravenspurge. 

60.  yd.  The   third    Chapter. 

Of  the  divels  visible  fir*  invisible  dealitig  with  ivitches  in  the  waie 
of  lecher ie. 

lUT  as  touching  the  divels  visible  or  invisible  execution 
of  lecherie,  it  is  written,  that  to  such  witches,  as  before 
have  made  a  visible  legue  with  the  preest,  (the  divell 
I  should  saie)  there  is  no  necessitie  that  Incubus  should 
appeere  invisible  :  marrie  to  the  standers  by  hee  is  for  the  most 
part  invisible.  For  proofe  hereof  fames  Sprenger  and  Institor 
affirme,  that  Manie  times  witches  are  seene  in  the  fields,  and 
woods,  prostituting  themselves  uncovered  and  naked  up  to  the  navill, 
wagging  and  mooving  their  members  in  everie  part,  according  to  the 
disposition  of  one  being  about  that  act  of  concupiscence,  and  yet  no- 
thing seene  of  the  beholders  upon  hir  ;  saving  that  after  such  a  con- 
venient time  as  is  required  about  such  a  peece  of  worke,  a  blacke 
vapor  of  the  length  and  bignesse  of  a  man,  hath  beene  seene  as  it 
were  to  depart  from  hir,  and  to  ascend  from  that  place.  Neverthe- 
Mal.  Male/.  lesse,  manie  times  the  husband  seeth  Incubus  making  him  cuckhold, 
in  the  likenesse  of  a  man,  and  sometimes  striketh  off  his  head  with 
his  sword  :  but  bicause  the  bodie  is  nothing  but  aire,  it  closelh 
togither  againe  :  so  as,  although  the  goodwife  be  some  times  hurt 
thereby  ;  yet  she  maketh  him  beleeve  he  is  mad  or  possessed,  &  that 
he  dooth  he  knoweth  not  what.  For  she  hath  more  pleasure  and 
delight  (they  say)  with  Incubus  that  waie,  than  with  anie  mortall 
man  :  whereby  you  may  perceive  that  spirits  are  palpable.  / 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  4.  61 

The    fourth    Chapter.  77. 

That  the  power  ofgenefation  is  both  outwardlie  and  inwardlie  itn- 
peached  by  witches,  and  of  divers  that  had  their  genitals  taken 
from  tJiem  by  witches,  and  by  the  same  vieanes  againe  restored. 

IJHEY  also  affirme,  that  the  vertue  of  generation  is 
impeached  by  witches,  both  inwardHe,  and  outward- 
lie  :  for  intrinsecallie  they  represse  the  courage,  and 
LJS^I  they  stop  the  passage  of  the  mans  seed,  so  as  it  may 
not  descend  to  the  vessels  of  generation  :  also  they  hurt  extrinse- 
callie,  with  images,  hearbs,  &c.  And  to  proove  this  true,  you  shall 
heare  certeine  stories  out  of  M.  Mai.  worthie  to  be  noted. 

A  yoong  priest  at  Mesptirge  in  the  diocesse  of  Co7istance  was  be-  Mai.  Male/. 
witched,  so  as  he  had  no  power  to  occupie  any  other  or  mo  women  ^"A^^-  ?'"*■■  •• 
than  one  ;  and  to  be  delivered  out  of  that  thraldom,  sought  to  flie  into 
another  countrie,  where  he  might  use  that  preestlie  occupation  more 
freelie.  But  all  in  vaine  ;  for  evermore  he  was  brought  as  far  back- 
ward by  night,  as  he  went  forward  in  the  daie  before  ;  sometimes  by 
land,  sometimes  in  the  aire,  as  though  he  flew.  And  if  this  be  not 
true,  I  am  sure  that  fames  Sprenger  dooth  lie. 

For  the  further  confirmation  of  our  beleefe  in  Incubtts,  M.  Mai. 
citeth  a  storie  of  a  notable  matter  executed  at  Ravensptirge,  as  true 
and  as  cleanlie/  as  the  rest.  A  yoong  man  lieng  with  a  wench  in  that  61. 
towne  (saith  he)  was  faine  to  leave  his  instruments  of  venerie  behind 
him,  by  meanes  of  that  prestigious  art  of  witchcraft  :  so  as  in  that 
place  nothing  could  be  scene  or  felt  but  his  plaine  bodie.  This  yoong 
man  was  willed  by  another  witch,  to  go  to  hir  whom  he  suspected, 
and  by  faire  or  fowle  meanes  to  require  hir  helpe  :  who  soone  after 
meeting  with  hir,  intreated  hir  faire,  but  that  was  in  vaine  ;  and  there- 
fore he  caught  hir  by  the  throte,  and  with  a  towell  strangled  hir, 
saieng  :  Restore  me  my/  toole,  or  thou  shalt  die  for  it  :  so  as  she  being  yS. 
swolne  and  blacke  in  the  face,  and  through  his  boisterous  handling 
readie  to  die,  said  ;  Let  me  go,  and  I  will  helpe  thee.  And  whilest  he 
was  loosing  the  towell,  she  put  hir  hand  into  his  codpeece,  and 
touched  the  place  ;  saieng  ;  Now  hast  thou  thy  desire  :  and  even  at 
that  instant  he  felt  himselfe  restored. 

Item,   a    reverend  father,  for  his  life,  holinesse,   and   knowledge   7'2-  Sfimger.  in 
notorious,  being  a  frier  of  the  order  and  companie  of  Spire,  reported,  far.2"qt/^.i. 
that  a  yoong  man  at  shrift  made  lamentable  moane  unto  him  for  the 
like  losse  :  but  his  gravitie  suffered  him  not  to  beleeve  lightlie  any 
such  reports,  and  therefore  made  the  yoong  man  untrusse  his  cod- 
peece point,  and  sawe  the  complaint  to  be  true  and  just.     Whereupon 


4.  Booke. 

The  discovei'ie 

Mai.  male/. 
cap.  7.  par.  2. 
quast.  1. 


62.     79- 

In  vita  Hie- 

Sainctsas  holie 
and  chaste  as 
horsses  &" 

he  advised  or  rather  injoined  the  youth  to  go  to  the  witch  whome  he 
suspected,  and  with  flattering  words  to  intreat  hir,  to  be  so  good  unto 
him,  as  to  restore  him  his  instrument  :  which  by  that  meanes  he  ob- 
teined,  and  soone  after  returned  to  shew  himselfe  thankfull ;  and  told 
the  holie  father  of  his  good  successe  in  that  behalfe  :  but  he  so  be- 
leeved  him,  as  he  would  needs  be  Oailatits  testis.,  and  made  him  pull 
downe  his  breeches,  and  so  was  satisfied  of  the  troth  and  certeintie 

Another  yoong  man  being  in  that  verie  taking,  went  to  a  witch  for 
the  restitution  thereof,  who  brought  him  to  a  tree,  where  she  shewed 
him  a  nest,  and  bad  hint  clime  up  and  take  it.  And  being  in  the  top 
of  the  tree,  he  tooke  out  a  mightie  great  one,  and  shewed  the  same  to 
hir,  asking  hir  if  he  might  not  have  the  same.  Naie  (cjuoth  she) 
that  is  our  parish  preests  toole,  but  take  anie  other  which  thou  wilt. 
And  it  is  there  affirmed,  that  some  have  found  20.  and  some  30.  of 
them  in  one  nest,  being  there  preserved  with  provender,  as  it  were 
at  the  racke  and  manger,  with  this  note,  wherein  there  is  no  con- 
tradiction (for  all  must  be  true  that  is  written  against  witches)  that 
If  a  witch  deprive  one  of  his  privities,  it  is  done  onlie  by  prestigious 
meanes,  so  as  the  senses  are  but  illuded.  Marie  by  the  divell  it  is 
reallie  taken  awaie,  and  in  like  sort  restored.  These  are  no  jestes,  for 
they  be  written  by  them  that  were  and  are  judges  upon  the  lives  and 
deaths  of  those  persons.  / 

The   fift    Chapter. 

Of  bishop  Sylvanus  his  leacherie  opetted  and  covered  againe,  Jiow 
maides  having  yellow  haire  are  most  combred  with  Incubus,  how 
inaried  men  are  bewitched  to  t(se  other  metis  wives,  and  to 
refuse  their  own. 

OU  shall  read  in  the  legend,  how  in  the  night  time 
Incubus  came  to  a  ladies  bed  side,  and  made  hot  loove 
unto  hir  :  whereat  she  being  offended,  cried  out  so  lowd, 
that  companie  came  and  found  him  under  hir  bed  in  the 
likenesse  of  the  holie  bishop  Sylvanus,  which  holie  man  was  much 
defamed  therebie,  untill  at  the  length  this  infamie  was  purged  by  the 
confession  of  a  divell  made  at  S.  Jeroms  toombe.  Oh  excellent 
peece  of  witchcraft  or  cousening  wrought  by  Sylvanus  !  Item,  S. 
Christine  would  needes  take  unto  hir  another  maides  Incubus,  and 
lie  in  hir  roome  :  and  the  storie  saith,  that  she  was  shrewdlie  accloied. 
But  she  was  a  shrew  indeed,  that  would  needes  change  beds  with 
hir  fellow,  that  was  troubled  everie  night  with  Incubus,  and  deale 
with  him  hir  selfe.     But  here  the  inquisitors  note  maie  not  be  for- 

of  Witchc7'aft. 

Chap.  6. 

gotten,  to  wit  :  that   Maides  having  yellow  haire  are  most  molested    Maides  having 

....  .    .  .  ,  .      .  .  .         ,  1        ,-     ^.      T.  »      yellow  haire. 

With  this  spirit.      Also   it  is  written  in  the  Legend,  of  S.  Barfiara, 

that  a  pretie  wench  that  had  had  the  use  of  Inaebns  his  bodie  by  the 

space  of  six  or  seven  yeares  in  Aquitania  (being  beelike  wearie  of 

him  for  that  he  waxed  old)  would  needes  go  to  S.  Barnard  another 

while.     But  Inaibus  told  hir,  that  if  she  would  so  forsake  him,  being 

so  long  hir  true  loover,  he  would  be  revenged  upon  hir,  &c.     But 

befall  what  would,  she  went  to  S.  Barnard^  who  tooke  hir  his  staffe, 

and  bad  her  laie  it  in  the  bed  besides  hir.     And  indeed  the  divell 

fearing  the  bedstaffe,  or  that  S.  Barnard  laie  there  himselfe,  durst 

not  approch  into  hir  chamber  that  night  :  what  he  did  afterwards, 

I  am  uncerteine.     Marrie  you  may  find  other  circumstances  hereof, 

and  manie  other  like  bawdie  lies  in  the  golden  Legend.      But  here 

againe  we  maie  not  forget  the  in/quisitors  note,  to  wit;  that  manie   Mal.MaUf.8o. 

are  so  bewitched  that  they  cannot  use  their  owne  wives  :    but  anie  ^^^;  j"  '^""^'  ^' 

other  bodies  they  maie  well  enough  away  withall.     Which  witchcraft 

is  practised  among  manie  bad  husbands,  for  whom  it  were  a  good 

excuse  to  saie  they  were  bewitched. 

The   sixt    Chapter. 

How  to  p7'ocure  the  dissolving  of  bewitched  love,  also  to  enforce 
a  man  (how  proper  so  ever  he  be)  to  love  an  old  hag :  and  of  a 
bawdie  tricke  of  a  priest  in  Gelderland. 

!|HE    priests   saie,  that   the  best   cure   for  a  woman  thus 
molested,  nex',  to  confession,  is  excommunication.     But 
to  procure  the  dissolving  of  bewitched  and  constrained 
love,  the   partie   bewitched  must   make   a  jakes  of  the 
lovers  shooe.     And  to  enforce  a  man,  how  proper  so  ever  he  be,  to 
love  an  old  hag,  she  giveth  unto  him  to  eate  (among  other  meates) 
hir  owne  doong :  and  this  waie  one  old  witch  made  three  abbats  of 
one  house  succes/sivelie  to  die  for  hir  love  as  she  hir  selfe  confessed,    63. 
by  the  report  of  M.  Mai.     In  6*d'/rt'^r/rt:;/c/ a  priest  persuaded  a  sicke    of  a  bawdie 
woman  that  she  was  bewitched  ;  and  except  he  might  sing  a  masse 
upon  hir  bellie,  she  could  not  be  holpen.     Whereunto  she  consented, 
and  laie  naked  on  the  altar  whilest  he  sang  masse,  to  the  satis- 
fieng  of  his  lust ;  but  not  to  the  ^release  of  hir  greefe. 
Other  cures  I  will  speake  of  in  other  places  more 
civill.      Howbeit,    certeine    miraculous 
cures,  both  full  of  bawderie  and 
lies,  must  either  have 
place    here,    or 
none  at  all.,' 

priest  in  Gelder- 

[*  ?  releate.] 


4-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 


In  coll.  pairuni. 

Gregor.  lib.  i. 
dial.  2. 

In  vitis  fatrum. 
Heraclides  in 


Nidi-t  in  forni- 

The   seventh    Chapter. 

Of  divers  saincts  and  holie  persons,  which    'we?-e   exceeding  bawdie 
and  lecherous,  and  by  cerieitie  miraculous  weaties  becatne  chaste. 

ASSIANUS  writeth,  that  S.  Syren  being  of  bodie  verie 

lecherous,  and  of  mind  woonderfull  religious,  fasted  and 

praied  ;  to  the  end  his  bodie  might  be  reduced  miracu- 

louslie  to  chastitie.     At  length  came  an  angell  unto  him 

by  night,  and  cut  out  of  his  flesh  certeine  kernels,  which  were  the 

sparkes  of  concupiscence  ;  so  as  afterwards  he  never  had  anie  more 

motions  of  the  flesh.     It  is   also  reported,  that  the   abbat   Eqiiicius 

being  naturallie  as  unchast  as  the  other,  fell  to  his  beads  so  devoutlie 

for  recoverie  of  honestie,  that  there  came  an  angell  unto  him  in  an 

apparition,  that    seemed   to  geld  him  ;  and  after  that   (forsooth)  he 

was  as  chaste  as  though  he  had  had  never  a  stone  in  his  breech  ;  and 

before  that  time  being  a  ruler  over  monkes,  he  became  afterwards  a 

governour  over  nunnes.      Even  as  it  is  said  Helias  the  holie  monke 

gathered  thirtie  virgins  into  a  monasterie,  over  whom  he  ruled  and 

reigned  by  the  space  of  two  yeares,  and  grew  so  proud  and  hot  in  the 

codpeece,  that  he  was  faine  to  forsake  his  holie  house,  and  flie  to  a 

desert,  where  he  fasted  and  praied  two  daies,  saieng  ;  Lord  quench 

my   hot   lecherous   humors,  or  kill   me.     Whereupon    in   the   night 

following,  there  came  unto  him  three  angels,  and  demanded  of  him 

why  he  forsooke  his  charge  :  but  the  holie  man  was  ashamed  to  tell 

them.     Howbeit  they  asked  him  further,  saieng  ;  Wilt  thou  returne 

to  these  damsels,  if  we  free  thee  from  all  concupiscence  ?    Yea  (quoth 

he)  with  all  my  heart.    And  when  they  had  sworne  him  solemnelie  so 

to  doo,  they  tooke  him  up,  &  gelded  him  ;  and  one  of  them  holding 

his  hands,  and  another  his  feete,  the  third  cut  out  his  stones.     But  the 

storie  saith  it  was  not  so  ended,  but  in  a  vision.     Which  I  beleeve, 

because  within  five  daies  he  returned  to  his  minions,  who  pitiouslie 

moorned  for  him  all  this/  while,  and  joyfullie  embraced  his  sweete 

companie  at  his  returne.     The  like  storie  dooth  Nider  write 

of   Thomas,  whome  two  angels  cured  of  that 

lecherous  disease  ;  by  putting  about 

him   a  girdle,    which  they 

brought  downe  with 

them     from 


oj   Witchcraft. 

Chap.  8. 


The    eight    Chapter. 

Certeine  popish  and  Jiiagicall  cures,  for  them  that  are  hewitcJied  in 
their  privities. 

I  OR  direct  cure  to  such  as  are  bewitched  in  the  privie 
members,  the  first  and  speciall  is  confession  :  then  follow 
in  a  row,  holie  water,  and  /  those  ceremoniall  trumperies,  64- 
Ave  Maries,  and  all  maner  of  crossings  ;  which  are  all 
said  to  be  wholesome,  except  the  witchcraft  be  perpetuall,  and  in 
that  case  the  wife  maie  have  a  divorse  of  course. 

Item,  the  eating  of  a  haggister  or  pie  helpeth  one  bewitched  in    AUter. 
that  member. 

Item,  the  smoke  of  the  tooth  of  a  dead  man.  Aiiter. 

Item,  to  annoint  a  mans  bodie  over  with  the  gall  of  a  crow.  Aiiter. 

Item,  to  fill  a  quill  with  quicke  silver,  and  laie  the  same  under  the 
cushine,  where  such  a  one  sitteth,  or  else  to  put  it  under  the  threshold 
of  the  doore  of  the  house  or  chamber  where  he  dwelleth. 

Item,  to  spet  into  your  owne  bosome,  if  you  be  so  bewitched,  is   Aiiter. 
verie  good. 

Item,  to  pisse  through  a  wedding  ring.  If  you  would  know  who  is  AUter. 
hurt  in  his  privities  by  witchcraft ;  and  who  otherwise  is  therein 
diseased,  Hostiensis  answereth  :  but  so,  as  I  am  ashamed  to  english 
it  :  and  therefore  have  here  set  downe  his  experiment  in  Latine  ; 
Quando  virga  nullateniis  inovein?;  6~»  nunquam  potuit  cognoscere ; 
hoc  est  sig7ium  frigiditatis :  sed  quando  niovetiir  &^  erigitur,  perficere 
atitem  non  potest,  est  signuin  maleficii. 

But  Sir  Th.  Moore  hath  such  a  cure  in  this  matter,  as  I  am 
ashamed  to  write,  either  in  Latine  or  English  :  for  in  filthie  baw- 
derie  it  passeth  all  the  tales  that  ever  I  heard.  But  that  is  /  rather 
a  medicine  to  procure  generation,  than  the  cure  of  witchcraft,  though 
it  serve  both  turnes. 

Item,   when    ones  instrument    of    venerie    is  bewitched,    certeine   AUter. 
characters  must  be   written    in   virgine   parchment,  celebrated   and 
holied  by  a  popish  priest  ;  and  thereon  also  must  the  141.  Psalme  be 
written,  and  bound  Ad  viri fascinati  coxani. 

Item,  one  Katharine  Loe  (having  a  husband  not  so  readilie  disposed  AUter. 
that  waie  as  she  wished  him  to  be)  made  a  waxen  image  to  the 
likenes  of  hir  husbands  bewitched  member,  and  offered  it  up  at  S. 
Atithonies  altar;  so  as,  through  the  holinesse  of  the  masse  it  might  be 
sanctified,  to  be  more  couragious,  and  of  better  disposition  and 
abihtie,  &c. 


S.  Thomas 
Moores,  medicin- 
able  receipt,  &c. 



4.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Jaso.  PraUnsh 
de  cerebri  morbo, 
ca.  i6. 



The  priest  is 
opinionative  in 
the  error  of  his 

The    ninth    Chapter. 

A  strange  cure  doone  to  one  that  was  molested  with  Incubiis. 

OW   being   wearied   with   the    rehearsall    of    so    mania 

lecheries   most  horrible,  and   very   filthie   and   fabulous 

actions  and  passions  of  witches,  together  with  the  spirit 

Inaibus,  I  will  end  with  a  true  storie  taken  out  of  Jason 

Pratensis,  which   though    it    be  rude,   yet    is  it    not    altogither   so 

uncleane  as  the  rest. 

There  came  (saith  he)   of  late  a  masse  priest  unto  me,  making 
pitious  moane,  and  saieng,  that  if  I   holpt  him  not,  he  should  be 
undoone,  and  utterlie  overthrowne  ;  so  great  was  his  infirmitie :  for 
(saith  he)   I  was  woont  to  be  faire  and  fat,  and  of  an  excellent  com- 
plexion ;  and  lo  how  I  looke,  being  now  a  verie  ghost  consisting  of 
skinne   and  bone,  &c.     What  is  the  matter  (quoth  Jason  ?)  I    will 
shew  you  sir,  said  the  priest.      There   commeth   unto   mee,  almost 
everie  night,  a  certeine  woman,  unknowne   unto  me,  and/  lieth   so 
heavie  upon  my  brest,  that  I  cannot  fetch  rny  breath,  neither  have 
anie  power  to  crie,  neither  doo  my  hands  serve  me  to  shoove   hir 
awaie,  nor  my  feete  to  go  from  hir.     I  smiled  {(]}xo\\\  Jasoii)  and  told 
him  that  he  was  vexed  with  a  disease  called  In\ciibns,  or  the  mare ; 
and  the  residue  was  phantasie  and  vaine  imagination.     Naie  (said 
the   priest)   it    cannot   be   so:  for   by  our   blessed   ladie,  I    tell   you 
nothing  but  that  with  waking   I   saw  with  mine  eies,  "and  felt  with 
mine  hands.     I  see  hir  when  she  commeth  upon  me,  and  strive  to 
repell  hir;  but  I  am  so  infeebled  that  I  cannot:  and  for  remedie  I 
have  runne  about  from  place  to  place,  but  no  helpe  that  I  could  get. 
At  length  I  went  to  an  old  frier  that  was  counted  an  od  fellow ;  arid 
thought  to  have  had  help  at  his  hands,  but  the  divell  a  whit  had  I  of 
him ;  saving  that  for  remedie  he  willed  me  to  praie  to  God ;  whome  I 
am  sure  I  wearied  with  my  tedious  praiers  long  before.     Then  went  I 
unto  an  old  woman  (quoth  the  priest)  who  was  said  to  be  a  cunning 
witch :  and  she  willed  me,  that  the  next  morning,  about  the  dawning 
of  the  daie,  I  should  pisse,  and  immediatlie  should  cover  the  pispot, 
or  stop  it  with  my  right  netherstocke,  and  before  night  the  witch 
should  come  to  visit  me.     And  although  (quoth  he)  the  respect  of 
mine  orders  somewhat  terrified  me  from  the  execution  of  hir  advise; 
yet  my  necessities  diverse  waies,  and  speciallie  my  paines  moved 
me  to  make  triall  of  hir  words.     And  by  the  masse  (quoth  the  priest) 
hir  prophesie  fell  out  as  sure  as  a  club.     For  a  witch  came  to  my 
house,  and  complained  of  a  greefe  in  hir  bladder,  and  that  she  could 
not  pisse.     But  I  could  neither  by  faire  nor  fowle  meanes  obteine  at 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   10. 


Merlin  begotten 
of  Incubus. 

hir  hands,  that  she  would   leave   molesting  me  by  night;   but  she 
keepeth   hir   old  custome,   determining  by   these  filthie  meanes   to 
dispatch  me.     I   could  hardlie  (saith  Jason)  reclaime  him  from  this   The  priest 
mad  humor  ;  but  by  that  time  he  had  beene  with  me  three  or  foure   ^^'^°^^''^  • 
times,  he  began  to  comfort  himselfe,  and  at   last  perceiving  it,  he 
acknowledged  his  disease,  and  recovered  the  same./ 

The   tenth    Chapter.  ^^^^ 

A  confutation  of  all  the  former  follies  touching  Incubus,  which 
by  examples  and  proof es  of  like  stuffe  is  shewed  to  be  flat  knaverie, 
zi'herein  the  carnall  coptilation  with  spirits  is  overthrowtie. 

IHUS  are  lecheries  covered  with  the  cloke  of  Incubus 
and  witchcraft,  contrarie  to  nature  and  veritie  :  and 
with  these  fables  is  mainteined  an  opinion,  that  men  have 
beene  begotten  without  carnall  copulation  (as  Hyperiics 
and  others  write  that  Merlin  was,  An.  440.)  speciallie  to  excuse  and 
mainteine  the  knaveries  and  lecheries  of  idle  priests  and  bawdie 
monkes  ;  and  to  cover  the  shame  of  their  lovers  and  concubines. 

And  alas,  when  great  learned  men  have  beene  so  abused,  with  the 
imagination  of  Incubus  his  carnall  societie  with  women,  miscon- 
struing the  scriptures,  to  wit,  the  place  in  Genesis  6.  to  the  seducing 
of  manie  others  ;  it  is  the  lesse  woonder,  that  this  error  hath  passed  so 
generallie  among  the  common  people./  66. 

But  to  use  few  words  herein,  I  hope  you  understand  that  they 
affirme  and  saie,  that  Incubus  is  a  spirit  ;  and  I  trust  you  know  that  a 
spirit  hath  no  flesh  nor  bones,  &c:  and  that  he  neither  dooth  eate 
nor  drinke.  In  deede  your  grandams  maides  were  woont  to  set  aboil 
of  milke  before  him  and  his  cousine  Robin  good-fellow,  for  grinding 
of  malt  or  mustard,  and  sweeping  the  house  at  midnight  :  and  you 
have  also  heard  that  he  would  chafe  exceedingly,  if  the  maid  or 
good-wife  of  the  house,  having  compassion  of  his  nakednes,  laid  anie 
clothes  for  him,  beesides  his  messe  of  white  bread  and  milke,  which 
was  his  standing  fee.  For  in  that  case  he  saith  ;  What  have 
we  here .-'  Hemton  hamten,  here  will  I  never  more  tread  nor 

But  to  proceed  in  this  confutation.  Where  there  is  no  meate  eaten,  Q"hi  humor 
there  can  be  no  seed  which  thereof  is  ingendred  :  although  it  be  ^  "'"" -"^"^ '-^ 
granted,  that  Robin  could  both  eate  and  drinke,  as  being  a/  cousening 
idle  frier,  or  some  such  roge,  that  wanted  nothing  either  belonging  to 
lecherie  or  knaverie,  &c.  Item,  where  the  genitall  members  want, 
there  can  be  no  lust  of  the  flesh  :  neither  dooth  nature  give  anie  desire 
of  generation,  where  there  is  no  propagation  or  succession  recjuired. 

0  alimcntari 


4.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Ad  facultatcm 
gL'tierandi  tarn 
intt-r>ia  quam 
ex/t-rnu  orgaiia 

And  as  spirits  cannot  be  greeved  with  hunger,  so  can  they  not  be 
inflamed  with  lustes.  And  if  men  should  hve  ever,  what  needed 
succession  or  heires  ?  For  that  is  but  an  ordinance  of  God,  to  supplie 
the  place,  the  number,  the  world,  the  time,  and  speciallie  to  ac- 
complish his  will.  But  the  power  of  generation  consisteth  not  onlie 
in  members,  but  chieflie  of  vitall  spirits,  and  of  the  hart :  which 
spirits  are  never  in  such  a  bodie  as  hictibus  hath,  being  but  a  bodie 
assumed,  as  they  themselves  sale.  And  yet  the  most  part  of  writers 
herein  afifirme,  that  it  is  a  palpable  and  visible  bodie ;  though  all  be 
phansies  and  fables  that  are  written  hereupon. 

What  Incubus  is, 
<5r=  who  be  most 
troubleii  ther- 



[     ?  him.  MS.] 

M.  maltfic 

The   eleventh    Chapter. 

That  Incubus  is  a  naturall  disease,  with  remedies  for  the  same, 
besides  magicall  cures  herewithall  expressed. 

|UT  in  truth,  this  Incubus  is  a  bodilie  disease  (as  hath 
beene  said)  although  it  extend  unto  the  trouble  of  the 
mind:  which  of  some  is  called  The  mare,  oppressing 
manie  in  their  sleepe  so  sore,  as  they  are  not  able  to 
call  for  helpe,  or  stir  themselves  under  the  burthen  of  that  heavie 
humor,  which  is  ingendred  of  a  thicke  vapor  proceeding  from 
the  cruditie  and  rawnesse  in  the  stomach :  which  ascending  up 
into  the  head  oppresseth  the  braine,  in  so  much  as  manie  are  much 
infeebled  therebie,  as  being  nightlie  haunted  therewith.  They 
are  most  troubled  with  this  disease,  that  being  subject  thereunto, 
lie  right  upward :  so  as,  to  turne  and  lie  on  the  one  side,  is  present 
remedie.  Likewise,  if  anie  heare  the  groning  of  the  partie,  speake 
unto  him,  so  as  he  wake  him,  he  is  presentlie  releeved.  Howbeit, 
there  are  magicall  cures  for  it,  as  for  example./ 

S.  George,  S.  George,  otir  ladies  k7iight, 
He  walkt  by  daie,  so  did  he  by  night :  / 
Untill  such  time  as  he  hir  fouiid. 
He  hir  beat  and  he  Mr  bound, 
Untill  hir  troth  she  to  him  plight, 
She  would  7iot  come  to  hir'''  that  night. 
Whereas    S.   George  our  ladies   knight,   was  named  three   times 
S.  George. 

Item,  hang  a  stone  over  the  afflicted  persons  bed,  which  stone  hath 
naturallie  such  a  hole  in  it,  as  wherein  a  string  may  be  put  through 
it,  and  so  be  hanged  over  the  diseased  or  bewitched  partie  ;  be  it 
man,  woman,  or  horsse. 

Item,  you  shall  read  in  M.  Malefic,  that  excommunication  is  verie 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  12. 


notable,  and  better  than  any  charme  for  this  purpose.  There  are  also 
other  verses  and  charmes  for  this  disease  devised,  which  is  the 
common  cloke  for  the  ignorance  of  bad  physicians.  But  Leonard 
Fuchsius  in  his  first  booke,  and  31.  chapter,  dooth  not  onelie  describe 
this  disease,  and  the  causes  of  it  ;  but  also  setteth  downe  verie 
learnedlie  the  cure  thereof,  to  the  utter  confusion  of  the  witchmongers 
follie  in  this  behalfe.  Hyperms  being  much  bewitched  and  blinded 
in  this  matter  of  witchcraft,  hoovering  about  the  interpretation  of 
Genesis  6.  from  whence  the  opinion  of  Inaebits  and  Siiccitbus 
is  extorted,  Viderunt  filii  Dei  filias  hominufu,  quod  elegantes 
essent,  acceperiint  sibi  in  nxores  ex  omnibus^  quas  elegeraut,  &=€  : 
seemeth  to  mainteine  upon  heare-saie,  that  absurd  opinion  ;  and 
yet  in  the  end  is  driven  to  conclude  thus,  to  wit  :  Of  the  evill 
spirits  Incubus  and  Succubus  there  can  be  no  firme  reason  or 
proofe  brought  out  of  scriptures,  using  these  verie  words ; 
Hcec  ut  probabilia  dicta  su7ito,  quandoquident  scripturarutn  prcB- 
sidio  hac  in  causa  destituimur.  As  if  he  should  sale.  Take  this 
as  spoken  probablie ;  to  wit,  by  humane  reason,  bicause  we  are 
destitute  of  scriptures  to  mainteine  the  goodnesse  of  the  cause. 

Tertullian  and  Sulpicius  Severus  doo  interpret  Filios  Dei  in  that 
place  to  be  angels,  or  evill  spirits,  and  to  have  beene  enamored  with 
the  beautie  of  those  wenches  ;  and  finallie,  begat  giants  by  /  them. 
Which  is  throughlie  confuted  by  Chrysostonie,  Horn.  22.  in  Gen :  but 
speciallie  by  the  circumstance  of  the  text. 

par.  2.  quce.  2. 
cap.  I.  col,  2. 

Leon.  Fuchsius 
dc  curandi 

Tertull.  hi 
libro  dc  habilu 
Sulp.  Sever,  in 
epitome  hist.  S8. 

The    twelfe    Chapter. 

The  censure  of  G.  Chaucer,  tepon  the  knaverie  of  Incttbus. 

pW  will  I  (after  all  this  long  discourse  of  abhominable 
^1  cloked  knaveries)  here  conclude  with  certeine  of  G. 
Chancers  verses,  who  as  he  smelt  out  the  absurdities 
fi|  of  poperie,  so  found  he  the  priests  knaverie  in  this 
matter  of  Incttbus,  and  (as  the  time  would  suffer  him)  he  derided 
their  follie  and  falshood  in  this  wise  : 

*  For  now  the  great  charitie  and praiers 
Of  limitors  and  other  hoiie  friers, 
That  searchen  everie  land  and  everie  streaine 
As  thicke  as  motes  in  the  sunne  beanie, \ 
Blissing  halles,  kitchens,  chambers  &•  bowers, 
Cities,  borroghes,  caste  Is  ajtd  hie  towers, 
Thropes,  barnes,  shepens,  and  dairies, 
This  makcth  that  there  beene  now  no  fairies  ; 

Geffr.  Chaic.  in 
the  beginning  of 
the  wile  of  Baths 


[» Ital.\ 

70  4  Booke.  The  discoverie 

For  there  as  ivootit  to  ivalken  was  an  elfe^ 
There  lualketh  now  the  li7nitor  himself e, 
■  In  U7iderfneales,  and  in  mornings, 
And  saitli  his  mattens  and  his  holie  things 
As  hegoeth  in  his  limitatiowne, 
Women  may  go  safelie  tip  and  downe, 
In  everie  btish,  and  under  everie  tree, 
[•  Text  j.i  There  nis  none  other  *  Incubus  but  hee,  &^c.j  / 

of  Witchcraft. 



^f  The  fft  Booke.  sg.   69. 

The   first    Chapter. 

Of  traiisformatio7is,  ridiculous  examples  bj-ottght  by   the  adver- 
saries for  the  confirmation  of  their  foolish  doctrine. 

|0W  that  I  may  with  the  verie  absurdities,  conteined 
in  their  owne  authors,  and  even  in  their  principall 
doctors  and  last  writers,  confound  them  that  main- 
teine  the  transubstantiations  of  witches  ;  I  will  shew 
you  certeine  proper  stuffe,  which  Bodin  (their  cheefe  champion  of  J-  ^°'^-  ^'*-  ^■ 
this  age)  hath  gathered  out  of  AI.  Mai.  and  others,  whereby  he  cap,  6. 
laboureth  to  establish  this  impossible,  incredible,  and  supernaturall, 
or  rather  unnaturall  doctrine  of  transubstantiation. 

First,  as  touching  the  divell  {Rodin  saith)    that   he   dooth  most   J-  Bodin 

,.  -,  ,.      ,  ,  i_'  ir     •     i  J  r         ■  abuseth  scripture 

properlie  and  commonlie  transiorme  himselie  mto  a  gote,  connrmmg   to  proove  a  He. 
that  opinion  by  the  2)3-  and  34.  oi  Esaie  :  where  there  is  no  one  title*   [*  =  tittle.] 
sounding  to  anie  such  purpose.     Howbeit,  he  sometimes  alloweth 
the  divell  the  shape  of  a  blacke  Moore,  and  as  he  saith  he  used  to 
appeare  to  Maivd  Cruse,  Kate  Darey,  and  fane  Harviller.     But  I 
mervell,  whether  the  divell  createth  himselfe,  when  he  appeareth  in 
the  likenesse  of  a  man  ;  or  whether  God  createth  him,  when  the 
divell  wisheth  it.     As  for  witches,  he  saith  they  speciallie  transub- 
stantiate themselves  into  wolves,  and  them  whom  they  bewitch  into 
asses  :  though  else-where  he  differ  somewhat  herein  /  from  himselfe.    go. 
But  though  he  afifirme,  that  it  may  be  naturallie  brought  to  passe,   Pudendis  tunc 
that  a  girle  shall  become  a  boie  ;  and  that  anie  female  may  be  turned   pentil'us^.'''""' 
into  the  male  :  yet  he  saith  the  same  hath  no  afifinitie  with  Lycan- 
thropia  ;  wherein  he  saith  also,  that  men  are  wholie  transformed,  and 
citeth  infinite  examples  hereof. 

First,  that  one  Garner  in  the  shape  of  a  woolfe  killed  a  girle  of  the 
age  of  twelve  yeares,  and  did  eat  up  hir  armes  and  legges,  and  carried 
the  rest  home  to  his  wife.  Item,  that  Peter  Bur  get,  and  Michael 
Werdon,  having  turned  themselves  with  an  ointment  into  woolves, 
killed,  and  finallie  did  eate  up  an  infinite  number  of  people.  Which 
lie  Wierus  dooth  sufficientlie  confute.  But  until!  you  see  and  read  jo.  ivier.  Ub.  6. 
that,  consider  whether  Peter  could  eate  rawe  flesh  without  sur-  '^''  '""^  '^"'  '^" 
fetting,  speciallie  flesh  of  his  owne  kind.  Item,  that  there  was  an 
arrowe  shot  into  a  woolves  thigh,  who  afterwards  being  turned  into  his 


5.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

J.  Bodinus 
[»Text  hduo.1 


A  warme  season 
to  swim  in. 

I  mervell  that 
they  forsake  not 
the  divell,  who 
punisheth  them 
so  sore :  ywis 
they  get  not  so 
much  at  his     n/. 


Leviti.  i6.  [26,22] 
Deut.  32.  [v.  24] 

former  shape  of  a  man,  was  found  in  his  bed,  with  the  arrowe  in  his 
thigh,  which  the  archer  that  shot  it  knew  verie  well.  Item,  that 
another  being  Lycanthropus  in  the  forme  of  a  woolfe,  had  his  woolves 
feet  cut  off,  and  in  a  moment  he  became  a  man  without  hands  or 

He  accuseth  also  one  of  the  mightiest  princes  in  christendome, 
even  of  late  daies,  to  be  one  of  those  kind  of  witches  (so  as  he  could, 
when  he  list,  turne  himselfe  to  a  woolfe)  affirming  that  he  was  espied 
and  oftentimes  scene  to  performe  that  villanie  ;  bicause  he  would  be 
counted  the  king  of  all  witches.  He  saith  that  this  transubstantiation 
is  most  common  in  Greece ^l  and  through  out  all  Asia^  as  merchant 
strangers  have  reported  to  him.  For  Anno  Doinini.  1542,  when 
Sultan  Soliinon  reigned,  there  was  such  force  and  multitude  of 
these  kind  of  woolves  in  Constantinople^  that  the  emperour  drave 
togither  in  one  flocke  150.  of  them,  which  departed  out  of  the  citie  in 
the  presence  of  all  the  people. 

To  persuade  us  the  more  throughlie  heerein,  he  saith,  that  in 
Livonia,  yearelie  (about  the  end  of  December)  a  certeine  knave  or 
divell  warneth  all  the  witches  in  the  countrie  to  come  to  a  certeine 
place  :  if  they  faile,  the  divell  commeth  and  whippeth  them  with  an 
iron  rod  ;  so  as  the  print  of  his  lashes  remaine  upon  their  bodies  for 
ever.  The  capteine  witch  leadeth  the  waie  through  a  /great  poole  of 
water  :  manie  millians  of  witches  swim  after.  They  are  no  'sooner 
passed  through  that  water,  but  they  are  all  transformed  into  woolves, 
and  flie  upon  and  devoure  both  men,  women,  cattell,  &c.  After  twelve 
daies  they  returne  through  the  same  water,  and  so  receive  humane 
shape  againe. 

Item,  that  there  was  one  Bajaniis  a.  Jew,  being  the  sonne  of  Simeon, 
which  could,  when  he  list,  turne  himselfe  into  a  woolfe  ;  and  by  that 
meanes  could  escape  the  force  and  danger  of  a  whole  armie  of  men. 
Which  thing  (saith  Bodin)  is  woonderfull:  but  yet  (saith  he)  it  is  much 
more  marvelous,  that  men  will  not  beleeve  it.  For  manie  poets 
affirme  it  ;  yea,  and  if  you  looke  well  into  the  matter  (saith  he)  you 
shall  find  it  easie  to  doo.  Item,  he  saith,  that  as  naturall  woolves  per- 
secute beasts;  so  doo  these  magicall  woolves  devoure  men,  women,  and 
children.  And  yet  God  saith  to  the  people  (I  trowe)  and  not  to  the 
cattell  of  Israeli  ;  If  you  observe  not  my  commandements,  I  will  send 
among  you  the  beasts  of  the  feeld,  which  shall  devoure  both  you  and 
your  cattell.  Item,  I  will  send  the  teeth  of  beasts  upon  you.  Where  is 
Bodins  distinction  now  become  ?  He  never  saith,  I  will  send  witches 
in  the  likenes  of  wolves,  &c  :  to  devoure  you  or  your  cattell. 
Nevertheles,  Bodin  saith  it  is  a  cleare  case  :  for  the  matter  was  dis- 
puted upon  before  pope  Leo  the  seventh,  and  by  him  all  these  matters 

of  Witchcraft. 


were  judged  possible  :  and  at  that  time  (saith  he)  were  the  transforma- 
tions of  Ltician  and  Apideius  made  canonicall. 

Furthermore  he  saith,  that  through  this  art  they  are  so  cunning  that 
no  man  can  apprehend  them,  but  when  they  are  a  sleepe.  Item,  he 
nameth  another  witch,  that  (as  M.  Mai.  saith)  could  not  be  caught, 
bicause  he  would  transforme  himselfe  into  a  mouse,  and  runne  into 
everie  little  hole,  till  at  length  he  was  killed  comming  out  of  the  hole  of 
a  jamme  in  a  windowe  :  which  indeed  is  as  possible,  as  a  camell  to  go 
through  a  needels  eie.  Item,  he  saith,  that  diverse  witches  at  Vernon 
turned  themselves  into  cats,  and  both  committed  and  received  much 
hurt.  But  at  Argentine  there  was  a  wonderfull  matter  done,  by  three 
witches  of  great  wealth,  who  transforming  themselves  into  three  cats, 
assalted  a  faggot-maker  :  who  having  hurt  them  all  with  a  faggot 
sticke,  was  like  to  have  beene  put  to  death.  But  he  was  miraculouslie 
delivered,  and  they  worthilie  punished  ;  as  the  storie  saith,  from 
whence/  Bodin  had  it. 

After  a  great  manie  other  such  beastlie  fables,  he  inveieth  against 
such  physicians,  as  sale  that  Lycanthropia  is  a  disease,  and  not  a 
transformation.  Item,  he  mainteineth,  as  sacred  and  true,  all  Homers 
fables  of  Circes  and/  Ulyffes  his  companions  :  inveieng  against  Cliry- 
sosionie,  who  rightlie  interpreteth  *//omers  meaning  to  be,  that  Ulyffes 
his  people  were  by  the  harlot  Circes  made  in  their  brutish  maners  to 
resemble  swine. 

But  least  some  poets  fables  might  be  thought  lies  (whereby  the 
witchmongers  arguments  should  quaile)  he  mainteineth  for  true  the 
most  part  of  Ovids  Metamorphosis.,  and  the  greatest  absurdities  and 
impossibilities  in  all  that  booke :  marie  he  thinketh  some  one  tale 
therein  may  be  fained.  Finallie,  he  confirmeth  all  these  toies  by  the 
storie  of  Nabuchadnez-znr.  And  bicause  (saith  he)  Nabuchadnes-sar 
continued  seven  yeres  in  the  shape  of  a  beast,  therefore  may  witches 
remaine  so  long  in  the  forme  of  a  beast  ;  having  in  all  the  meane 
time,  the  shape,  haire,  voice,  strength,  agilitie,  swiftnes,  food  and 
excrements  of  beasts,  and  yet  reserve  the  minds  and  soules  of 
women  or  men.  Howbeit,  S.  Aiigtestitte  (whether  to  confute  or  con- 
firme  that  opinion  judge  you)  saith  ;  Nan  est  credendum,  hianamtm 
corpus  dcBVionum  arte  vel  potestate  in  bestialia  lineamenta 
converti  posse :  We  may  not  beleeve  that  a  mans  bodie  may  be 
altered  into  the  lineaments  of  a  beast  by  the  divels  art  or  power. 
Item,  Bodin  saith,  that  the  reason  whie  witches  are  most  commonlie 
turned  into  woolves,  is  ;  bicause  they  usuallie  eate  children,  as 
woolves  eate  cattell.  Item,  that  the  cause  whie  other  are  truelie 
turned  into  asses,  is  ;  for  that  such  have  beene  desirous  to  understand 
the   secrets   of    witches.      Whie   witches    are   turned    into   cats,  he 


Stasus  a  witch 
could  not  be 
and  why  ? 

J.  Bodin. 
Mai.  male/. 

John.  Bodin. 
Mai.  male/. 
Barth.  Spin. 

Mai.  viaUf. 
fart.  3. 

An  error  abont 



A?/ gust  lib.  8 
dc  civil.  Dei. 
cap.  18. 
Idem.  lib.  de 
spiritu  &='anima, 
cap.  26. 


5.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 



J.  Bod.  lib.  2. 
de  viag.  diemon. 
cap.  6. 

Gen.  19,  24.     lyp 
&^26.  &27.      ''*• 

y.  Bod  lib.  de 
dcevion.  2. 
cap.  20. 
M.  Mai.  pa.  1. 
qua.  9. 


John.  Bodin.  lib. 
de  dcemon.  2. 
cap.  I. 

alledgeth  no  reason,  and  therefore  (to  helpe  him  foorth  with  that 
paraphrase)  I  saie,  that  witches  are  curst  queanes,  and  manie  times 
scratch  one  another,  or  their  neighbours  by  the  faces  ;  and  therefore 
perchance  are  turned  into  cats.  But  I  have  put  twentie  of  these 
witchmongers  to  silence  with  this  one  question  ;  to  wit.  Whether  a 
witch  that  can  turne  a  woman  into  a  cat,  &c  :  can  also  turne  a  cat 
into  a  woman  ?/ 

The   second   Chapter. 

Absurd  reasons  brought  by  Bodin.,  and  stcch  others,  for  confirmation 
of  transfortiiations. 

HESE  Examples  and  reasons  might  put  us  in  doubt,  that 
everie  asse,  woolfe,  or  cat  that  we  see,  were  a  man,  a 
woman,  or  a  child.  I  marvel!  that  no  man  useth  this 
distinction  in  the  definition  of  a  man.  But  to  what  end 
should  one  dispute  against  these  creations,  and  recreations  ;  when 
Bodifi  washeth  away  all  our  arguments  with  one  word,  confessing  that 
none  can  create  any  thing  but  God  ;  acknowledging  also  the  force  of 
the  canons,  and  imbracing  the  opinions  of  such  divines,  as  write 
against  him  in  this  behalfe  ?  Yea  he  dooth  now  (contrarie  to  him- 
selfe  elsewhere)  afifirme,  that  the  divell  cannot  alter  his  forme.  And 
lo,  this  is  his  distinction,  Non  essentialis  forma  {id  est  ratio)  sedfigura 
solitm  penmitatnr :  The  essential!  forme  (to  wit,  reason)  is  not 
changed,  but  the  shape  or  figure.  And  thereby  he  prooveth  it  easie 
enough  to  create  men  or  beasts  with  life,  so  as  they  remaine  without 
reason.  Howbeit,  I  thinke  it  is  an  easier  matter,  to  turne  Bodins 
reason  into  the  reason  of  an  asse,  than  his  bodie  into  the  shape  of  a 
sheepe  :  which  he  saith  is  an  easie  matter  ;  bicause  Lots  /  wife  was 
turned  into  a  stone  by  the  divell.  Whereby  he  sheweth  his  grosse 
ignorance.  As  though  God  that  commanded  Zf/  upon  paine  of  death 
not  to  looke  backe,  who  also  destroied  the  citie  of  Sodome  at  that 
instant,  had  not  also  turned  hir  into  a  salt  stone.  And  as  though 
all  this  while  God  had  beene  the  divels  drudge,  to  go  about  this 
businesse  all  the  night  before,  and  when  a  miracle  should  be  wrought, 
the  divell  must  be  faine  to  doo  it  himselfe. 

Item,  he  affirmeth,  that  these  kind  of  transfigurations  are  more 
common  with  them  in  the  west  parts  of  the  world,  than  with  us  here 
in  the  east.  Howbeit,  this  note  is  given  withall  ;  that  that  is  ment  of 
the  second  persons,  and  not  of  the  first  :  to  wit,  of  the  bewitched,  and 
not  of  the  witches.  For  they  can  trans/forme  themselves  in  everie 
part  of  the  world,  whether  it  be  east,  west,  north,  or  south.  Marrie  he 
saith,  that  spirits  and  divels  vex  men  most  in  the  north  countries,  as 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  3. 


Nonvay,  Finland,  &^c :  and  in  the  westerne  Hands,  as  in  the  west 
Indta :  but  among  the  heathen  speciaUie,  and  wheresoever  Christ  is 
not  preached.  And  that  is  true,  though  not  in  so  foolish,  grosse,  and 
corporall  a  sense  as  Bodz'n  taketh  it.  One  notable  instance  of  a 
witches  cunning  in  this  behalfe  touched  by  Bodin  in  the  chapter 
aforesaid,  I  thought  good  in  this  place  to  repeat  :  he  taketh  it  out  of 
M.  Mai.  which  tale  was  delivered  to  Sprenger  by  a  knight  of  the 
Rhods,  being  of  the  order  of  S.  Jones  at  Jertisalem  ;  and  it  followeth 

The   third    Chapter. 

Of  a  man  turned  into  an  asse,  and  returned  againe  into  a  man  by 
one  0/ Bodins  witches :  S.  Augustines  opi7iio7i  thereof. 

T  happened  in  the  city  of  Salamin.,  in  the  kingdome  of 
Cyp7-us  (wherein  is  a  good  haven)  that  a  ship  loaden  with 
merchandize  staled  there  for  a  short  space.  In  the  meane 
time  many  of  the  souldiers  and  mariners  went  to  shoare, 
to  provide  fresh  victuals.  Among  which  number,  a  certaine  English 
man,  being  a  sturdie  yoong  fellowe,  went  to  a  womans  house,  a  little 
waie  out  of  the  citie,  and  not  farre  from  the  sea  side,  to  see  whether 
she  had  anie  egs  to  sell.  Who  perceiving  him  to  be  a  lustie  yoong 
fellowe,  a  stranger,  and  farre  from  his  countrie  (so  as  upon  the  losse 
of  him  there  would  be  the  lesse  misse  or  inquirie)  she  considered 
with  hir  selfe  how  to  destroie  him  ;  and  willed  him  to  stale  there 
awhile,  whilest  she  went  to  fetch  a  few  egs  for  him.  But  she  tarried 
long,  so  as  the  yoong  man  called  unto  hir,  desiring  hir  to  make  hast  : 
for  he  told  hir  that  the  tide  would  be  spent,  and  by  that  meanes  his 
ship  would  be  gone,  and  leave  him  behind.  Howbeit,  after  some 
detracting  of  time,  she  brought  him  a  few  egs,  willing  him  to  returne  to 
hir,  if  his  ship  were  gone  when  he  came.  The  young  fel/lowe  returned 
towards  his  ship  :  but  before  he  went  aboord,  hee  would  needs  eate 
an  eg  or  twaine  to  satisfie  his  hunger,  and  within  short  space  he 
became  dumb  and  out  of  his  wits  (as  he  afterwards  said.)  When  he 
would  have  entred  into  the  ship,  the  mariners  beat  him  backe  with  a 
cudgell,  saieng  ;  What  a  murren  lacks  the  asse  ?  Whi/ther  the  divell 
will  this  asse  ?  The  asse  or  yoong  man  (I  cannot  tell  by  which  name 
I  should  terme  him)  being  many  times  repelled,  and  understanding 
their  words  that  called  him  asse,  considering  that  he  could  speake 
never  a  word,  and  yet  could  understand  everie  bodie  ;  he  thought 
that  he  was  bewitched  by  the  woman,  at  whose  house  he  was.  And 
therefore,  when  by  no  meanes  he  could  get  into  the  boate,  but  was 
driven  to  tarrie  and  see  hir  departure  ;  being  also  beaten  fiom  place 

Mai.  malefic, 
far.  2.  quce.  2. 
cap.  4. 

What  the  divel 
shuld  the  witch 
meane  to  make 
chois  of  the 
English  man  ? 


A  stran<;e  meta- 
morphosis, of 
bodie,  but  not 
of  mind. 


76  .sBooke.  The  discoverif 

to  place,  as  an  asse  :  he  remembred  the  witches  words,  and  the 
words  of  his  owne  fellowes  that  called  him  asse,  and  returned  to  the 
witches  house,  in  whose  service  hee  remained  by  the  space  of  three 
yeares,  dooing  nothing  with  his  hands  all  that  while,  but  carried  such 
burthens  as  she  laied  on  his  backe  ;  having  onelie  this  comfort,  that 
although  he  were  reputed  an  asse  among  strangers  and  beasts,  yet 
that  both  this  witch,  and  all  other  witches  knew  him  to  be  a  man. 

After  three  yeares  were  passed  over,  in  a  morning  betimes  he  went 

to  towne  before  his  dame  ;  who  upon  some  occasion  (of  like  to  make 

water)  staied  a  little  behind.     In  the  meane  time  being  neere  to  a 

Note  the  devo-       church,  he  heard  a  little  saccaring  bell  ring  to  the  elevation  of  a 

tion  of  the  asse.  '  &  & 

morrowe  masse,  and  not  daring  to  go  into  the  church,  least  he  should 
have  beene  beaten  and  driven  out  with  cudgels,  in  great  devotion  he 
fell  downe  in  the  churchyard,  upon  the  knees  of  his  hinder  legs,  and 
did  lift  his  forefeet  over  his  head,  as  the  preest  doth  hold  the  sacra- 
ment at  the  elevation.  Which  prodigious  sight  when  certeine 
merchants  of  Genua  espied,  and  with  woonder  beheld  ;  anon  commeth 
the  witch  with  a  cudgell  in  hir  hand,  beating  foorth  the  asse.  And 
bicause  (as  it  hath  beene  said)  such  kinds  of  witchcrafts  are  verie 
usuall  in  those  parts  ;  the  merchants  aforesaid  made  such  meanes,  as 
both  the  asse  and  the  witch  were  attached  by  the  judge.  And  she 
being  examined  and  set  upon  the  racke,  confessed  the  whole  matter, 
and  promised,  that  if  she  might  have  libertie  to  go  home,  she  would 
g6.  restore  him  to  his  old/  shape  :  and  being  dismissed,  she  did  according- 
lie.  So  as  notwithstanding  they  apprehended  hir  againe,  and  burned 
hir:  and  the  yoong  man  returned  into  his  countrie  with  a  joifull  and 
merrie  hart. 
August  lib.  18.  Upon  the  advantage  of  this  storie  M.  Mai.  Bodin,  and  the  residue 

f^i/'i7  &-'i8.  of  the  witchmongers  triumph;  and  speciallie  bicause  S,  Ati^a^nstme 
subscribeth  thereunto;  or  at  the  least  to  the  verie  like.  Which  I 
must  confesse  I  find  too  common  in  his  books,  insomuch  as  I  judge 
them  rather  to  be  foisted  in  by  some  fond  papist  or  witchmonger,  than 
so  learned  a  mans  dooings.  The  best  is,  that  he  himselfe  is  no  eie- 
witnesse  to  any  of  those  his  tales;  but  speaketh  onelie  by  report; 
wherein  he  uttereth  these  words  :  to  wit,  that  It  were  a  point  of  great 
incivilitie,  (S:c:  to  discredit  so  manie  and  so  certeine  reports.  And  in 
that  respect  he  justifieth  the  corporall  transfigurations  of  Ulysses  his 
mates,  throgh  the  witchcraft  of  Circes :  and  that  foolish  fable  of 
Prcestantius  his  father,  who  (he  saith)  did  eate  provender  and  haie 
At  the  alps  in  among  other  horsses,  being  himselfe  turned  into  an  horsse.  Yea  he 
^*^^  ''^'  verifieth  the  starkest  lie  that  ever  was  invented,  of  the  two  alewives 

that  used  to  transforme  all  their  ghests  into  horsses,  and  to  sell  them 
awaie  at  markets  and  faires.     And  therefore  I  saie  with  Cardamis, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap,  4. 


that  how  much  Augustin  saith  he  hath  seen  with  his  eies,  so  much  I 
am/  content  to  beleeve.  Howbeit  S.  Augiistin  concludeth  against 
Bodin.  For  he  affirmeth  these  transubstantiations  to  be  but  fantas- 
tical!, and  that  they  are  not  according  to  the  veritie,  but  according  to 
the  appearance.  And  yet  I  cannot  allow  of  such  appearances  made 
by  witches,  or  yet  by  divels  :  for  I  find  no  such  power  given  by  God 
to  any  creature.  And  I  would  wit  of  S.  Augustine,  where  they  be- 
came, whom  Bodins  transformed  woolves  devoured.     But 

6  qucim 

Credula  metis  hofinnis,  Sr'  erectcB  fabtilis  aures  ! 

*  Good  Lord !  how  light  of  credit  is 

the  waveriug  mind  of  matt  ! 
How  unto  tales  and  lies  his  eares 

attentive  all  they  can  ?l 
Generall  councels,  and  the  popes  canons,  which  ^^^/«  so  regardeth, 
doo  condemne  and  pronounce  his  opinions  in  this  behalfe  to  be 
absurd;  and  the  residue  of  the  witchmongers,  with  himselfe  in  the 
number,  to  be  woorsse  than  infidels.  And  these  are  the  verie  words 
of  the  canons,  which  else-where  I  have  more  largelie  repeated;  Who- 
soever beleeveth,  that  anie  creature  can  be  made  or  changed  into 
better  or  woorsse,  or  transformed  into  anie  other  shape,  or  into  anie 
other  similitude,  by  anie  other  than  by  God  himselfe  the  creator  of  all 
things,  without  all  doubt  is  an  infidell,  and  woorsse  than  a  pagan. 
And  therewithall  this  reason  is  rendered,  to  wit :  bicause  they 
attribute  that  to  a  creature,  which  onelie  belongeth  to  God  the  creator 
of  all  things. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

A  sum  marie  of  the  former  fable,  with  a  refutation  thereof,  after  due 
exatnination  of  the  same. 

ONCERNING  the  veritie  or  probabilitie  of  this  enterlude, 
betwixt  Bodin,  M.  Alal.  the  witch,  the  asse,  the  masse, 
the  merchants,  the  inquisitors,  the  tormentors,  &c:  First 
I  woonder  at  the  miracle  of  transubstantiation:  Secondlie 

Card,  de  Var. 
reruni.  lib.  15 
cap.  80.  74. 

August.  Lib.  18. 
de  civit.  Dei. 

Englished  by 


Canon.  26. 
quce.  5.  episcopi 
ex  con.  acquir, 

at  the  impudencie  of  Bodin  and  fames  Sprenger,  for  affirming  so 
grosse  a  lie,  devised  beelike  by  the  knight  of  the  Rhodes,  to  make  a 
foole  of  Sprenger,  and  an  asse  of  Bodin :  Thirdlie,  that  the  asse  had 
no  more  wit  than  to  kneele  downe  and  hold  up  his  forefeete  to  a  peece 
of  starch  or  flowre,  which  neither  would,  nor  could,  nor  did  helpehim: 
Fourthlie,  that  the  masse  could  not  reforme  that  which  the  witch 
transformed:  Fiftlie,  that  the  merchants,  the  inquisitors,  and  the  tor- 
mentors, could  not  either  severallie  or  jointlie  doo  it,  but  referre  the 
matter  to  the  witches  courtesie  and  good  pleasure. 


5-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Hisshnpe  was 
in  the  woods : 
where  else 
should  it  be  f 


Mai.  maUf. 
par.  I.  qua.  2, 

In  my  discourse 
of  spirits  and 
divels,  being  the 
17  booke  of  this 

Dan.  in  dialog. 
cap.  J. 


August,  lib.  de 
civit.  Dei.  cap. 

But  where  was  the  yoong  mans  ovvne  shape  all  these  three  yeares, 
wherein  he  was  made  an  asse .''  It  is  a  certeine  and  a  general!  rule, 
that  two  substantial!  formes  cannot  be  in  one  subject  Simul  &^  seinel, 
both  at  once:  which  is  confessed  by  themselves.  The/ forme  of  the 
beast  occupied  some/  place  in  the  aire,  and  so  I  thinke  should  the 
forme  of  a  man  doo  also.  For  to  bring  the  bodie  of  a  man,  without 
feeling,  into  such  a  thin  airie  nature,  as  that  it  can  neither  be  seene 
nor  felt,  it  may  well  be  unlikelie,  but  it  is  verie  impossible:  for  the 
aire  is  inconstant,  and  continueth  not  in  one  place.  So  as  this  airie 
creature  would  soone  be  carried  into  another  region:  as  else-where  I 
have  largelie  prooved.  But  indeed  our  bodies  are  visible,  sensitive, 
and  passive,  and  are  indued  with  manie  other  excellent  properties, 
which  all  the  divels  in  hell  are  not  able  to  alter:  neither  can  one  haire 
of  our  head  perish,  or  fall  awaie,  or  be  transformed,  without  the 
speciall  providence  of  God  almightie. 

But  to  proceed  unto  the  probabilitie  of  this  storie.  What  lucke  was 
it,  that  this  yoong  fellow  of  Etigland,  landing  so  latelie  in  those  parts, 
and  that  old  woman  of  Cyprus,  being  both  of  so  base  a  condition, 
should  both  understand  one  anothers  communication;  Englaiid  and 
Cyprus  being  so  manie  hundred  miles  distant,  and  their  languages  so 
farre  differing  ?  I  am  sure  in  these  daies,  wherein  trafificke  is  more 
used,  and  learning  in  more  price;  few  yong  or  old  mariners  in  this 
realme  can  either  speake  or  understand  the  language  spoken  at 
Salamin  in  Cyprus,  which  is  a  kind  of  Grecke;  and  as  few  old  women 
there  can  speake  our  language.  But  BodinwiW  saie;  You  heare,  that 
at  the  inquisitors  commandement,  and  through  the  tormentors  correc- 
tion, she  promised  to  restore  him  to  his  owne  shape:  and  so  she  did, 
as  being  thereunto  compelled.  I  answer,  that  as  the  whole  storie  is 
an  impious  fable;  so  this  assertion  is  false,  and  disagreeable  to  their 
owne  doctrine,  which  mainteineth,  that  the  witch  dooth  nothing  but 
by  the  permission  and  leave  of  God.  For  if  she  could  doo  or  undoo 
such  a  thing  at  hir  owne  pleasure,  or  at  the  commandement  of  the 
inquisitors,  or  for  feare  of  the  tormentors,  or  for  love  of  the  partie,  or 
for  remorse  of  conscience:  then  is  it  not  either  by  the  extraordinarie 
leave,  nor  yet  by  the  like  direction  of  God;  except  you  will  make  him 
a  confederate  with  old  witches.  I  for  my  part  woonder  most,  how 
they  can  turne  and  tosse  a  mans  bodie  so,  and  make  it  smaller  and 
greater,  to  wit,  like  a  mowse,  or  like  an  asse,  &c:  and  the  man  all  this 
while  to  feele  no  paine.  And  I  am  not  alone  in  this  maze:  for 
DancEtts  a  special  mainteiner  of  their  fol/lies  saith,  that  although 
Augustine  and  Apuleius  doo  write  verie  crediblie  of  these  matters  ; 
yet  will  he  never  beleeve,  that  witches  can  change  men  into  other 
formes  ;  as  asses,  apes,  woolves,  beares,  mice,  &c. 

of  Witchc7'aft,  chap.  5.  79 

The   fift    Chapter. 

That  the  bodie  of  a  man  cannot  be  turned  into  the  bodie  of  a  beast  by 
a  witch,  is  grooved  by  strong  reasons,  scriptures,  attd  authorities. 

|UT  was  this  man  an  asse  all  this  while?     Or  was  this 
asse  a  man  ?     Bodin  saith  (his  reason  onelie  reserved)  he 
was    trulie  transubstantiated  into  an  asse  ;  so  as  there 
must  be  no  part  of  a  man,  but  reason  remaining  in  this 
asse.     And  yet  Hermes  Trisinegistus  \}cv\vik^'Ci\  he  hath  good  authoritie    Hermes  Ttisme 
and  reason  to  saie  ;  A  Hud  corpus  qud.m  htimanum  non  capere  animam    'Jlv!'" 
humanam  ;  necjfas  esse  in  corpus  aninice  ratione  carentis  animam   76. 
rationalcni  corrtiere  ;  that  is  ;  An  humane  soule  cannot  receive  anie 
other  than  an  humane  bodie,  nor  yet  canne  light  into  a  bodie  that 
wanteth  reason  of  mind.     But  S.yaw^fJ  saith;  the  bodie  without  the    Jam.  3,  26. 
spirit  is  dead.     And  surelie,  when  the  soule  is  departed  from  the 
bodie,  the  life  of  man  is  dissolved:  and  therefore  Patde  wished  to  be    Phiii.  i,  23. 
dissolved,  when  he  would  have  beene  with  Christ.     The  bodie  of  man 
is  subject  to  divers  kinds  of  agues,  sicknesses,  and  infirmities,  where- 
unto  an  asses  bodie  is  not  inclined:  and  mans  bodie  must  be  fed  with 
bread,  &c  :  and  not  with  hay.     Bodiiis  asseheaded  man  must  either 
eate  haie,  or  nothing:  as  appeareth  in  the  storie.     Mans  bodie  also  is 
subject  unto  death,  and  hath  his  dales  numbred.     If  this  fellowe  had 
died  in  the  meane  time,  as  his  houre  might  have  beene  come,  for  anie 
thing  the  divels,  the  witch,  or  Bodin  knew;  I  mervell  then  what  would 
have  become  of  this  asse,  or  how  the  witch  could  have  restored  him 
to  shape,  or  whether  he  should  have  risen  at  the  dale  of  judgement  in 
an  asses  bodie  and  shape.     For  Paule  saith,  that  that  verie  bodie    iCor.  15.  44. 
which  is  sowne  and  buried  a  naturall  bodie,  is  raised/  a  spirituall  bodie.    100. 
The  life  of  Jesus  is  made  manifest  in  our  mortall  flesh,  and  not  in  the 
flesh  of  an  asse. 

God  hath  endued  everie  man  and  everie  thing  with  his  proper 
nature,  substance,  forme,  qualities,  and  gifts,  and  directeth  their 
waies.  As  for  the  waies  of  an  asse,  he  taketh  no  such  care  :  howbeit, 
they  have  also  their  properties  and  substance  severall  to  themselves. 
For  there  is  one  flesh  (saith  Paule)  of  men,  another  flesh  of  beasts,  i.  Cor.  15, 39. 
another  of  fishes,  another  of  birds.  And  therefore  it  is  absolutelie 
against  the  ordinance  of  God  (who  hath  made  me  a  man)  that  I  should 
flie  like  a  bird,  or  swim  like  a  fish,  or  creepe  like  a  worme,  or  become 
an  asse  in  shape:  insomuch  as  if  God  would  give  me  leave,  I  cannot 
doo  it;  for  it  were  contrarie  to  his  ovvne  order  and  decree,  and  to  the 
constitution  of  anie  bodie  which  he  hath  made.     Yea  the  spirits  them-    Psal.  119. 


5.  Booke. 

The  discover ie 

I.  Cor.  6,  19 
verse.  15,  &^c 
verse.  2. 
verse.  13. 


Psalm.  8. 

verses  5,  6,  7,  8. 


selves  have  their  lawes  and  limits  prescribed,  beyond  the  which  they 
cannot  passe  one  haires  breadth;  otherwise  God  should  be  contrarie 
to  himselfe:  which  is  farre  from  him.  Neither  is  Gods  omnipotencie 
hereby  qualified,  but  the  divels  impotencie  manifested,  who  hath  none 
other  power,  but  that  which  God  from  the  beginning  hath  appointed 
unto  him,  consonant  to  his  nature  and  substance.  He  may  well  be 
restreined  from  his  power  and  will,  but  beyond  the  same  he  cannot 
passe,  as  being  Gods  minister,  no  further  but  in  that  which  he  hath 
from  the  beginning  enabled  him  to  doo:  which  is,  that  he  being  a 
spirit,  may  with  Gods  leave  and  ordinance  viciat  and  corrupt  the  spirit 
and  will  of  man  :  wherein  he  is  verie  diligent. 

What  a  beastlie  assertion  is  it,  that  a  man,  whom  GOD  hath  made 
according  to  his  owne  similitude  and  likenes,  should  be  by  a  witch 
turned  into  a  beast .?     What  an  impietie  is  it  to  affirme,  that  an  asses 
bodie  is  the  temple  of  the  Holy-ghost.''     Or  anasseto  be  the  child  of 
God,  and  God  to  be  his  father  ;  as  it  is  said  of  man  ?     Which  Paule 
to  the  Corinthiatis  so  divinelie  confuteth,  who  saith,  that  Our  bodies 
are  the  members  of  Christ.     In  the  which  we  are  to  glorifie  God:  for 
the  bodie  is  for  the  Lord,  and  the  Lord  is  for  the  bodie.     Surelie  he 
meaneth  not  for  an  asses  bodie,  as  by  this  time  I  hope  appeareth:  in 
such  wise  as  Bodin  may  go  hide  him  for  /  shame;  especiallie  when  he 
shall  understand,  that  even  into  these  our  bodies,  which  God  hath 
framed  after  his  owne  like/nesse,  he  hath  also  brethed  that  spirit,  which 
Bodm  saith  is  now  remaining  within  an  asses  bodie,  which  God  hath 
so  subjected  in  such  servilitie  under  the  foote  of  man;  Of  whom  God  is 
so  mindfull,  that  he  hath  made  him  little  lower  than  angels,  yea  than 
himselfe,  and  crowned  him  with  glorie  and  worship,  and  made  him  to 
have  dominion  over  the  workes  of  his  hands,  as  having  put  all  things 
under  his  feete,  all  sheepe  and  oxen,  yea  woolves,  asses,  and  all  other 
beasts  of  the  field,  the  foules  of  the  aire,  the  fishes  of  the  sea,  &c. 
Bodins  poet,  Ovid,  whose  MetamorpJiosis  make  so   much  for  him, 
saith  to  the  overthrow  of  this  phantasticall  imagination  : 
Os  homini  sublime  dedif,  cceh'imque  vide  re 
Jnssit,  &=  erectos  ad  sydera  tollere  vultus. 
The  effect  of  which  verses  is  this  ; 
*  The  Lord  did  set  mans  face  so  hie, 
That  he  the  heavens  might  behold, 
And  looke  tip  to  the  starrie  skie. 
To  see  his  woo7iders  manifold. 

Now,  if  a  witch  or  a  divell  can  so  alter  the  shape  of  a  man,  as  con- 
trarilie  to  make  him  looke  downe  to  hell,  like  a  beast  ;  Gods  works 
should  not  onelie  be  defaced  and  disgraced,  but  his  ordinance  should 
be  woonderfullie  altered,  and  thereby  confounded. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chnp.  6. 

The  sixt  Chapter. 

The  witchmoiigers  objections,    concerning    Nabuchadnes-zar    an- 
swered, a7id  their  errour  concei'uing  Lycanthro-pia  confuted. 

ALLEUS  MALEFICARUM,  Bodin,  and  manie  other  of 
them  that  mainteine  witchcraft,  triumph  upon  the  storie  of 
Nabuchadttes-sar ;  as  though  Circes  had  transformed  him 
with  hir  sorceries  into  an  oxe,  as  she  did  others  into 
swine,  (ic.  I  answer,  that  he  was  neither  in  bodie  nor  shape  trans- 
formed at  all,  accor/ding  to  their  grosse  imagination  ;  as  appeareth 
both  by  the  plaine  words  of  the  text,  and  also  by  the  opinions  of  the 
best  interpretors  thereof  :  but  that  he  was,  for  his  beastlie  government 
and  conditions,  throwne  out  of  his  kingdome  and  banished  for  a 
time,  and  driven  to  hide  himselfe  in  the  wildernesse,  there  in  exile  to 
lead  his  life  in  beastlie  sort,  among  beasts  of  the  field,  and  fowles  of 
the  aire  (for  by  the  waie  I  tell  you  it  appeareth  by  the  text,  that  he 
was  rather  turned  into  the  shape  of  a  fowle  than  of  a  beast)  untill  he 
rejecting  his  beastlie  conditions,  was  upon  his  repentance  and  amend- 
ment called  home,  and  restored  unto  his  kingdome.  Howbeit,  this 
(by  their  confession)  was  neither  divels  nor  witches  dooing  ;  but  a 
miracle  wrought  by  God,  whom  alone  I  acknowledge  to  be  able  to 
bring  to  passe  such  workes  at  his  pleasure.  Wherein  I  would  know 
what  our  witchmongers  have  gained./ 

I  am  not  ignorant  that  some  write,  that  after  the  death  of  Nabuchad- 
nez-sar,  his  sonne  *Eilnmorodath  gave  his  bodie  to  the  ravens  to  be 
devoured,  least  afterwards  his  father  should  arise  from  death,  who  of 
a  beast  became  a  man  againe.     But  this  tale  is  meeter  to  have  place 
in  the  Cabalisticall  art,  to  wit  :  among  unwritten  verities  than  here. 
To  conclude,   I  sale   that   the  transformations,  which  these   witch- 
mongers  doo  so  rave  and  rage  upon,  is  (as  all  the  learned  sort  of 
physicians  afifirme)   a  disease   proceeding  partlie  from  melancholie, 
wherebie  manie  suppose  themselves  to  be  woolves,  or  such  ravening 
beasts.     For  Lycanthropia  is  of  the  ancient  physicians  called  Liipina 
melancholia,  or  Lnpina  insania.  J.  Wierus  declareth  verie  learnedlie, 
the  cause,  the  circumstance,  and  the  cure  of  this  disease.     I  have 
written  the  more  herein  ;  bicause  hereby  great  princes  and 
potentates,  as  well  as  poore  women  and  innocents, 
have  beene  defamed  and  accounted 
among    the   number 
of  witches./ 

worke  is 
as  sure  as 
to  hold  a 
quick  eele 
by  the 

an.  4. 


Cor.  A  grip,  de 
vanit.  scient. 
cap.  44. 

[*  tr.  of  Euill 

Paul.  Aegi- 
net.  It.  3.  c.  16, 
Aetius.  lib.  6. 
cap.  II. 
J.  IVicr.  de 
prcest.  dam. 
lib.  4.  cap.  23, 



=;.  Booke. 

The  discove7'ie 


Matth.  4,  8. 
Luk.  3,  9. 

Answer  to 
the  former 

Matt.  26,  53. 

Job.  I,  II. 
Job.  2,  5. 



J.  Calvin e  in 
harmon.  E- 
vang.  in 
Matth.  4.  <&^ 
L7tk.  4. 

The  seventh  Chapter. 

A  speciall  objection  answered  concernitig  tra7isportations,  with  the 
consent  of  diverse  writers  thereupon. 

I  OR  the  maintenarice  of  witches  transportations,  they 
object  the  words  of  the  Gospell,  where  the  divell  is  said  to 
take  up  Christ,  and  t©  set  him  on  a  pinnacle  of  the 
temple,  and  on  a  mountaine,  &c.  Which  if  he  had  doone 
in  maner  and  forme  as  they  suppose,  it  followeth  not  therefore  that 
witches  could  doo  the  like  ;  nor  yet  that  the  divell  would  doo  it  for 
them  at  their  pleasure  ;  for  they  know  not  their  thoughts,  neither  can 
otherwise  communicate  with  them.  But  I  answer,  that  if  it  were  so 
grosselie  to  be  understood,  as  they  imagine  it,  yet  should  it  make 
nothing  to  their  purpose.  For  I  hope  they  will  not  saie,  that  Christ 
had  made  anie  ointments,  or  entred  into  anie  league  with  the  divell, 
and  by  vertue  thereof  was  transported  from  out  of  the  wildernes,  unto 
the  top  of  the  temple  of  Jerusalem  ;  or  that  the  divell  could  have 
maisteries  over  his  bodie,  whose  soule  he  could  never  laie  hold  upon  ; 
especiallie  when  he  might  (with  a  becke  of  his  finger)  have  called  unto 
him,  and  have  had  the  assistance  of  manie  legions  of  angels.  Neither 
(as  I  thinke)  will  they  presume  to  make  Christ  partaker  of  the  divels 
purpose  and  sinne  in  that  behalfe.  If  they  saie  ;  This  was  an  action 
wrought  by  the  speciall  providence  of  God,  and  by  his  appointment, 
that  the  scripture  might  be  fulfilled  :  then  what  gaine  our  witch- 
mongers  by  this  place  ?  First,  for  that  they  maie  not  produce  a  par- 
ticular example  to  prove  so  generall  an  argument.  And  againe,  if  it 
were  by  Gods  speciall  providence  and  appointment ;  then  why  should 
it  not  be  doone  by  the  hand  of  God,  as  it  was  in  the  storie  of  Job  ? 
Or  if  it  were  Gods  speciall  purpose  and  pleasure,  that  there  should  be 
so  extraordinarie  a  matter  brought  to  passe  by  the  hand  of  the  divell; 
could  not  God  have  given  to  the  wicked  angell  extraordinarie  power, 
and  cloathed  him  with  extraordinarie  shape  ;  where/by  he  might  be 
made  an  instrument  able  to  accomplish  that  matter,  as  he  did  to  his 
angell  that  carried  Abacuck  to  Dmiiell,  and  to  them  that  he  sent  to 
destroie  Sodome  ?  But  you  shall  understand,  that  /  this  was  doone  in 
a  vision,  and  not  in  veritie  of  action.  So  as  they  have  a  verie  cold 
pull  of  this  place,  which  is  the  speciall  peece  of  scripture  alledged  of 
them  for  their  transportations. 

Heare  therefore  what  Calvine  saith  in  his  commentarie  upon  that 
place,  in  these  words  ;  The  question  is,  whether  Christ  were  carried 
aloft  indeed,  or  whether  it  were  but  in  a  vision .''     Manie  affirme  verie 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.7.  83 

obstinatlie,  that  his  bodie  was  trulie  and  realHe  as  they  sale  taken 
up  :  bicause  they  thinke  it  too  great  an  indignitie  for  Christ  to  be 
made  subject  to  sathans  ilkisions.  But  this  objection  is  easihe  washed 
avvaie.  For  it  is  no  absurditie  to  grant  all  this  to  be  wrought  through 
Gods  permission,  or  Christes  voluntarie  subjection  :  so  long  as  we 
yeeld  not  to  thinke  that  he  suffered  these  temptations  inwardlie,  that 
is  to  saie,  in  mind  or  soule.  And  that  which  is  afterwards  set  downe 
by  the  Evangelist,  where  the  divell  shewed  him  all  the  kingdoms  of 
the  world,  and  the  glorie  of  the  same,  and  that  to  be  doone  (as  it  is 
said  in  Luke)  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eie,  dooth  more  agree  with  a 
vision  than  with  a  reall  action.  So  farre  are  the  verie  words  of 
Calvhie.  Which  differ  not  one  syllable  nor  five  words  from  that 
which  I  had  written  herein,  before  I  looked  for  his  opinion  in  the 
matter.  And  this  I  hope  will  be  sufficient  to  overthrow  the  assertions 
of  them  that  laie  the  ground  of  their  transportations  and  flieng  in  the 
aire  hereupon. 

He  that  will  saie,  that  these  words  ;  to  wit,  that  Christ  was  taken 
up,  &c  :  can  hardlie  be  applied  to  a  vision,  let    him  turne  to  the 
prophesie  oi  EzecJiicIl,  and  see  the  selfe-same  words  used  in  a  vision  :    iczec.  3, 12. 
saving  that  where  Christ  is  said  to  be  taken  up  by  the  divell,  Ezechiell  '"'"'^  '"*" 
is  taken  up,  and  lifted  up,  and  carried  by  the  spirit  of  God,  and  yet 
in  a  vision.     But  they  have  lesse  reason  that  build  upon  this  sandie 
rocke,  the  supernaturall  frame  of  transubstantiation  ;  as  almost  all  our 
witching  writers  doo.     For  Sprenger  Sc  Institor  saie,  that  the  divell   Mai.  male/. 
in  the  likenesse  of  a  falcon  caught  him  up.     DancEUs  saith,  it  was  in 
the  similitude  of  a  man  ;  others  saie,  of  an  angell  painted  with  wings  ; 
others,  invisiblie :  Ergo  the  di/vell  can  take  (saie  they)  what  shape  he    lOj. 
list.     But  though  some   may  cavill  upon  the  divels  transforming  of 
himselfe  ;  yet,  that  either  divell  or  witch  can  transforme  or  transub- 
stantiat  others,  there  is  no  tittle  nor  colour  in  the  scriptures  to  helpe 
them.     If  there  were  authoritie  for  it,  and  that  it  were  past  all  perad- 
venture,  lo,  what  an  easie  matter  it  is  to  resubstantiate  an  asse  into  a 
man.     For  Bodm  saith  upon  the  word  of  Apuleius,  that  if  the  asse    j.  Bod.  lib.  d<- 
eate  new  roses,  anise,  or  baie  leaves  out  of  spring  water,  it  '''^'"'  ^'  '"^'  ^' 

will  presentlie  returne  him  into  a  man.      Which  thing 

Sprenger  saith  male  be  doone,  by  washing  the  in  Mai.  mai. 

asse  in  faire  water  :  yea  he   sheweth    an 

instance,  where,  by  drinking  of 

water  an  asse  was  turned 

into    a    man, 



The  disc  over  ie 

The  eight  Chapter. 

The  tuitch)noftgers  object ioti  concerning  the  historic  of  Job  answered. 

HESE  witchmongers,  for  lacke  of  better  arguments,  doo 
manie  times  object  Job  against  me  ;  although  there  be 
never  a  word  in  that  storie,  which  either  maketh  for 
80.  [yssgpgg^gj  them,  or  against  me  :  in  so  much  as  there  is  not/  the 
name  of  a  witch  mentioned  in  the  whole  booke.  But  (I  praie  you) 
what  witchmonger  now   seeing   one   so   afflicted   as  Job,  would  not 

» Job.  I.  14.  saie  he  were  bewitched,  as  Job  never  saith  ?    ^For  first  there  came  a 

messenger  unto  him,  and  said  ;    Thy  oxen   were  plowing,  and    thy 

b  verse,  15.  asses  were  feeding  in  their  places,  '^and  the  Sabeans  came  violentlie 

and  tooke  them  ;  yea  they  have  slaine  thy  servants  with  the  edge  of 

c  verse,  16.  the  sword  ;  but  I  onelie  am  escaped  to  tell  thee.     "And  whilest  he  was 

yet  speaking,  another  cam.e,  and  said  ;  The  tier  of  God  is  fallen  from 
the  heaven,  &  hath  burnt  up  thy  sheepe  and  thy  servants,  and  de- 

»!  verse,  17.  voured  them  ;  but   I  onlie  am  escaped  to  tell  thee.     ''And  while  he 

was  yet  speaking,  another  came,  and  said  ;  The  Chalda;ans  set  out 

their  bands,  and  fell  upon  thy  camels,  and  have  taken  them,  and  have 

106.    slaine  thy  servants  with  the  edge  of  the  sword  ;  but  I  onelie  am/ 

«  verse,  18.  escaped  alone  to  tell  thee.     ''And  whilest  he  was  yet  speaking,  came 

another,  and  said  ;  Thy  sonnes  and  thy  daughters  were  eating  and 
drinking  wine  in  their  elder  brothers  house,  ^and  behold  there  came  a 
great  wind  from  beyond  the  wildernesse,  and  smote  the  foure  corners 
of  the  house,  which  fell  upon  thy  children,  and  they  are  dead  ;  and  I 
onlie  am  escaped  alone  to  tell  thee.  ^Besides  all  this,  he  was  smitten 
with  biles,  from  the  sole  of  his  foote  to  the  crowne  of  his  head.  If 
anie  man  in  these  dales  called  Job  should  be  by  the  appointment  or 
hand  of  God  thus  handled,  as  this  Job  was  ;  I  warrant  you  that  all 
the  old  women  in  the  countrie  would  be  called  Coram  nobis  :  warrants 
would  be  sent  out  on  everie  side,  publike  and  private  inquirie  made 
what  old  women  latelie  resorted  to  Jobs  house,  or  to  anie  of  those 
places,  where  these  misfortunes  fell.  If  anie  poore  old  woman  had 
chanced  within  two  or  three  moneths  to  have  borrowed  a  curtsie  of 

[»?searsing]  *seasing,  Or  to  have  fetcht  from  thence  a  pot  of  milke,  or  had  she 
required  some  almes,  and  not  obteined  it  at  Jobs  hand  ;  there  had 
beene  argument  enough  to  have  brought  hir  to  confusion  :  and  to  be 
more  certeine  to  have  the  right  witch  apprehended,  figures  must  have 
beene  cast,  the  sive  and  sheares  must  have  beene  set  on  worke; 
yea  rather  than  the  witch  should  escape,  a  conjuror  must  have  earned 
a  little  monie,  a  circle  must  have  beene  made,  and  a  divell  raised  to 

f  verse,  19. 

Sibid.  ca.  2 
vers.  7. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  8. 


J.  Calvin,  in 
Job.  cap.  I.   21. 

*y.  Calvin,  in 
fob,  cap.  2. 
Sermon.  8. 
Miiscul.  in  TQ-j 
loc.  comm.        '  ' 
Idem,  ibidem. 

tell  the  truth  :  mother  Bungle  must  have  been  gon  unto,  and  after 
she  had  learned  hir  name,  whom  Job  most  suspected,  she  would 
have  confirmed  the  suspicion  with  artificiall  accusations  :  in  the 
end,  some  woman  or  other  must  have  beene  hanged  for  it.  But  as 
Jo!)  said  ;  Domitius  dedit :  so  said  he  not  ;  Diabolus  vel  Lamia  scd 
Dominus  abstidit.  Which  agreeth  with  the  tenor  of  the  text,  where 
it  is  written,  that  the  divell  at  everie  oi  Jobs  afflictions  desired  God 
to  laie  his  hand  upon  him.  Insomuch  sls  Job  imputed  no  part  of  his 
calamitie  unto  divels,  witches,  nor  yet  unto  conjurors,  or  their 
inchantments ;  as  we  have  learned  now  to  doo.  Neither  sinned  he, 
or  did  God  any  wrong,  when  he  laid  it  to  his  charge  :  but  we  dis- 
honour God  greatlie,  when  we  attribute  either  the  power  or  proprietie 
of  God  the  creator  unto  a  creature. 

^Calvine  saith  ;  We  derogate  much  from  Gods  glorie  and  omnipo- 
tencie,  when  we  sale  he  dooth  but  give  sathan  leave  to  doo  it  :  which 
is  (saith  he)  to  m.ocke  Gods  justice  ;  and  so  fond  an  asser/tion,  that  if 
asses  could  speake,  they  would  speake  more  wiselie  than  so.  For  a 
temporall  judge  saith  not  to  /the  hangman  ;  I  give  thee  leave  to  hang  81. 
this  oiTender,  but  commandeth  him  to  doo  it.  But  the  mainteiners  of 
witches  omnipotencie,  saie  ;  Doo  you  not  see  how  reallie  and  pal- 
pablie  the  divell  tempted  and  plagued  Job  ?  I  answer  first,  that  there 
is  no  corporall  or  visible  divell  named  nor  seene  in  any  part  of  that 
circumstance ;  secondlie,  that  it  was  the  hand  of  God  that  did  it  ; 
thirdlie,  that  as  there  is  no  communitie  betweene  the  person  of  a 
witch,  and  the  person  of  a  divell,  so  was  there  not  any  conference  or 
practise  betwixt  them  in  this  case. 

And  as  touching  the  communication  betwixt  God  and  the  divell,  j.Calvincin 
behold  what  Calvine  saith,  writing  or  rather  preaching  of  purpose  ''"/^^^'"/'^ 
upon  that  place,  wherupon  they  thinke  they  have  so  great  advantage; 
When  sathan  is  said  to  appeere  before  God,  it  is  not  doone  in  some 
place  certeine,  but  the  scripture  speaketh  so  to  applie  it  selfe  to  our 
rudenes.  Certeinlie  the  divell  in  this  and  such  like  cases  is  an  in- 
strument to  worke  Gods  will,  and  not  his  owne  :  and  therefore  it  is 
an  ignorant  and  an  ungodlie  saieng  (as  Calvifie  judgeth  it)  to  affirme, 
that  God  dooth  but  permit  and  suffer  the  divell.  For  if  sathan  were 
so  at  his  owne  libertie  (saith  he)  we  should  be  overwhelmed  at  a 
sudden.  And  doubtlesse,  if  he  had  power  to  hurt  the  bodie,  there 
were  no  waie  to  resist  :  for  he  would  come  invisiblie  upon  us,  and 
knocke  us  on  the  heads  ;  yea  hee  would  watch  the  best  and  dispatch 
them,  whilest  they  were  about  some  wicked  act.  If  they  saie  ;  God 
commandeth  him,  no  bodie  impugneth  them  :  but  that  God  should 
give  him  leave,  I  saie  with  Calviiw,  that  the  divell  is  not  in  such 
favour  with  God,  as  to  obteine  any  such  request  at  his  hands. 


5-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

J.  Calvine  in 
Job.  cap.  I. 
sermon,  5. 

Mai.  male/, 
pa.  I.  qua-st.  I. 
Idem  part.  i. 
quast.  4.      108. 

Note  what 
is  said  tou- 
ching the 
booke  of 


In  hgenda 

And  wheras  by  our  witchmongers  opinions  and  arguments,  the 
witch  procureth  the  divell,  and  the  divell  asketh  leave  of  God  to 
plague  whom  the  witch  is  disposed  :  there  is  not  (as  I  have  said)  any 
such  corporall  communication  betweene  the  divell  and  a  witch,  as 
witchmongers  imagine.  Neither  is  God  mooved  at  all  at  sathans  sute, 
who  hath  no  such  favour  or  grace  with  him,  as  to  obteine  any  thing 
at  his  hands. 

But  M.  Mai.  and  his  friends  denie,  that  there  were  any  witches  in 
Jobs  time  :  yea  the  witchmongers  are  content  to  sale,  that/  there  were 
none  found  to  exercise  this  art  in  Christs  time,  from  his  birth  to  his 
death,  even  by  the  space  of  thirtie  three  yeares.  If  there  had  beene 
anie  (saie  they)  they  should  have  beene  there  spoken  of.  As  touching 
the  authoritie  of  the  booke  of  Job,  there  is  no  question  but  that  it  is 
verie  canonicall  and  authentike.  Howbeit,  manie  writers,  both  of  the 
Jewes  and  others,  are  of  opinion,  that  Moses  was  the  author  of  this 
booke  ;  and  that  he  did  set  it  as  a  looking  glasse  before  the  people  : 
to  the  intent  the  children  of  Abraham  (of  whose  race  he  himselfe 
came)  might  knowe,  that  God  shewed  favour  to  others  that  were  not 
of  the  same  line,  and  be  ashamed  of  their  vvickednesse  :  seeing  an 
uncircumcised  Painime  had  so  well  demeaned  himselfe.  Upon  which 
argument  Calvine  (though  he  had  written  upon  the  same)  saith,  that 
Forsomuch  as  it  is  uncerteine,  whether  it  were  Res  gesta  or  Exempli 
gratia.,  we  must  leave  it  in  suspense.  Nevertheles  (saith  he)  let  us 
take  that  which  is  out  of  all  doubt  ;  namelie,  that  the  Holy-ghost 
hath  indited  the  booke,  to  the  end  that  the  Jewes  should  knowe  that 
God  hath  had  a  people  alwaies  to  serve  him  throughout  the  world, 
even  of  such  as  were  no/  Jewes,  nor  segregated  from  other  nations. 

Howbeit,  I  for  my  part  denie  not  the  veritie  of  the  storie  ;  though 
indeed  I  must  confesse,  that  I  thinke  there  was  no  such  corporall 
enterlude  betweene  God,  the  divell,  and  Job,  as  they  imagine  :  neither 
anie  such  reall  presence  and  communication  as  the  witchmongers 
conceive  and  mainteine  ;  who  are  so  grosse  herein,  that  they  doo  not 
onlie  beleeve,  but  publish  so  palpable  absurdities  concerning  such 
reall  actions  betwixt  the  divell  and  man,  as  a  wise  man  would  be 
ashamed  to  read,  but  much  more  to  credit  :  as  that  S.  Dunstan  lead 
the  divell  about  the  house  by  the  nose  with  a  paire  of  pinsors  or  tongs, 
and  made  him  rore  so  lowd,  as  the  place  roong  thereof,  &c  :  with  a 
thousand  the  like  fables,  without  which  neither  the  art  of  poperie 
nor  of  witchcraft  could  stand.  But  you  may  see  more  of  this  matter 
else-where,  where  in  few  words  (which  I  thought  good  here  to  omit, 
least  I  should  seeme  to  use  too  manie  repetitions)  I  answer  effectuallie 
to  their  cavils  about  this  place./ 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  9. 


The    ninth    Chapter. 

What  several  I  sorts  of  witches  are  mentio7ied  in  the  scriptures,  and 
how  the  word  witch  is  there  applied. 

UT  what  sorts  of  witches  so  ever  M.  Mai.  or  Bodin  saie 
there  are  ;  Moses  spake  onlie  of  foure  kinds  of  impious 
couseners  or  witches  (whereof  our  witchmongers  old 
I  women  which  danse  with  the  fairies,  &c ;  are  none.)  The 
first  were  Prcestii^iatores  Pharaotiis,  which  (as  all  divines,  both 
Hebrues  and  others  conclude)  were  but  couseners  and  jugglers, 
deceiving  the  kings  eies  with  illusions  and  sleights ;  and  making  false 
things  to  appeare  as  true  :  which  nevertheles  our  witches  cannot 
doo.  The  seconu  is  Mecasapha,  which  is  she  that  destroieth  with 
poison.  The  third  are  such  as  use  sundrie  kinds  of  divinations,  and 
hereunto  perteine  these  words,  Kasam,  Onen,  Ob,  Idoni.  The  fourth 
is  Habar,  to  wit  :  when  magicians,  or  rather  such,  as  would  be  re- 
puted cunning  therein,  mumble  certeine  secret  words,  wherin  is 
thought  to  be  great  efficacie. 

These  are  all  couseners  and  abusers  of  the  people  in  their  severall 
kinds.  But  bicause  they  are  all  termed  of  our  translators  by  the 
name  of  witches  in  the  Bible  :  therefore  the  lies  of  M.  Mai.  and 
Bodin,  and  all  our  old  wives  tales  are  applied  unto  these  names,  and 
easilie  beleeved  of  the  common  people,  who  have  never  hitherto  beene 
instructed  in  the  understanding  of  these  words.  In  which  respect,  I 
will  (by  Gods  grace)  shew  you  (concerning  the  signification  of  them) 
the  opinion  of  the  most  learned  in  our  age  ;  speciallie  of  Johannes 
IVierus  ;  who  though  hee  himselfe  were  singularlie  learned  in  the 
toongs,  yet  for  his  satisfaction  and  full  resolution  in  the  same,  he  sent 
for  the  judgement  of  Andrccas  Massitis,  the  most  famous  Hebrician  in 
the  world,  and  had  it  in  such  sense  and  order,  as  I  meane  to  set 
downe  unto  you.  And  yet  I  give  you  this  note  by  the  waie,  that 
witchcraft  or  inchantment  is  diverslie  taken  in  the  scriptures ;  som- 
times  nothing  tending  to  such  end  as  it  is  commonlie  thought  to  doo. 
For  in  i  Sajmuell,  15,  23.  it  is  all  one  with  rebellion.  Jesabell  iorhxr 
idolatrous  life  /  is  called  a  witch.  Also  in  the  new  testament,  even  S. 
Paule  saith  the  Galathians  are  bewitched,  bicause  they  were  seduced 
and  lead  from  the  true  understanding  of  the  scriptures. 

Item  sometimes  it  is  taken  in  good  part ;  as  the  magicians  that  came 
to  worship  and  offer  to  Christ:  and  also  where  Daniellxs  said  to  be 
an  inchanter,  yea  a  principall  inchanter  :  which  title  being  given  him 
in  divers  places  of  that  storie,  he  never  seemeth  to  refuse  or  dislike  ; 


I.  Praestigi- 


2.  Mecasa- 

3.  Kasam. 

4.  Habar. 

[or  Masiiis] 


1.  Sa.  15,  23. 

2.  Re.  9,  22.  83. 
Gal.  3,  I. 

Matth.  2,  I. 
Daniel.  4. 


t;.  Bnoke. 

TJie  discoverie 

Dan.  2,  8. 
Actes.  19. 

Gen.  4,  18. 
Exod.  7, 
13,  &c. 
Acts  13. 
Exod.  23, 

Acts.  13. 
Acts.  19. 
of  Salo- 
mon, cap. 
verse.  9. 


Deut.  18,  2. 
Jerem.  27. 
Acts.  8. 

but  rather  intreateth  for  the  pardon  and  quahfication  of  the  rigor 
towards  other  inchanters,  which  were  meere  couseners  indeed  :  as 
appeareth  in  the  second  chapter  of  Daniell,  where  you  may  see  that 
the  king  espied  their  fetches. 

Sometimes  such  are  called  conjurors,  as  being  but  roges,  and  lewd 
people,  would  use  the  name  of  Jesus  to  worke  miracles,  whereby, 
though  they  being  faithlesse  could  worke  nothing  ;  yet  is  their  practise 
condemned  by  the  name  of  conjuration.  Sometimes  jugglers  are 
called  witches.  Sometimes  also  they  are  called  sorcerers,  that 
impugne  the  gospell  of  Christ,  and  seduce  others  with  violent  per- 
suasions. Sometimes  a  murtherer  with  poison  is  called  a  witch. 
Sometimes  they  are  so  termed  by  the  verie  signification  of  their 
names  ;  as  E/zaias,  which  signifieth  a  sorcerer.  Sometimes  bicause 
they  studie  curious  and  vaine  arts.  Sometimes  it  is  taken  for  woond- 
ing  or  greeving  of  the  hart.  Yea  the  verie  word  Magus,  which  is 
Latine  for  a  magician,  is  translated  a  witch  ;  and  yet  it  was  hertofore 
alwaies  taken  in  the  good  part.  And  at  this  dale  it  is  indifferent  to 
sale  in  the  English  toong ;  She  is  a  witch  ;  or,  She  is  a  wise  woman. 

Sometimes  observers  of  dreames,  sometimes  soothsaiers,  sometimes 
the  observers  of  the  flieng  of  foules,  of  the  meeting  of  todes,  the  fall- 
ing of  salt,  &c  :  are  called  witches.     Sometimes  he  or  she  is  called  a 
witch,  that  take  upon  them  either  for  gaine  or  glorie,  to  doo  miracles ; 
and   yet  can  doo  nothing.     Sometimes  they  are  called  witches  in 
common  speech,  that  are  old,  lame,  curst,  or  melancholike,  as  a  nick- 
name.    But  as  for  our  old  women,  that  are  said  to  hurt  children  with 
their  eies,  or  lambs  with  their  lookes,  or  that  pull  downe 
the  moone  out  of  heaven,  or  make  so  foolish  a  bargaine, 
or  doo  such  homage  to  the  divell ;  you  shall 
not   read   in   the   bible   of  any   such 
witches,  or  of  any  such  actions 
imputed    to   them.// 

of  ]Vitchcraff.  ch.ip.  i.  89 

Tf  The  sixt  Booke.  m.     84. 

The  first  Chapter. 

The  exposition  of  this  Hebriie  word  Chasaph,  wherein  is  answered 
the  objectio7t  conteined  in  Exodus  22.  to  wit :  Thou  shalt  not 
stiffer  a  witch  to  live,  and  of  Simon  Magus.  Acts.  8. 

HASAPH,  being  an  Hebrue  word,  is  Latined  Veneficiuni, 
and  is  in  English,  poisoning,  or  witchcraft  ;  if  you  will 
so  have  it.  The  Hebrue  sentence  written  in  Exodus.,  22. 
is  by  the  70.  interpretors  translated  thus  into  Greeke, 

^apixuKovi  ovK  eTTi^eivaeTe,  which  in  Latine  is,  Veneficos  {sive)  ve7ieficas 

non  retifiebitis  in  vita,  in  English,  You  shall  not  suffer  anie  poisoners, 

or  (as  it  is  translated)  witches  to  live.     The  which  sentence  fosephies   Joseph,  in 

an  Hebrue  borne,  and  a  man  of  great  estimation,  learning  and  fame,    Jntiquitat. 

interpreteth  in  this  wise  ;  Let  none  of  the  children  of  Israel  have  any 

poison  that  is  deadlie,  or  prepared  to  anie  hurtful!  use.     If  anie  be 

apprehended  with  such  stuffe,  let  him  be  put  to  death,  and  suffer  that 

which  he  ment  to  doo  to  them,  for  whom  he  prepared  it.  The  Rabbins 

exposition  agree  heerewithall.     Lex  Cornelia  differeth  not  from  this 

sense,  to  wit,  that  he  must  suffer  death,  which  either  maketh,  selleth, 

or  hath  anie  poison,  to  the  intent  to  kill  anie  man.     This  word  is  found 

in  these  places  following  :     Exodus.   22,  18.    Deut.   18,  10.    2.  Sam. 

9,  22.    Da7i.  2,  2.    2.  Chr.  2,%  6.    Esay.  47,  9,  12.  Malach,  3,  5.  ferem. 

27,  9.  Mich.  5,  2.  Nah.  3,  4.  bis.     Howbeit,  in  all  our  English  /  trans-    112. 

lations,  Chasaph  is  translated,  witchcraft. 

And  bicause  I  will  avoid  prolixitie  and  contention  both  at  once,  I 
will  admit  that  Vencficce  were  such  witches,  as  with  their  poisons  did 
much  hurt  among  the  children  of  Israeli  ;  and  I  will  not  denie  that 
there  remaine  such  untill  this  daie,  bewitching  men,  and  making 
them  beleeve,  that  by  vertue  of  words,  and  certeine  ceremonies,  they 
bring  to  passe  such  mischeefes,  and  intoxications,  as  they  indeed 
accomplish  by  poisons.  And  this  abuse  in  cousenage  of  people, 
together  with  the  taking  of  Gods  name  in  vaine,  in  manie  places  of 
the  scripture  is  reprooved,  especiallie  by  the  name  of  witchcraft,  even 
where  no  poisons  are.  According  to  the  sense  which  S.  Paule  useth 
to  the  Galathians  in  these  words,  where  he  sheweth  plainelie,  that 
the  true  signification  of  witchcraft  is  cousenage  ;  O  ye  foolish  Gala-    Gal.  ?,  i. 



6.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Job.  15,  13. 

Acts.  8,  9. 



I.  Reg.  8,  39. 
Matth.  9.  4. 
12.  25.  22. 
Acts.  I,  24. 
&  IS,  8. 
Rom.  8,  27. 
Mark.  2. 
Luk.  6,  17.  & 

II.  &  9. 
Joh.  I  &  2. 
&  6.  &  13. 
Apoc.  2.  &.  3. 
Luk.  II,  29. 

Eccl.  34,  5. 

Eccl.  34,  8. 
Levi.  19,  31. 

tJnatis  (saith  he)  who  hath  bewitched  you  ?  to  wit,  cousened  or  abused 
you,  making  you  beleeve  a  thing  which  is  neither  so  nor  so.  Whereby 
he  meaneth  not  to  aske  of  them,  who  have  with  charmes,  &c  :  or  with 
poisons  deprived  them  of  their  health,  Hfe,  cattail,  or  children,  Sic: 
but  who  hath  abused  or  cousened  them,  to  make  them  beleeve  lies. 
This  phrase  is  also  used  hy  Job.  15.  But  that  we  may  be  throughlie 
resolved  of  the  true  meaning  of  this  phrase  used  by  Paiile,  Gal.  3. 
let  us  examine  the  description  of  a  notable  witch  called  Simon 
Magus,  made  by  S.  Luke  ;  There  was  (saith  he)  in  the  citie  of 
Samaria,  a  certeine  man  called  Simon,  /  which  used  witchcraft,  and 
bewitched  the  people  of  Smnaria,  saieng  that  he  himself  was  some 
great  man.  I  demand,  in  what  other  thing  here  do  we  see  anie 
witchcraft,  than  that  he  abused  the  people,  making  them  beleeve  he 
could  worke  miracles,  whereas  in  truth  he  could  doo  no  such  thing  ; 
as  manifestlie  may  appeare  in  the  13.  and  19.  verses  of  the  same 
chapter  :  where  he  wondered  at  the  miracles  wrought  by  the  apostles, 
and  would  have  purchased  with  monie  the  power  of  the  Holy-ghost 
to  worke  wonders. 

It  will  be  said,  the  people  had  reason  to  beleeve  him,  bicause  it  is 
written,  that  he  of  long  time  had  bewitched  them  with  sorceries. 
But  let  the  bewitched  Galathians  be  a  warning  both  to  the  bewitched 
Samaritans,  and  to  all  other  that  are  cousened  or  bewitched  through 
false  doctrine,  or  legierdemaine  ;  least  while  they  attend  to  such 
fables  and  lies,  they  be  brought  into  ignorance,/  and  so  in  time  be  led 
with  them  awaie  from  God.  And  finallie,  let  us  all  abandon  such 
witches  and  couseners,  as  with  Simon  Magus  set  themselves  in  the 
place  of  God,  boasting  that  they  can  doo  miracles,  expound  dreames, 
foretell  things  to  come,  raise  the  dead,  &c  :  which  are  the  workes  of 
the  Holy-ghost,  who  onlie  searcheth  the  heart  and  reines,  and  onelie 
worketh  great  wonders,  which  are  now  staied  and  accomplished  in 
Christ,  in  whome  who  so  stedfastlie  beleeveth  shall  not  need  to  be 
by  such  meanes  resolved  or  confirmed  in  his  doctrine  and  gospell. 
And  as  for  the  unfaithful!,  they  shall  have  none  other  miracle  shewed 
unto  them,  but  the  signe  of  Jonas  the  prophet. 

And  therefore  I  saie,  whatsoever  they  be  that  with  Simon  Magus 
take  upon  them  to  worke  such  wonders,  by  sooth  saieng,  sorcerie,  or 
witchcraft,  are  but  Hers,  deceivers,  and  couseners,  according  to  Syrachs 
saieng  ;  Sorcerie,  witchcraft,  soothsaieng,  and  dreames,  are  but 
vanitie,  and  the  lawe  shalbe  fulfilled  without  such  lies.  God  com- 
manded the  people,  that  they  should  not  regard  them  that  wrought 
with  spirits,  nor  soothsaiers  :  for  the  estimation  that  was  attributed 
unto  them,  offended  God. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap. :.  91 

The    second    Chapter, 

The  place  of  Detiteronoinie  expounded,  ivherin  are  recited  all  kind 
of  witches  J  also  their  opinions  confuted,  whicJi  hold  that  they  can 
worke  such  miracles  as  are  imputed  unto  them. 

[he  greatest  and  most  common  objection  is,  that  if  there 
were  not  some,  which  could  worke  such  miraculous  or 
supernaturall  feats,  by  themselves,  or  by  their  divels,  it    Deut.  i8.  i 
should  not  have  beene  said  ;  Let  none  be  found  among 
you,  that  maketh  his  sonne  or  his  daughter  to  go  through  the  fier,  or 
that  useth  witchcraft,  or  is  a  regarder  of  times,  or  a  marker  of  the 
flieng  of  fowles,  or  a  sorcerer,  or  a  charmer,  or  that  counselleth  with 
spirits,  or  a  soothsaier,  or  that  asketh  counsell  of  the  dead,  or  (as 
some  translate  it)  /  that  raiseth  the  dead.  But  as  there  is  no  one  place   114. 
in  the  scripture  that  saith  they  can  worke  miracles,  so  it  shalbe  easie 
to  proove,  that  these  were  all  couseners,  everie  one  abusing  the  people 
in  his/severall  kind  ;  and  are  accurssed  of  God.     Not  that  they  can    86. 
doo  all  such  things  indeed,  as  there  is  expressed  ;  but  for  that  they 
take  upon  them  to  be  the  mightie  power  of  God,  and  to  doo  that 
which  is  the   onelie  worke  of  him,  seducing  the  people,  and  blas- 
pheming  the   name   of   God,  who   will  not  give  his  glorie  to  anie    Esay.  43,  i 
creature,  being  himselfe  the  king  of  glorie  and  omnipotencie.  ^^-  ^'^'  ^■ 

First  I  aske,  what  miracle  was  wrought  by  their  passing  through 
the  fier .?  Trulie  it  cannot  be  prooved  that  anie  effect  followed  ;  but 
that  the  people  were  bewitched,  to  suppose  their  sinnes  to  be  purged 
thereby  -,  as  the  Spaniards  thinke  of  scourging  and  whipping  them- 
selves. So  as  Gods  power  was  imputed  to  that  action,  and  so  for- 
bidden as  an  idolatrous  sorcerie.  What  woonders  worketh  the 
regarder  of  times  ?  What  other  divell  dealeth  he  withall,  than  with 
the  spirit  of  superstition  ?  Doth  he  not  deceive  himselfe  and  others, 
and  therefore  is  worthilie  condemned  for  a  witch  .''  What  spirit  useth 
he,  which  marketh  the  flieng  of  fowles  .''  Nevertheles,  he  is  here  con- 
demned as  a  practiser  of  witchcraft ;  bicause  he  couseneth  the  people, 
and  taketh  upon  him  to  be  a  prophet  ;  impiouslie  referring  Gods 
certeine  ordinances  to  the  flittering  fethers  and  uncerteine  waies  of  a 
bird.  The  like  effects  produceth  sorcerie,  charming,  consultation  with 
spirits,  soothsaieng,  and  consulting  with  the  dead  :  in  everie  of  the 
which  Gods  power  is  obscured,  his  glorie  defaced,  and  his  commande- 
ment  infringed. 

And  to  proove  that  these  soothsaiers  and  witches  are  but  lieng 
mates  and  couseners  ;  note  these  words  pronounced  by  God  himselfe, 

92  6.  Bookc.  The  discoverie 

Deut.  i8, 14  even  in  the  selfe  same  place  to  the  children  of  Israeli  :  Although  the 

Gentiles  suftered  themselves  to  be  abused,  so  as  they  gave  eare  to 
these  sorcerers,  &c  :  he  would  not  suffer  them  so,  but  would  raise 
them  a  prophet,  who  should  speake  the  truth.  As  if  he  should  saie  ; 
The  other  are  but  lieng  and  cousening  mates,  deceitful)  and  under- 
mining merchants,  whose  abuses  I  will  make  knowne  to  my  people. 
And  that  everie  one  male  be  resolved  herein,  let  the  last  sentence  of 
this  precept  be  well  weighed  ;  to  wit,  Let  none  be  found  among  you, 
•  115-    that  asketh  counsell  of  (or  rai/seth  the  dead.) 

?^P-  3^'-  First  you  know  the  soules  of  the  righteous  are  in  the  hands  of  God, 

Luk.  16,  23.  •'  ^  ' 

and  resting  with  Lazarus  in  Abrahams  bosome,  doo  sleepe  in  Jesus 

Christ.    And  from  that  sleepe,  man  shall  not  be  raised,  till  the  heavens 

J,"^",'^;'^'  be  no  more  :  according  to  this  of  David  ;  Wilt  thou  shew  woonders 

Psal   88,  10. 

Deut.  18,  II.  among   the   dead  1      Nay,  the  Lord  saith,  The  living  shall  not  be 

^uk.  16. 29.  taught  by  the  dead,  but  by  the  living.     As  for  the  unrighteous,  they 

are  in  hell,  where  is  no  redemption  ;  neither  is  there  anie  passage 

Luk.  16, 22.  from  heaven  to  earth,  but  by  God  and  his  angels.     As  touching  the 

joh.  5,  21.  resurrection  and  restauration  of  the  bodie,  read  John.   5.  and  you 

shall  manifestlie  see,  that  it  is  the  onelie  worke  of  the  father,  who  hath 

given  the  power  therof  to  the  sonne,  and  to  none  other,  &c.     Domimis 

Ose.  6.  percuttt,  &^  ipse  medehtr :  Ego  occidam,  £r=  ego  vivefaciavi.      And  in 

^  as.  17. 25.  manie  other  places  it  is  written,  that  God  giveth  life  and  beeing  to  all. 

Tim.  6,13.  Although  Plato,  with  his  maister  Socrates,  the  cheefe  pillers  of  these 

vanities,  say,  that  one  Parnphiins  was  called  up  out  of  hel,  who  when 

he  cam  among  the  people,  told  manie  incredible  tales  concerning 

87.    infernall   actions.      But   herein  I  take  up    the    proverbe ;/   Amiais 

Plato,  amicus  Socrates,  sed  major  arnica  Veritas. 

So  as  this  last  precept,  or  last  part  thereof,  extending  to  that  which 
neither  can  be  done  by  witch  nor  divell,  male  well  expound  the  other 
parts  and  points  therof.  For  it  is  not  ment  hereby,  that  they  can 
doo  such  things  indeed  ;  but  that  they  make  men  beleeve  they  doo 
them,  and  thereby  cousen  the  people,  and  take  upon  them  the  office 
of  God,  and  therewithall  also  blaspheme  his  holie  name,  and  take  it 
in  vaine  ;  as  by  the  words  of  charmes  and  conjurations  doo  appeare, 
which  you  shall  see,  if  you  looke  into  these  words,  Habar  and  Idoni. 

In  like  manner  I  saie  you  may  see,  that  by  the  prohibition  of  divi- 
nations by  augurie,  and  of  soothsaiengs,  &c,  who  are  witches,  and  can 
indeed  doo  nothing  but  lie  and  cousen  the  people,  the  lawe  of  God 
condemneth  them  not,  for  that  they  can  worke  miracles,  but  bicause 
26.  qiice.  7.  noti.     they  saie  they  can  doo  that  which  perteineth  to  God,  and  for  cou- 
1398.  fl?/.'i7.         senage,  &c.     Concerning  other  points  of  witchcraft  conteined  therein,  jjj^fj  bicause  some  cannot  otherwise  be  satisfied,  I  will  alledge  under 

sl^irit.  &  am- 

ma.  ca/>.  28.         One  Sentence,  the  decretals,  the  mind  oi  S.  A /a^ustine,  the  conncell 

of  Witchcraft.  Chap.  3.  93 

Aurelian,  and  the  determination  of/  Paris,  to  wit :  Who  so  observeth,  ii6. 
or  giveth  heed  unto  soothsaiengs,  divinations,  witchcraft,  (S:c,  or  doth 
give  credit  to  anie  such,  he  renounceth  christianitie,  and  shalbe 
counted  a  paganc,  &  an  enemie  to  God  ;  yea  and  he  eneth  both  in 
faith  and  philosophie.  And  the  reason  is  therewithal!  expressed  in 
the  canon,  to  wit  ;  Bicause  hereby  is  attributed  to  a  creature,  that 
which  perteineth  to  God  oneHe  and  alone.  So  as,  under  this  one 
sentence  (Thou  shalt  not  suffer  a  poisoner  or  a  witch  to  live)  is  for- 
bidden both  murther  and  witchcraft ;  the  murther  consisting  in 
poison  ;  the  witchcraft  in  cousenage  or  blasphemie. 

The    third    Chapter. 

That  women  have  used  poisoning  in  all  ages  more  than  men,  a7id  of 
the  inconve7iience  of  J)oisotiing. 

S  women  in  all  ages  have  beene  counted  most  apt  to 
conceive  witchcraft,  and  the  divels  special!  instruments 
therin,  and  the  onelie  or  cheefe  practisers  therof :  so 
also  it  appeareth,  that  they  have  been  the  first  inventers, 
and  the  greatest  practisers  of  poisoning,  and  more  naturallie  addicted 
and  given  thereunto  than  men  :  according  to  the  saieng  of  Quintilian ; 
Latrocinium  faciliits  in  viro,  veneficium  iti  fwmina  credatn.  From 
whom  Plinie  differeth  nothing  in  opinion,  when  he  saith,  Scientiam  pun.  lib.  25. 
fvminariem  in  tieneficiis  pravalere.  To  be  short,  Atigustine,  Livie,  ^"^'  ^" 
Valerius,  Diodortis,  and  manie  other  agree,  that  women  were  the 
first  inventers  and  practisers  of  the  art  of  poisoning.  As  for  the  rest 
of  their  cunning,  in  what  estimation  it  was  had,  may  appeare  by  these 
verses  of  Horace,  wherein  he  doth  not  onelie  declare  the  vanitie  of 
witchcraft,  but  also  expoundeth  the  other  words,  wherewithal!  we  are 
now  in  hand. 

Somnia,  terrores  magicos,  miracula,  sagas, 
Nocturnos  lemures,  portentdqj  Thessala  rides  :  // 

These  dreatnes  and  terrors  magicall,  ny.        88. 

these  miracles  and  witches, 
Night- walkitig  sprites,  or  Thessal  bugs, 

esteeme  them  not  twoo  rushes. 

Here  Horace  (you  see)  contemneth  as  ridiculous,  all  our  witches 
cunning:  marrie  herein  he  comprehendeth  not  their  poisoning  art, 
which  hereby  he  onelie  seemed  to  thinke  hurtful!.  Pythagoras  and 
Democritus  give  us  the  names  of  a  great  manie  magical!  hearbs  and 
stones,  whereof  now,  both  the  vertue,  and  the  things  .'lemselves  also 
are  unlcnowne:  as   Marmaritin,  whereby   spirits   might  be   raised: 


The  discoverie 

Ovid,  mela- 
morph.  lib. 

Englished  by 
Abraham    nS. 

Archtmedon,  which  would  make  one  bewraie  in  his  sleepe,  all  the 
secrets  in  his  heart:  AdincaJitida,  Ca/icta,  Alevais,  Chirocineta,  &^c: 
which  had  all  their  severall  vertues,  or  rather  poisons.  But  all  these 
now  are  worne  out  of  knowledge:  marrie  in  their  steed  we  have  hogs 
turd  and  chervill,  as  the  onelie  thing  whereby  our  witches  worke 

Trulie  this  poisoning  art  called  Vcncjicmin,  of  all  others  is  most 
abhominable;  as  whereby  murthers  male  be  committed,  where  no 
suspicion  male  be  gathered,  nor  anie  resistance  can  be  made;  the 
strong  cannot  avoid  the  weake,  the  wise  cannot  prevent  the  foolish, 
the  godlie  cannot  be  preserved  from  the  hands  of  the  wicked;  children 
male  hereby  kill  their  parents,  the  servant  the  maister,  the  wife  hir 
husband,  so  privilie,  so  inevitablie,  and  so  incurablie,  that  of  all  other 
it  hath  beene  thought  the  most  odious  kind  of  murther;  according  to 
the  saieng  of  Ovid: 

non  hospes  ab  hospite  iutits, 

Non  socer  d,  genero.,fratruni  qiidqj  gratia  rara  est : 

Imininet  exitio  vir  conjugis,  ilia  matiti, 

Lurida  terribiles  niiscent  aconita  7ioverc(E, 

Filiiis  ante  diem  patrios  inquirit  in  annos.  / 

The  travelling  ghest  opprest     -. 

Dooth  stand  in  danger  of  his  host,        \ 
the  host  eke  of  his  ghest :  i 

The  father  of  his  sonne  in  laive,  •' 

yea  rare  is  seene  to  rest 

Tivixt  brethren  love  and  amitie, 
and  kindnesse  void  of  strife; 

The  Misband  seekes  the goodwifes  death, 
and  his  againe  the  wife. 

Ungentle  stepdanies  grizlie  poi- 
son temper  and  doo  give  : 

The  Sonne  too  soone  dooth  aske  how  long 
Ids  father  is  to  live. 

The  monke  that  poisoned  king  John,  was  a  right  Venefiais  ;  to 
wit,  both  a  witch  and  a  murtherer:  for  he  killed  the  king  with  poison, 
[Misp.  86]  89.  and  /  persuaded  the  people  with  lies,  that  he  had  doone  a  good  and 
a  meritorious  act;  and  doubtlesse,  manie  were  so  bewitched,  as  they 
thought  he  did  verie  well  therein.  Antoniiis  Sabellicns  writeth  of  a 
horrible  poisoning  murther,  committed  by  women  at  Rome,  where 
were  executed  (after  due  conviction)  170.  women  at  one  time  ; 
besides  20.  women  of  that  consort,  who  were  poisoned  with  that  poison 
which  they  had  prepared  for  others.  / 

Acncid.  4 
lib  4. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  4.  nr 

The   fourth    Chapter.  ug. 

Of  divers  poisoning  practises,  otherwise  called  venejicia,  committed 
in  Italie,  Gemta,  Millen,  Wiitenberge,  also  how  they  were  dis- 
covered and  executed. 

NOTHER  practise,  not  unlike  to  that  mentioned  in  the  Venefica 
former  chapter,  was  doone  in  Cassalis  at  Salassia  in  '"  ^'^''^' 
Italic,  Anno  1536.  where  40.  Venejicce  or  witches  being  of 
one  confederacie,  renewed  a  plague  which  was  then 
almost  ceased,  besmeering  with  an  ointment  and  a  pouder,  the  posts 
and  doores  of  mens  houses  ;  so  as  thereby  whole  families  were 
poisoned:  and  of  that  stuffe  they  had  prepared  above  40.  crocks  for 
that  purpose.  Herewithall  they  conveied  inheritances  as  it  pleased 
them,  till  at  length  they  killed  the  brother  and  onelie  sonne  of  one 
Necus  (as  lightlie  none  died  in  the  house  but  the  maisters  and  their 
children)  which  was  much  noted;  and  therewithall  that  one  Andro- 
giita  haunted  the  houses,  speciallie  of  them  that  died:  and  she  being 
suspected,  apprehended,  and  examined,  confessed  the  fact,  conspiracie, 
and  circumstance,  as  hath  beene  shewed.  The  like  villanie  was 
afterwards  practised  at  Genua,  and  execution  was  doone  upon  the  veneficae 
offenders.  At  Milleti  there  was  another  like  attempt  that  tooke  none  ^"  Genua 
effect.  This  art  consisteth  as  well  in  poisoning  of  cattell  as  of  men: 
and  that  which  is  doone  by  poisons  unto  cattell,  towards  their  destruc- 
tion, is  as  commonlie  attributed  to  witches  charms  as  the  other.  And 
I  doubt  not,  but  some  that  would  be  thought  cunning  in  incantations, 
and  to  doo  miracles,  have  experience  in  this  behalf  For  it  is  written 
by  divers  authors,  that  if  wolves  doong  be  hidden  in  the  mangers, 
racks,  or  else  in  the  hedges  about  the  pastures,  where  cattell  go 
(through  the  antipathie  of  the  nature  of  the  woolfe  and  other  cattell) 
all  the  beasts  that  savour  the  same  doo  not  onlie  forbeare  to  eate,  but 
run  about  as  though  they  were  mad,  or  (as  they  say)  bewitched. 

But  Wierus  telleth  a  notable  storie  of  a    Venejiciis,  or  destroier/  of  120. 
cattell,  which  I  thought  meete  heere  to  repeat.     There  was  (saith  he)    Of  a  but- 
in  the  dukedome  of  Wittijigberge,  not  farre  from  Tubing,  a  butcher,   veneficau''^ 
anno  1564.  that  bargained  with  the  towne  for  all  their  hides  which   which  [? witch.] 
were  of  sterven  cattell,  called  in  these  parts  Morts.     He  with  poison 
privilie  killed  in  great  numbers,  their  bullocks,  sheepe,  swine,  &c:  and 
by  his  bargaine  of   the  hides  and  tallowe  he  grew  infinitlie   rich. 
And  at  last  being  suspected,  was  examined,  confessed  the  matter  and 
maner  thereof,  and  was  put  to  death  with  hot  tongs,  wherewith  his 
flesh  was  pulled  from  his  bones.     We  for  /  our  parts  would  have  killed    90. 
five  poore  women,  before  we  would  suspect  one  rich  butcher. 


6.  Booke. 

TJie  discoverie 

Levit.  19,  33. 

The    fift    Chapter. 

A  great  objeciio7i  ansiuered  concerning  tliis  kind  of  tuitchcraft 
called  Veneficiitm. 

IT  is  objected,  that  if  Veneficitim  were  comprehended 
under  the  title  of  manslaughter,  it  had  beene  a  vaine 
repetition,  and  a  disordered  course  undertaken  by  Moses, 
to  set  foorth  a  lawe  against  Veneficas  severallie.  But  it 
might  suffice  to  answer  any  reasonable  christian,  that  such  was  the 
pleasure  of  the  Holie-ghost,  to  institute  a  particular  article  herof,  as 
of  a  thing  more  odious,  wicked  and  dangerous,  than  any  other  kind  of 
murther.  But  he  that  shall  read  the  lawe  of  Moses,  or  the  testament 
of  Christ  himselfe,  shall  find  this  kind  of  repetition  and  reiteration  of 
the  law  most  common.  For  as  it  is  written  Exod.  ii,  21.  Thou  shalt 
not  greeve  nor  afflict  a  stranger,  for  thou  wast  a  stranger  in  the  land  of 
Aegypt:  so  are  the  same  words  found  repeated  in  Levit.  19,  33.  Polling 
and  shaving  of  heads  and  beards  is  forbidden  in  Dent.  27.  which  was 
before  prohibited  in  22.  It  is  written  in  Exodus  the  20.  Thou  shalt 
not  steale  :  and  it  is  repeated  in  Leviticus  19.  and  in  Detit.  5.  Mur- 
ther is  generallie  forbidden  in  Exod.  20.  and  likewise  in  22.  and 
repeated  in  Num.  35.  But  the  aptest  example  is,  that  magicke  is 
forbidden  in  three  severall  places,  to  wit,  once/  in  Levit.  19.  and  twise 
in  Levit.  20.  For  the  which  a  man  might  as  well  cavill  with  the 
Holie-ghost  as  for  the  other. 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

In  what  kind  of  cojifections  that  witchcraft,  which  is  called  Veni- 
ficiuin,  cotisisteth :  of  love  cups,  and  the  same  confuted  by  poets. 

S  touching  this  kind  of  witchcraft,  the  principall  part 
thereof  consisteth  in  certeine  confections  prepared  by 
lewd  people  to  procure  love;  which  indeed  are  meere 
poisons,  bereaving  some  of  the  benefit  of  the  braine,  and 
so  of  the  sense  and  understanding  of  the  mind.  And  from  some  it 
taketh  awaie  life,  &  that  is  more  common  than  the  other.  These  be 
called  Philtra,  or  Pocula  amatoria,  or  Venenosa  poctda,  or  Hippo- 
jnanes;  which  bad  and  blind  physicians  rather  practise,  than  witches 
or  conjurers,  &c.  But  of  what  value  these  babies  are,  towards  the 
end  why  they  are  provided,  may  appeere  by  the  opinions  of  poets 
themselves,  from  whence  was  derived  the  estimation  of  that  stuffe. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  5. 


And  first  you  shall  heare  what  (?7//^saith,  who  wrote  of  the  verie  art 
of  love,  and  that  so  cunninglie  and  feefinglie,  that  he  is  reputed  the 
speciall  doctor  in  that  science  : 

Falliticr  JLmonias  si  guts  decurrit  ad  artes, 
Ddtq;  quod  h  teneri froiite  revellit  equi. 
Nonfacient  ut  vivat  amor  Medeides  herbcr^j 
Mistdq;  cum  7nagicis  mersa  veticna  sonis. 
Phasias  A£sottidefn,  Circe  te7iuisset  Ulyssem, 
Si  modb  servari  carmine  posset  amor  : 
Nee  data  profuerint  pallentia  philtra  puellis, 
Philtra  fiocent  animis,  vlrnq;  furoris  habetit.l 

Who  so  dooth  rtin  to  Hcemon  arts, 

I  dub  him  for  a  dolt, 
And giveth  that  which  he  dootli  plucke 

Jrom  forhead  of  a  colt : 
Medeas  herbs  will  not  procttre 

that  love  shall  lasting  live, 
Nor  steeped  poison  mixed  with  ma- 

gicke  charms  the  same  can  give. 
The  witch  Medea  had  full  fast 

held  Jason  for  hir  owne, 
So  had  the  grand  witch  Circe  too  \ 

Ulysses,  if  alone  y 

With  charms  7naifiteind  &=  kept  might  be 

the  love  of  iwaine  in  otie. 
No  slibbersawces  given  to  maids, 

to  make  them  pale  and  wan. 
Will  helpe :  such  slibbersawces  marre 

the  minds  of  maid  and  mail, 
A?td  have  in  them  a  furiotis  force 

of  phrensie  now  and  than. 

Viderit  Aemoftice  si  quis  mala  pabiila  terrcc, 
Et  magicas  artes  posse  juvare  putat. 

If  any  thinke  that  evill  herbs 

iti  Hcemon  lattd  which  be, 
Or  witchcraft  able  is  to  helpe, 

let  him  make  pro  of e  and  see. 

These  verses  precedent  doo  shew,  that  Ovid  knew  that  those/ 
beggerlie  sorceries  might  rather  kill  one,  or  make  him  starke  mad, 
than  doo  him  good  towards  the  atteinement  of  his  pleasure  or  love; 


Ovid.  lib. 
de  arte  a- 



Englislied  by 



ces  to  pro- 
cure love. 

Ovid.  lib.  de 
reniedio  a- 
moris.  i. 

Ab.  Flevung. 



6.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Englished  by 



and  therefore  he  giveth  this  counsell  to  them  that  are  amorous  in 
such  hot  maner,  that  either  they  must  enjoy  their  love,  or  else  needs 
die;  saieng: 

Sit  proail  onine  7tefas,  uf  aineris  muabilis  esto  : 

Farre  off  be  all  unlawfull  iiieaiies 

ihoii  amiable  bee., 
Loving  I  meane,  that  she  with  love 

viay  quite  the  love  of  thee. \ 

in  Ruff. 
Plin.  lib.  25. 
cap.  3.  Joseph 
lib.  II.  de  ju- 
de^otum  anti- 

Aristot.  lib. 
8.  de  ftatura 
cap.  24. 
Jo.  IVier. 
de  venef. 
cap.  40. 

Toies  to 



92.  The    seventh    Chapter. 

//  is  proved  by  more  credible  writers,  that  love  cups  rather  ingender 
death  through  venojite,  thatt  love  by  art:  and  with  what  toies 
they  destroie  cattell.,  and  procure  love. 

||UT  bicause  there  is  no  hold  nor  trust  to  these  poets,  who 
saie  and  unsaie,  dallieng  with  these  causes;  so  as  indeed 
the  wise  may  perceive  they  have  them  in  derision  :  let 
us  see  what  other  graver  authors  speake  hereof.  Euse- 
bius  CcEsariensis  writeth,  that  the  poet  Lucretius  was  killed  with  one 
of  those  lovers  poisoned  cups.  Hieronie  reporteth  that  one  Livia 
herewith  killed  hir  husband,  whome  she  too  much  hated  ;  and 
Lucilla  killed  hirs,  whome  she  too  much  loved.  Calisthenes  killed 
Lucius  Lucjillus  the  emperor  with  a  love  pot,  as  Plutarch  and 
Cornelius  Nepos  saie.  Plinie  &  Josephus  report,  that  Ccesonia  killed 
hir  husband  Caligula  Amatorio  poculo  with  a  lovers  cup,  which  was 
indeed  starke  poison.  Aristotle  saith,  that  all  which  is  beleeved 
touching  the  efficacie  of  these  matters,  is  lies  and  old  wives  tales.  He 
that  will  read  more  arguments  and  histories  concerning  these  poisons, 
let  him  looke  in  J.  Wier  De  Venejiciis.  / 
124.  The  toies,  which  are  said  to  procure  love,  and  are  exhibited  in  their 
poison  looving  cups,  are  these:  the  haire  growing  in  the  nethermost 
part  of  a  woolves  taile,  a  woolves  yard,  a  little  fish  called  Retnora,  the 
braine  of  a  cat,  of  a  newt,  or  of  a  lizzard:  the  bone  of  a  greene  frog,  the 
flesh  thereof  being  consumed  with  pismers  or  ants;  the  left  bone 
whereof  ingendereth  (as  they  saie)  love;  the  bone  on  the  right  side, 
hate.  Also  it  is  said,  that  a  frogs  bones,  the  flesh  being  eaten 
off  round  about  with  ants,  whereof  some  will  swim,  and  some  will 
sinke:  those  that  sinke,  being  hanged  up  in  a  white  linnen  cloth, 
ingender  love,  but  if  a  man  be  touched  therewith,  hate  is  bred  thereby. 
Another  experiment  is  thereof,  with  yoong  swalowes,  whereof  one 
brood  or  nest  being  taken  and  buried  in  a  crocke  under  the  ground, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  8. 


till  they  be  starved  up;  they  that  be  found  open  mouthed,  serve  to 
engender  love;  they  whose  mouthes  are  shut,  serve  to  procure  hate. 
Besides  these,  manie  other  follies  there  be  to  this  purpose  proposed 
to  the  simple  ;  as  namelie,  the  garments  of  the  dead,  candels  that 
burne  before  a  dead  corps,  and  needels  wherwith  dead  bodies  are 
sowne  or  sockt  into  their  sheetes:  and  diverse  other  things,  which  for 
the  reverence  of  the  reader,  and  in  respect  of  the  uncleane  speach  to 
be  used  in  the  description  thereof,  I  omit;  which  (if  you  read  Diosco- 
rides,  or  diverse  other  learned  physicians)  you  male  see  at  large.  In 
the  meane  while,  he  that  desireth  to  see  more  experiments  concerning 
this  matter,  let  him  read  Leonardus  Vairus  de  fascino,  now  this 
present  yeare  1583.  newlie  published  ;  wherein  (with  an  incestuous 
mouth)  he  afifirmeth  directlie,  that  Christ  and  his  apostles  were  finem. 
Voiefici  ;  verie  fondlie  prosecuting  that  argument,  and  with  as  much 
popish  follie  as  may  be;  labouring  to  proove  it  lawful!  to  charmn  and 
inchant  vermine,  &:c.  /  / 

Dioscorid.  de 
viateria  me- 

L.  Vairus  de 
fascin.  lib.  2. 
cap.  II.  prope 

The  eight  Chapter.  123.     93. 

John  Bodin  trhtviphing  against  John  Wier  is  overtaken  with  false 
Greeke  &=  false  interpretation  thereof. 

ONSIEUR  BODIN  triumpheth  over  doctor  IVier  herein,  %  Bodin. 
pronouncing  a  heavie  sentence  upon  him  ;  bicause  he 
referreth  this  word  to  poison.  But  he  reigneth  or  rather 
rideth  over  him,  much  more  for  speaking  false  Greeke  ; 
affirming  that  he  calleth  Veneficos  ^apfiaKevav},  which  is  as  true  as 
the  rest  of  his  reports  and  fables  of  witches  miracles  conteined  in 
his  bookes  of  divelish  devises.  For  in  truth  he  hath  no  such  word, 
but  saith  they  are  called  ^apfiaKeveis,  whereas  he  should  have  said 
^ap/iiaKec9,  the  true  accent  being  omitted,  and  ev  being  interposed, 
which  should  have  beene  left  out.  Which  is  nothing  to  the  substance 
of  the  matter,  but  must  needs  be  the  Printers  fault. 

But  Bodin  reasoneth  in  this  wise,  (^apfiaKeli  is  sometimes  put 
for  Magos  or  Prcestigiatores  :  Ergo  in  the  translation  of  the  Septu- 
aginta,  it  is  so  to  be  taken.  Wherein  he  manifesteth  his  bad 
Logicke,  more  than  the  others  ill  Greeke.  For  it  is  well  knowne  to 
the  learned  in  this  toong,  that  the  usuall  and  proper  signification  of 
this  word,  with  all  his  derivations  and  compounds  doo  signifie 
Veneficos,  Poisoners  by  medicine.  Which  when  it  is  most  usuall  and 
proper,  why  should  the  translators  take  it  in  a  signification  lesse 
usuall,  and  nothing  proper.  Thus  therefore  he  reasoneth  and  con- 
cludeth  with  his  new  found  Logicke,  and  old  fond  Greeke  ;  Some- 

lOO  6.  nooke.  The  discoverie 

times  it  signifieth  so,  though  unproperlie,  or  rather  metaphoricalHe; 
Ergo  in  that  place  it  is   so  to  be  taken,  when  another  fitter  word 
might  have  beene  used.     Which  argument  being  vaine,  agreeth  well 
with  his  other  vaine  actions.  The  Scptiiaginta  had  beene  verie  desti- 
tute  of  words,  if  no   proper  word  could  have  beene    found  for  this 
purpose.     But  where  they  have  occasion  to  speake  of  witchcraft  in 
their  translations,  they  use  Magia7t,  Maggagian,  &c  :  and 
therfore  belike  they  see  some  difference  betwixt 
them  and  the  other,  and  knew  some 
cause  that  mooved  them  to  use 

the  word   (pap/naKe/a, 
Venejiciutn.  j  / 

of  Witchcraft. 

Cliap.   I. 


Tf  The  seventh  Booke. 

126.  94. 

The   first    Chapter. 

Of  the  Hebrue  word  Ob,  what  it  signifieth  where  it  is  fottnd,  of 
Pythonisses  called  VentriloqucB,  who  they  be,  and  what  their 
practises  are,  experience  and  examples  thereof  shewed. 

HIS  word  Ob,  is  translated  Pytho,  or  Pythonicus  spiritus  : 
Deutre.  18.  Isaie.  19.  i.  Sam.  28.  2.  Reg.  23.  &c  :  som- 
time,  though  unproperlie,  Magus  as  2.  Sam.  33.  But  Ob 
signifieth  most  properlie  a  bottle,  and  is  used  in  this  place, 
bi  cause  the /"//"// r';//'V/.f  spake  hollowe ;  as  in  thebottome  of  their  bellie?, 
whereby  they  are  aptlie  in  Latine  called  Ventriloqtd :  of  which  sort  was 
Elizabeth  Barton,  the  holie  maid  of  Kent,  &.C.  These  are  such  as 
take  upon  them  to  give  oracles,  to  tell  where  things  lost  are  become, 
and  finallie  to  appeach  others  of  mischeefs,  which  they  themselves 
most  commonlie  have  brought  to  passe  :  whereby  many  times  they 
overthrowe  the  good  fame  of  honest  women,  and  of  such  others  of 
their  neighbors,  with  whome  they  are  displeased.  For  triall  hereof, 
letting  passe  a  hundred  cousenages  that  I  could  recite  at  this  time, 
I  will  begin  with  a  true  storie  of  a  wench,  practising  hir  diabolicall 
witchcraft,  and  ventriloquie  An.  1574.  at  Westwell  in  Kent,  within  six 
miles  where  I  dwell,  taken  and  noted  by  twoo  ministers  and  preachers 
of  Gods  word,  foure  substantial!  yeomen,  and  three  women  of  good 
fame  &  reputation,  whose  names  are  after  written./ 

Mildred,  the  base  daughter  of  Alice  Norrington,  and  now  servant 
to  William  Sp07ier  of  Westwell  in  the  countie  of  Kent,  being  of  the 
age  of  seventeene  yeares,  was  possessed  with  sathan  in  the  night  and 
dale  aforesaid.  About  two  of  the  clocke  in  the  afternoone  of  the 
same  day,  there  came  to  the  same  Sponers  house  Roger  Newman 
minister  of  Westwell,  fohn  Brainford  minister  of  Kenington,  with 
others,  whose  names  are  underwritten,  who  made  their  praiers  unto 
God,  to  assist  them  in  that  needfull  case  ;  and  then  commanded 
sathan  in  the  name  of  the  eternall  God,  and  of  his  sonne  Jesus 
Christ,  to  speake  with  such  a  voice  as  they  might  understand,  and  to 
declare  from  whence  he  came.  But  he  would  not  speake,  but  rored 
and  cried  mightilie.  And  though  we  did  command  him  manie 
times,  in  the  name  of  God,  and  of  his  sonne  Jesus  Christ,  and  in  his 

The  holie 
maid  of 
Kent  a  ven- 

An.  Domi.  7^7 


Octob.  13. 

this  storie 
with  the 
woman  of 
I.  Sam.  28. 
and  see 
the  same 
might  not 
be  accom- 
plished by 
this  devise. 

102  7-Booke.  The  discover ie 

mightie    power  to   speake  ;    yet    he  would  not  :  untill  he   had   gon 

through  all  his  delaies,  as  roring,  crieng,  striving,  and  gnashing  of 

teeth  ;  and  otherwhile  with  mowing,  and  other  terrible  countenances, 

and  was  so  strong  in  the  maid,  that  foure  men  could  scarse  hold  hir 

downe.     And  this  continued  by  the  space  almost  of  two  houres.     So 

sometimes  we  charged  him  earnestlie  to  speake  ;  and  againe  praieng 

unto   GOD   that  he  would  assist  us,  at  the  last  he  spake,  but  verie 

strangelie  ;    and  that    was  thus  ;    He  comes,    he   comes  :   and  that 

oftentimes   he   repeated  ;    and    He  goes,   he   goes.      And   then   we/ 

95.    charged  him  to  tell  us  who  sent  him.     And  he  said;   I  laie  in  her  waie 

like  a  log,  and  I  made  hir  runne  like  fier,  but  I  could  not  hurt  hir. 

And  whie  so,  said  we .''     Bicause  God   kept   hir,  said   he.      When 

earnest  thou  to  her,  said  we  ?     To  night  in  her  bed,  said  he.     Then 

we  charged  him  as  before,  to  tell  what  he  was,  and  who  sent  him, 

and  what  his  name  was.     At  the  first  he  said,  The  divell,  the  divell. 

Then  we  charged  him  as  before.     Then  he  rored  and  cried  as  before, 

and  spake  terrible  words  ;  I  will  kill  hir,  I  will  kill  hir ;  I  will  teare 

hir  in  peeces,  I  will  teare  hir  in  peeces.     We  said,  Thou  shalt  not  hurt 

hir.     He  said,  I  will  kill  you  all.     We  said,  Thou  shalt  hurt  none  of 

us  all.     Then  we  charged  him  as  before.     Then  he  said,  You  will 

give  me  no  rest.     Wee  said.  Thou  shalt  have  none  here,  for  thou 

must  have  no  rest  within  the  servants  of  God  :  but  tell  us  in  the 

name  of  God  what  thou  art,  and  who  sent  thee.     Then  he  said  he 

would  teare  hir  in  peeces.     We  said.  Thou  shalt  not  hurt  hir.     Then/ 

128.    he  said  againe  he  would  kill  us  all.     We  said  againe,  Thou  shalt  hurt 

none  of  us  all,  for  we  are  the  servants  of  God.     And  we  charged  him 

as  before.     And  he  said  againe,  Will  you  give  me  no  rest?    We  said, 

Thou  shalt  have  none  here,  neither   shalt  thou  rest  in  hir,  for  thou 

hast    no   right  in  hir,  sith  Jesus  Christ  hath  redeemed  hir  with  his 

bloud,  and  she  belongeth  to  him  ;  and  therefore  tell  us  thy  name, 

and  who  sent  thee?     He  said  his  name  was  sathan.     We  said,  Who 

sent  thee  ?     He  said.  Old  Alice,  old  Alice.     Which  old  Alice,  said  we  ? 

Old  Alice,  said  he.      Where  dwelleth  she,  said  we?     In    Westwell 

streete,  said   he.     We   said.  How   long  hast   thou   beene  with  hir? 

These  twentie  yeares,  said  he.     We  asked  him  where  she  did  keepe 

him?     In  two  bottels,  said   he.     Where  be  they,  said  we?     In  the 

backside  of  hir  house,  said  he.     In  what  place,  said  we  ?     Under  the 

wall,  said  he.     Where  is  the  other  ?     In  Keniiigton.     In  what  place, 

said  we?     In  the  ground,  said  he.     Then  we  asked  him,  what  she  did 

give  him.     He  said,  hir  will,  hir  will.     What  did  shee  bid  thee  doo, 

said  we?     He  said,  Kill  hir  maid.     Wherefore  did  she  bid  thee  kill 

hir,  said  we  ?     Bicause  she  did  not  love  hir,  said  he.     We  said  ;  How 

long  is  it  ago,  since  she  sent  thee  to  hir  ?     More  than  a  yeare,  said  he. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  i.  103 

Where  was  that,  said  we  ?  At  hir  masters,  said  he.  Which  masters, 
said  we  ?  At  hir  master  Braitifo7'ds  at  Kenington^  said  he.  How  oft 
wert  thou  there,  said  we  ?  Manie  times,  said  he.  Where  first,  said 
we  1  In  the  garden,  said  he  :  Where  the  second  time .''  In  the  hall  : 
Where  the  third  time  .?  In  hir  bed  :  Where  the  fourth  time?  In  the 
field  :  W^here  the  fift  time.?  In  the  court  :  Where  the  sixt  time?  In 
the  water,  where  I  cast  hir  into  the  mote  :  Where  the  seventh  time. 
In  hir  bed.  We  asked  him  againe,  where  else?  He  said,  in 
Westwell.  Where  there,  said  we  ?  In  the  vicarige,  said  he.  Where 
there?  In  the  loft.  How  earnest  thou  to  hir,  said  we?  In  the  like- 
nesse  of  two  birds,  said  he.  Who  sent  thee  to  that  place,  said  we  ?  Old 
Alice^  said  he.  What  other  spirits  were  with  thee  there,  said  we?  My 
servant,  said  he.  What  is  his  name,  said  we  ?  He  said,  little  divell. 
What  is  thy  name,  said  we  ?  Sathan,  said  he.  What  dooth  old  Alice 
call  thee,  said  we?  Partener,  said  he.  What  dooth  she  give  thee,  said 
we?  Hir  will,  said  he.  How  manie  hast  thou  killed  for  hir,  said  we? 
Three,  said  he.  Who  are  they,  said  we  ?  A  man  and  his  child,  said/ 
he.  What  were  their  names,  said  we  ?  The  childs  name  was/  96.  [Mispr.  99  ] 
Edward,  said  he  :  what  more  than  Edward,  said  we  ?  Edward  Ager,  I2g. 
said  he.  What  was  the  mans  name,  said  we  ?  Richard,  said  he. 
What  more,  said  we  ?  Richard  Ager,  said  he.  Where  dwelt  the  man 
and  the  child,  said  we?  At  Dig  at  Dig,  said  he.  This  Richard 
Ager  of  Dig,  was  a  Gentleman  of  xl.  pounds  land  by  the  yeare,  a 
verie  honest  man,  but  would  often  sale  he  was  bewitched,  and 
languished  long  before  he  died.  Whom  else  hast  thou  killed  for  hir, 
said  we  ?  Woltois  wife  said  he.  Where  did  she  dwell  ?  In  West- 
well  said  he.  What  else  hast  thou  doone  for  hir  said  we  ?  What 
she  would  have  me,  said  he.  What  is  that  said  we  ?  To  fetch 
hir  meat,  drinke,  and  corne,  said  he.  Where  hadst  thou  it,  said 
we  ?  In  everie  house,  said  he.  Name  the  houses,  said  we  ? 
At  Pet  mans,  at  Farmes,  at  Milieus,  at  Fullers,  and  in  everie  house. 
After  this  we  commanded  sathan  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  to 
depart  from  hir,  and  never  to  trouble  hir  anie  more,  nor  anie  man 
else.  Then  he  said  he  would  go,  he  would  go  :  but  he  went  not. 
Then  we  commanded  him  as  before  with  some  more  words.  Then 
he  said,  I  go,  I  go;  and  so  he  departed.  Then  said  the  maid,  He  is 
gone,  Lord  have  mercie  upon  me,  for  he  would  have  killed  me.  And 
then  we  kneeled  downe  and  gave  God  thanks  with  the  maiden; 
praieng  that  God  would  keepe  hir  from  sathans  power,  and  assist  hir 
with  his  grace.  And  noting  this  in  a  peece  of  paper,  we  departed. 
Sathans  voice  did  differ  much  from  the  maids  voice,  and  all  that  he 
spake,  was  in  his  owne  name.     Subscribed  thus  : 


[*  Rom.] 

7.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 
Witnesses   to  this,    that  heard   and* 

sawe  this  whole  matter,  as  followeth  : 

Roger  Newf/ian,  vi-  "" 
car  of  Westwell. 

Johti  Brainford,  vi- 
car of  Kennitigton. 

Thomas  Tailor. 

Hetirie  Tailors  wife. 

folui  Tailor.  "^ 
Thomas    French- 
boms  wife.  I 
\Villia»i  Spooner.  ' 
fohn    Fretichborne,  \ 
and  his  wife,  j  J 

The  ventri- 
loqua  of 

The   second    Chapter. 

How  the  lewd  practise  of  the  Pythonist  of  Westwell  came  to  light, 
and  by  whome  she  2uas  examined ;  and  that  all  hir  diabolicall 
speach  was  but  ventriloquie  and  plaiiie  coiisenage,  which  is 
prooved  by  hir  owne  confession. 

T  is  written,  that  in  the  latter  dales  there  shalbe  shewed 
strange  Illusions,  &c:  in  so  much  as  (if  it  were  possible) 
the  verie  elect  shal/be  deceived:  howbeit,  S.  Paule  saith, 
they  shalbe  lieng  and  false  woonders.  Neverthelesse, 
this  sentence,  and  such  like,  have  beene  often  laid  in  my  dish,  and  are 
urged  by  diverse  writers,  to  approve  the  miraculous  working  of  witches, 
whereof  I  will  treat  more  largehe  in  another  place.  Howbeit,  by  the 
waie  I  must  confesse,  that  I  take  that  sentence  to  be  spoken  of  Anti- 
christ, to  wit:  the  pope,  who  miraculouslie,  contrarie  to  nature, 
philosophie,  and  all  divmitie,  being  of  birth  and  calling  base,  in 
learning  grosse;  in  valure,  beautie,  or  activitie  most  commonlie  a  verie 
lubber,  hath  placed  himselfe  in  the  most  loftie  and  delicate  seate, 
putting  almost  all  christian  princes  heads,  not  onelie  under  his  girdle, 
but  under  his  foote,  &:c. 

Surelie,  the  tragedie  of  this  Pythonist  is  not  inferior  to  a  thousand 
stories,  which  will  hardlie  be  blotted  out  of  the  memorie  and  credit 
either  of  the  common  people,  or  else  of  the  learned.  How  hardlie 
will  this  storie  suffer  discredit,  having  testimonie  of  such  authoritie  t 
How  could  mother  Alice  escape  condemnation  and  hanging,  being 
arreigned  upon  this  evidence  ;  when  a  poore  woman  hath  beene  cast 
away,  upon  a  cousening  oracle,  or  rather  a  false  lie,  devised  by  Feats 
the  juggler,  through  the  malicious  instigation  of  some  of  hir  adver- 
saries .'' 

But  how  cunninglie  soever  this  last  cited  certificat  be  penned,  or 
what  shew  soever  it  carrieth  of  truth  and  plaine  dealing,  there  maybe 
found  conteined  therein  matter  enough  to  detect  the  cousening 
knaverie  therof.    And  yet  diverse  have  been  deepelie  deceived  there- 

of  Wit  die  raft.  chap.  2.  105 

with,  and  canhardlie  be  removed  from  the  cre/dit  thereof,  and  without  iji. 
great  disdaine  cannot  endure  to  heare  the  reproofe  thereof.  And 
know  you  this  by  the  waie,  that  heretofore  Robin  goodfellow,  and 
Hob  gobblin  were  as  terrible,  and  also  as  credible  to  the  people,  as 
hags  and  witches  be  now:  and  in  time  to  come,  a  witch  will  be  as 
much  derided  and  contemned,  and  as  plainlie  perceived,  as  the 
illusion  and  knaverie  of  Robin  goodfellow.  And  in  truth,  they  that 
mainteine  walking  spirits,  with  their  transformation,  &c:  have  no 
reason  to  denie  Robin  goodfellow,  upon  whom  there  hath  gone  as 
manie  and  as  credible  tales,  as  upon  witches  ;  saving  that  it  hath  not 
pleased  the  translators  of  the  Bible,  to  call  spirits  by  the  name  of 
Robin  goodfellow,  as  they  have  termed  divinors,  soothsaiers,  poi- 
soners, and  couseners  by  the  name  of  witches. 

But  to  make  short  worke  with  the  confutation  of  this  bastardlie 
queanes  enterprise,  &  cousenage  ;  you  shall  understand,  that  upon 
the  brute  of  hir  divinitie  and  miraculous  transes,  she  was  convented 
before  M.  Thomas  Wotton  of  Bocton  JMalherbe,  a  man  of  great 
worship  and  wisedome,  and  for  deciding  and  ordering  of  matters  in 
this  commonwealth,  of  rare  and  singular  dexteritie ;  through  whose 
discreet  handling  of  the  matter,  with  the  assistance  &  aid  of  M. 
Georj^e  Darrell  esquire,  being  also  a  right  good  and  discreet  Justice  of  The  Pvtho- 
the  same  limit,  the  fraud  was  found,  the  coosenage  confessed,  and  she  weiVcou-'^^' 
received  condigne  punishment.     Neither  was  hir  confession  woone,    T"'^'^  '°'^ 

,.  "ir  owne 

accordmg  to  the  forme  of  the  Spanish  inquisition  ;  to  wit,  through   confession. 
extremitie  of  tortures,  nor  yet  by  guile  or  flatterie,  nor  by  presump- 
tions; but  through  wise  and  perfect  triall  of  everie  circumstance  the 
illusion  was  manifestlie   disclosed:  not  so    (I  say)  as  /  witches  are   98. 
commonlie   convinced  and   condemned  ;    to  wit,  through   malicious 
accusations,   by  ghesses,   presumptions,    and    extorted    confessions, 
contrarie  to  sense  and  possibilitie,  and  for  such  actions  as  they  can 
shew  no  triall  nor  example  before  the  wise,  either  by  direct  or  indirect 
meanes;    but   after  due  triall  she    shewed  hir  feats,  illusions,  and 
transes,  with  the  residue  of  all  hir  miraculous  works,  in  the  pre- 
sence of  divers  gentlemen  and  gentlewomen  of  great  worship 
and  credit,  at  Bocton  Alalherbe,  in  the  house  of  the 
aforesaid  M.    Wotton.     Now  compare  this 
wench  with  the  witch  of    Etidor,   & 
you    shall     see    that     both    the 
cousenages  may  be 
doone  by  one 


7.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 


J.  Bodin.  lib. 
de  dcpmon.},. 
cap.  2. 

The   third    Chapter. 

Bodins  stuffe  concerning  the  Pyihonist  of  Endor,  with  a  true 
storie  of  a  counterfeit  Dutchman. 

PON  the  like  tales  dooth  Bodin  build  his  doctrine,  calling 
them  Atheists  that  will  not  beleeve  him,  adding  to  this 
kind  of  witchcraft,  the  miraculous  works  of  diverse 
maidens,  that  would  spue  pins,  clowts,  &c:  as  one  Agnes 
Brigs,  and  Rachell  Finder  of  London  did,  till  the  miracles  were 
detected,  and  they  set  to  open  penance.  Others  he  citeth  of  that 
sort,  the  which  were  bound  by  divels  with  garters,  or  some  such  like 
stuffe  to  posts,  &c:  with  knots  that  could  not  be  undone,  which  is  an 
Aegyptians  juggling  or  cousening  feat.  And  of  such  foolish  lies 
joined  with  bawdie  tales,  his  whole  booke  consisteth:  wherein  I 
warrant  you  there  are  no  fewer  than  twoo  hundreth  fables,  and  as 
manie  impossibilities.  And  as  these  two  wenches,  with  the  maiden 
of  Westwell,  were  detected  of  cousenage;  so  Hkewise  a  Dutchman  at 
Maidstone  long  after  he  had  accomplished  such  knaveries,  to  the 
astonishment  of  a  great  number  of  good  men,  was  revealed  to  be  a 
cousening  knave;  although  his  miracles  were  imprinted  and  published 
at  London:  anno  1572.  with  this  title  before  the  booke,  as  foUoweth. 

^  A     verle     wonderfull     and    strange     mi- 

racle  of  God,  shewed  upon  a  Dutchman  of  the  age  of 

23.    yeares,    which    was    possessed    of   ten    di- 

vels,  and  was  by  Gods  mightie  providence  dis- 

possessed  of  them   againe,   the   27. 

of  fanuarie  last  past,    1572. 

UNTO  this  the  Maior  of  Maidstone,  with  diverse  of  his  brethren 
subscribed,  chieflieby  the  persuasion/  olNicasius  Vatider  Schuere, 
99,  the  mi/nister  of  the  Dutch  church  there,  John  Stikelbow,  whome  (as 
it  is  there  said)  God  made  the  instrument  to  cast  out  the  divels,  and 
foure  other  credible  persons  of  the  Dutch  church.  The  historie  is  so 
strange,  &  so  cunninglie  performed,  that  had  not  his  knaverie  after- 
wards brought  him  into  suspicion,  he  should  have  gone  awaie  unsus- 
pected of  this  fraud.  A  great  manie  other  such  miracles  have  beene 
latelie  printed,  whereof  diverse  have  beene  bewraied:  all  the  residue 
doubtles,  if  triall  had  beene  made,  would  have  beene  found  like  unto 
these.     But  some  are  more  finelie  handled  than  othersome.     Some 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  4  107 

have  more  advantage  by  the  simplicitie  of  the  audience,  some  by  the 
majestie  and  countenance  of  the  confederates  ;  as  namelie,  that 
cousening  of  the  holie  maid  of  Kent.  Some  escape  utterlie  unsus- 
pected, some  are  prevented  by  death;  so  as  that  waie  their  exami- 
nation is  untaken.  Some  are  weakelie  examined:  but  the  most  part 
are  so  reverenced,  as  they  which  suspect  them,  are  rather  called  to 
their  answers,  thari  the  others. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

Of  the  great  oracle  of  Apollo  the  Pythonist,  and  how  men  of  all 
sorts  have  been  deceived,  and  that  even  the  apostles  have  mistaken 
the  nature  of  spirits,  with  an  unanswerable  at-gument,  that  spirits 
can  take  710  shapes. 

|lTH  this  kind  of  witchcraft,  Apollo  and  his  oracles  abused    The  am- 
and  cousened  the  whole  world:  which  idoll  was  so  famous,   gi'es''of°ora- 
thdt  I  need  not  stand  long  in  the   description  thereof.   '''^^• 
The  princes  and  monarchs  of  the  earth  reposed  no  small 
confidence   therein:   the   preests,   which   lived    thereupon,  were    so 
cunning,  as  they  also  overtooke  almost  all  the  godlie  and  learned 
men  of  that  age,  partlie  with  their  doubtfuU  answers;  as  that  which 
was  made  unto  Pyrrhus,  in  these  words,  Aio  te  Aeacida  Romanos 
vincere  posse,  and  to   C^-cesus  his  ambassadours  in  these  words,   Si 
Crcesus  anna  Persis  inferat,  magnum  imperium  evertat ;  and  other- 
wise thus,  Crcesus  Halin  /  penetrans,  magnam  subvertet  opum  vim  :  or   104. 
thus,    Croesus  perdet  Halin,  trangressus  plurima  regtia,  Qy^c:  partlie 
through  confederacie,    whereby   they   knew  mens  errands  yer  they 
came,  and  partlie  by  cunning,  as  promising  victorie  upon  the  sacri- 
ficing of  some  person  of  such  account,  as  victorie  should  rather  be 
neglected,  than  the  murther  accomplished.     And  if  it  were,  yet  should    The  subtil- 
there  be  such  conditions  annexed  thereunto,  as   alwaies   remained    "eofora- 
unto  them  a  starting  hole,  and  matter  enough  to  cavill  upon;  as  that 
the  partie  sacrificed  must  be  a  virgin,  no  bastard,  &c.     Furthermore, 
of  two  things  onelie  proposed,  and  where  yea  or  naie  onelie  dooth 
answer  the  question,  it  is  an  even  laic,  that  an  idiot  shall  conjecture 
right.     So  as,  if  things  fell  out  contrarie,  the  fault  was  alwaies  in  the 
interpretor,  and  not  in  the  oracle  or  the  prophet.     But  what  mervell, 
(I  saie)  though  the  multitude  and  common  people  have  beene  abused 
herein;  since  lawiers,  philosophers,  physicians,  astronomers,  divines, 
generall    councels,   and  princes   have    with    great    negligence    and 
ignorance  been  deceived  and  seduced  hereby,  as  swallowing  up  and 
de/vouring  an  inveterate  opinion,  received  of  their  elders,  without  due    100. 
examination  of  the  circumstance  } 

io8  7Buoke.  TJie  discoverie 

Howbeit,  the  godlie  and  learned  fathers  (as  it  appeereth)  have 
alwaies  had  a  speciall  care  and  respect,  that  they  attributed  not  unto 
God  such  divelish  devises;  but  referred  them  to  him,  who  indeed  is 
the  inventer  and  author  thereof,  though  not  the  personall  executioner, 
in  maner  and  forme  as  they  supposed  :  so  as  the  matter  of  faith  was 
not  thereby  by  them  impeached.  But  who  can  assure  himselfe  not  to 
John.  20, 9.  be  deceived  in  matters  concerning  spirits,  when  the  apostles  them- 

selves were  so  far  from  knowing  them,  as  even  after  the  resurrection 
of  Christ,  having  heard  him  preach  and  expound  the  scriptures,  all 
his  life  time,  they  shewed  themselves  not  onelie  ignorant  therein,  but 
also  to  have  misconceived  thereof?  Did  not  the  apostle  Tlionias 
thinke  that  Christ  himselfe  had  beene  a  spirit;  until  Christ  told  him 
plainelie,  that  a  spirit  was  no  such  creature,  as  had  flesh  and  bones, 
the  vvhicii  (he  said)  Tlioinas  xm^\  see  to  be  in  him  .''  And  for  the 
further  certifieng  and  satisfieng  of  his  mind,  he  commended  unto  him 
his  hands  to  be  scene,  and  his  sides  to  be  felt.  Thomas,  if  the 
answer  be  true  that  some  make  hereunto,  to  wit :  that  spirits  take 
^35-  formes  and  /  shapes  of  bodies  at  their  pleasure,  might  have  answered 
Christ,  and  remaining  unsatisfied  might  have  said  ;  Oh  sir,  what  do 
you  tell  me  that  spirits  have  no  flesh  and  bones  ?  Why  they  can 
take  shapes  and  formes,  and  so  perchance  have  you  doone.  Which 
argument  all  the  witchmongers  in  the  world  shall  never  be  able  to 

Some  of  them  that  mainteine  the  creation,  the  transformation,  the 
transportation,  and  transubstantiation  of  witches,  object  that  spirits  are 
not  palpable,  though  visible,  and  answer  the  place  by  me  before  cited: 
so  as  the  feeling  and  not  the  seeing  should  satisfie  Thomas.  But 
he  that  shall  well  weigh  the  text  and  the  circumstances  thereof,  shall 
perceive,  that  the  fault  of  Thomas  his  incredulitie  was  secondlie 
bewraied,  and  condemned,  in  that  he  would  not  trust  his  owne  eies, 
nor  the  view  taken  by  his  fellow  apostles,  who  might  have  beene  thought 
too  credulous  in  this  case,  if  spirits  could  take  shapes  at  their  pleasure. 

John.  20,  jg.  Jesus  saith  to  him;  Bicause  thou  hast  scene  (and  not,  bicause  thou 

hast  felt)  thou  beleevest.  Item  he  saith;  Blessed  are  they  that 
beleeve  and  see  not  (and  not,  they  that  beleeve  and  feele  not.) 
Whereby  he  noteth  that  our  corporall  eies  may  discerne  betwixt  a 
spirit  and  a  naturall  bodie;  reprooving  him,  bicause  he  so  much 
relied  upon  his  externall  senses,  in  cases  where  faith  should  have 
prevailed;  &  here,  in  a  matter  of  faith  revealed  in  the  word,  would 
not  credit  the  miracle  which  was  exhibited  unto  him  in  most  naturall 
and  sensible  sort. 

r.mst./  Howbeit,   Erastus   saith,   and    so    dooth    Hyperius,    Hemingius, 

Da)i(eus,  M.  Mai-  Bodiii,  &^c:  that  evill  spirits  jeate,  dj'inke,  and  keepe 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  5. 


companie  with  men,  and  that  they  can  take  palpable  formes  of  bodies, 

producing    examples    thereof,   to   wit:    Spectrton    Germanicum   seu 

Augiistatium,  and  the  angell  whose  feet  Lot  washed  ;    as    though 

bicause  God  can  indue  his  messengers  with  bodies  at  his  pleasure, 

therefore  the  divell  and  everie  spirit  can  doo  the  like.     How  the 

eleven  apostles  were  in  this  case  deceived,  appeareth  in  Luke.  24.  and    vj^J^'^i^'f^^^ 

in  Mark.  16.  as  also  in  Matth.   14.  where  the  apostles  and  /  disciples    Mat.  14, 16.  lOl. 

were  all  deceived,  taking  Christ  to  be  a  spirit,  when  he  walked  on  the 

sea.     And  why  might  they  not  be  deceived  herein,  as  well  as  in  that 

they  thought  Christ  had  spoken  of  a  temporall  kingdome,  when  he 

preached  of  the  kingdome  of  hea/ven .''     Which  thing  they  also  much    Matth.  :;o.  136. 

misconceived;    as    likewise  when  he  did  bid  them   beware   of  the    Matt.  16,  n. 

leven  of  the  Pharisies,  they  understood  that  he  spake  of  materiall 


The   fift    Chapter. 

Why  Apollo  was  called  Pytho  ivhereof  those  witches  were  called 
Pythonists  :  Gregorie  his  letter  to  the  divell. 

|UT  to  returne  to  our  oracle  of  Apollo  at  Dclphos,  who 
was  called  Pytho,  for  that  Apollo  slue  a  serpent  so  called, 
whereof  the  Pythonists  take  their  name  :  I  praie  you  con- 
sider well  of  this  tale,  which  I  will  trulie  rehearse  out  of 
the  ecclesiasticall  historic,  written  by  Eusebius^  wherein  you  shall  see 
the  absurditie  of  the  opinion,  the  cousenage  of  these  oraclers,  and  the 
deceived  mind  or  vaine  opinion  of  so  great  a  doctor  bewraied  and 
deciphered  altogither  as  followeth. 

Gregorie  Neoccesariensis  in  his  jornie  and  waie  to  passe  over  the 
Alpes,  came  to  the  temple  of  Apollo  :  where  Apollos  priest  living 
richlie  upon  the  revenues  and  benefit  proceeding  from  that  idoU,  did 
give  great  intertainement  unto  Gregorie,  and  made  him  good  cheare. 
But  after  Gregorie  was  gone,  Apollo  waxed  dumbe,  so  as  the  priests 
gaines  decaied:  for  the  idoll  growing  into  contempt,  the  pilgrimage 
ceased.  The  spirit  taking  compassion  upon  the  priests  case,  and  upon 
his  greefe  of  mind  in  this  behalfe,  appeared  unto  him,  and  told  him 
flatlie,  that  his  late  ghest  Gregorie  was  the  cause  of  all  his  miserie. 
For  (saith  the  divell)  he  hath  banished  me,  so  that  I  cannot  returne 
without  a  speciall  licence  or  pasport  from  him.  It  was  no  need  to 
bid  the  priest  make  hast,  for  immediatlie  he  tooke  post  horsses,  and 
galloped  after  Gregorie,  till  at  length  he  overtooke  him,  and  then 
expostulated  with  him  for  this  discourtesie  profered  in  recompense  of 
his  good  cheare;  and  said,  that  if  he  would  not  be  so  good  unto  him, 
as  to  write  his  letter  to  the  divell  in  his  belialfe,  he  should  be  utterlie/ 

Euseb.  lib.  7. 
cap.  25. 

I  lO 

7.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Note  the 
of  oracles. 

7J7.  undone.  To  be  short,  his  importunitie  was  such,  that  he  obtained 
Gregorie  his  letter  to  the  divell,  who  wrote  unto  him  in  maner  and 
forme  following,  word  for  word :  Permitto  tibi  redire  in  locum  ttntm, 
&^  af^ere  qiicE  co7istievisti  \  which  is  in  English;  I  am  content  thou 
returne  into  thy  place,  and  doo  as  thou  wast  woont.  Immediatlie 
upon  the  receipt  of  this  letter,  the  idoll  spake  as  before.  And  here 
is  to  be  noted,  that  as  well  in  this,  as  in  the  execution  of  all  their 
other  oracles  and  cousenages,  the  answers  were  never  given  Ex  tem- 
pore, or  in  that  daie  wherein  the  question  was  demanded,  because 
forsooth  they  expected  a  vision  (as  they  said)  to  be  given  the  night 
following,  whereby  the  cousenage  might  the  more  easilie  be  wrought./ 


Zach.  10. 


IV.  Lambert 
in  titulo  Box- 

The   sixt    Chapter. 

Apollo,  who  was  called  Pytho,  coj>ipared  to  the  Rood  of  grace : 
Gregories  letter  to  the  divell  confuted. 

HAT  need  manie  words  to  confute  this  fable?  For  if 
Gregorie  had  beene  an  honest  man,  he  would  never  have 
willinglie  permitted,  that  the  people  should  have  beene 
further  cousened  with  such  a  lieng  spirit:  or  if  he  had 
beene  halfe  so  holie  as  Eusebitis  maketh  him,  he  would  not  have  con- 
sented or  yeelded  to  so  lewd  a  request  of  the  priest,  nor  have  written 
such  an  impious  letter,  no  not  though  good  might  have  come  thereof. 
And  therefore  as  well  by  the  impossibilitie  and  follie  conteined  therein, 
as  of  the  impietie  (whereof  I  dare  excuse  Gregorie)  you  male  perceive  it 
to  be  a  lie.  Me  thinks  they  which  still  mainteine  that  the  divell  made 
answer  in  the  idoll  oi  Apollo,  &c;  maie  have  sufficient  persuasion  to 
revoke  their  erronious  opinions:  in  that  it  appeareth  in  record,  that 
such  men  as  were  skilfull  in  augurie,  did  take  upon  them  to  give 
oracles  at  Delphos,  in  the  place  of  Apollo  :  of  which  number  Tisanius 
the  Sonne  of  ^;z/z^r/;«j  was  one.  But  vaine  is  the  answer  of  idols. 
Our  Rood  of  grace,  with  the  helpe  of  little  S.  Rtiniball,  was  not 
inferior  to  the  idoll  of  Apollo  :  for  these  could  /  not  onlie  worke 
externall  miracles,  but  manifest  the  internall  thoughts  of  the  hart,  I 
beleeve  with  more  livelie  shew,  both  of  humanitieand  also  of  divinitie, 
than  the  other.  As  if  you  read  M.  Lamberts  booke  of  the  peram- 
bulation oi  Kent,  it  shall  partlie  appeare.  But  if  you  talke  with  them 
that  have  beene  beholders  thereof,  you  will  be  satisfied  herein.  And 
yet  in  the  blind  time  of  poperie,  no  man  might  (under  paine  of 
damnation)  nor  without  danger  of  death,  suspect  the  fraud.  Naie, 
what  papists  will  yet  confesse  they  were  idols,  though  the  wiers  that 
made  their  eies  gogle,  the  pins  that  fastened  them  to  the  postes  to 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  s.  1 1 1 

make  them  seeme  heavie,  were  seene  and  burnt  together  with  the 
images  themselves,  the  knaverie  of  the  priests  bewraied,  and  everie 
circumstance  thereof  detected  and  manifested  ? 

The   seventh    Chapter. 

How  diverse  great  clarkes  ajid  good  authors  have  beene  abused  in 
this  matter  of  spirits  through  false  reports,  and  by  meanes  of 
their  credulitie  have  published  lies,  which  are  confuted  by  Aris- 
totle and  the  scriptures. 

|LUTARCH,  Livie,  and  Valerius  Maximus,  with  manie 
other  grave  authors,  being  abused  with  falfe  reports, 
write  that  in  times  past  beasts  spake,  and  that  images 
could  have  spoken  and  wept,  and  did  let  fall  drops  of 
blood,  yea  and  could  walk  from  place  to  place:  which  they/  sale  was  103. 
doone  by  procuration  of  spirits.  But  I  rather  thinke  with  Aristotle, 
that  it  was  brought  to  passe  Hominum  fir=  sacerdotum  deceptionibus, 
to  wit:  by  the  cousening  art  of  craftie  knaves  and  priests.  And  there- 
fore let  us  follow  Esaies  advise,  who  saith;  When  they  shall  sale  unto  Esai.  8,  19. 
you,  Enquire  of  them  that  have  a  spirit  of  divination,  and  at  the  sooth- 
saiers,  which  whisper  and  mumble  in  your  eares  to  deceive  you,  &c: 
enquire  at  your  owne  God,  &c.  And  so  let  us  doo.  And  here  you 
see  they  are  such  as  runne  into  corners,  and  cousen  the  people  with 
lies,  &c.  For  if  they  could  doo  as  they  saie,  they  could  not  aptlie  be 
called  Hers,  /  neither  need  they  go  into  corners  to  whisper,  &c.  /j.p 

The   eight    Chapter. 

Of  the  witch  of  Endor,  and  whether  she  accomplished  the  raising  of 
Samuel  truelie,  or  by  deceipt :  the  opinion  of  some  divines  here- 

[HE  woman  of  Endor  is  comprised  under  this  word  Ob 
for  she  is  called  Pythonissa.  It  is  written  in  2.  Sam.  cap.  2.  Sam.  :8. 
28.  that  she  raised  up  Samuel  from  death,  and  the  other 
words  of  the  text  are  stronglie  placed,  to  inforce  his  verie 
resurrection.  The  mind  and  opinion  of  Jesus  Syrach  evidentlie 
appeareth  to  be,  that  Samuel  in  person  was  raised  out  from  his 
grave,  as  if  you  read  Eccl.  46.  19,  20.  you  shall  plainlie  perceive. 
Howbeit  he  disputeth  not  there,  whether  the  storie  be  true  or  false, 
but  onlie  citeth  certaine  verses  of  the  i.  booke  of  Samuel  cap.  18. 
simplie,  according  to  the  letter,  persuading  maners  and  the  imitation 

I  12 

7.  Rooke. 

The  discoverie 

Sap  3. 
Ps.  92.  &  97. 
Chrysost.  ho- 
rn Hi  a.  21,  z« 



August,  lib. 
qua:,  vet.  et  104. 
novi  tcstam. 
qucest.  27. 
Item,  part.  2. 
cap.  26. 
Item,  quis.  5. 
«^<;  mi  ruin 
ad  Sitnpli- 
cian.  lib.  2.  93 
ad  Dulciti- 
um.  quce.  6. 
Item.  lib.  2. 
de  doct.  cltri. 

Deut.  18, 
Exodus.  20. 

of  our  vertuous  predecessors,  and  repeating  the  examples  of  diverse 
excellent  men-  namelie  of  Samuel:  even  as  the  text  it  selfe  urgeth 
the  matter,  according  to  the  deceived  mind  and  imagination  of  Saule, 
and  his  servants.  And  therefore  in  truth,  Sirach  spake  there  accord- 
ing to  the  opinion  oi  Saule.,  which  so  supposed,  otherwise  it  is  neither 
heresie  nor  treason  to  saie  he  was  deceived. 

He  that  weigheth  well  that  place,  and  looketh  into  it  advisedlie, 
shall  see  that  Sainifel  was  not  raised  from  the  dead;  but  that  it  was  an 
illusion  or  cousenage  practised  by  the  witch.  For  the  soules  of  the 
righteous  are  in  the  hands  of  God:  according  to  that  which  Chrysos- 
tonie  saith;  Soules  are  in  a  certeine  place  expecting  judgement,  and 
cannot  remove  from  thence.  Neither  is  it  Gods  will,  that  the  living 
should  be  taught  by  the  dead.  Which  things  are  confirmed  and 
approved  by  the  example  oi  Lazarus  and  Dives  :  where  it  appeareth 
according  to  Detit.  i8.  that  he  will  not  have  the  living  taught  by  the 
dead,  but  will  have  us  sticke  to  his  word,  wherein  his  will  and  testa- 
ment is  declared.  In  deed  /  Lyra  and  Dionyshis  incline  greatlie  to  the 
letter.  And  Lyra  saith, that  as  when  Balaam  would  have  raised  a  divell, 
God  interposed  himselfe:  so  did  he  in  this  case  bring  up  Samiiell, 
when  the  witch  would  have  raised  hir  divell.  Which  is  a  probable 
interpretation.  But  yet  they  dare  not  stand  to  that  opinion,  least  they 
should  impeach  S.  Aiigustines  credit,  who  (they  confesse)  remained  in 
judgement  and  opinion  (without  contradiction  of  the  church)  /  that 
Saimtell  was  not  raised.  For  he  saith  directlie,  that  6"a;«z^^// himselfe 
was  not  called  up.  And  indeed,  if  he  were  raised,  it  was  either  wil- 
linglie,  or  perforce:  if  it  were  willinglie,  his  sinne  had  beene  equall 
with  the  witches. 

And  Peter  Martyr  (me  thinks)  saith  more  to  the  purpose,  in  these 
words,  to  wit:  This  must  have  beene  doone  by  Gods  good  will,  or 
perforce  of  art  magicke:  it  could  not  be  doone  by  his  good  will, 
bicause  he  forbad  it  ;  nor  by  art,  bicause  witches  have  no  power  over 
the  godlie.  Where  it  is  answered  by  some,  that  the  commandement 
was  onlie  to  prohibit  the  Jewes  to  aske  counsell  of  the  dead,  and  so 
no  fault  in  Saimtell  to  give  counsell.     We  may  as  well  excuse  our 

neighbours  wife,  for  consenting  to  our  filthie  desires,  bicause 
it  is  onlie  written  in  the  decalog  ;  Thou  shalt  not  desire 
thy  neighbours  wife.  But  indeed  6"a;;/?^^?// was  direct- 
lie  forbidden  to  answer  Saule  before  he  died: 
and  therefore  it  was  not  likelie  that 
God  would  appoint  him,  when 
he  was  dead,  to 
doo  it. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  9.  1 1 

The    ninth    Chapter. 

That  Samuel  was  7iot  raised  indeed,  and  how  Rodin  and  all 
papists  dote  herein^  and  that  soules  cannot  be  raised  by  witch- 

URTHERMORE,  it  is  not  likelie  that  God  would  answer 
Saule  by  dead  Samuell,  when  he  would  not  answer  him 
by  living  Samuell :  and  most  unlikelie  of  all,  that  God 
would  answer  him  by  a  divell,  that  denied  to  doo  it  by  a 
prophet.  That  he  was  not  brought  up  perforce,  the  whole  course  of 
the  scripture  witnesseth,  and/  prooveth  ;  as  also  our  owne  reason  may  141. 
give  us  to  understand.  For  what  quiet  rest  could  the  soules  of  the 
elect  enjoy  or  possesse  in  Abrahatns  bosome,  if  they  were  to  be 
plucked  from  thence  at  a  witches  call  and  commandement  ?  But  so 
should  the  divell  have  power  in  heaven,  where  he  is  unworthie  to 
have  anie  place  himselfe,  and  therefore  unmeete  to  command  others. 

Manie  other  of  the  fathers  are  flatlie  against  the  raising  up  of 
Satmeell :  namelie,  Tertullian  in  his  bookeZ?^  anima,/iistine  Martyr 
In  explications,  qua:.  25.  Rabamis  In  epistolis  ad  Bonas.  Abat,  Origen 
In  historia  de  Bileanio,  &^c.     Some  other  dote  exceedinglie  herein, 
as  namelie  Bodin,  and  all  the  papists  in  generall  :  also  Rabbi  Sedias 
Haias,  &  also  all  the  Hebrues,  saving  7?.  David  Kimhi,  which  is  the 
best  writer  of  all  the  Rabbins  :  though  never  a  good  of  them  all.     But 
Bodin,  in  maintenance  therof,  falleth  into  manie  absurdities,  prooving   %  Bod.  lib.  de 
by  the  small  faults  that  Saule  had  committed,  that  he  was  an  elect  :    ^'^"^'  ^'  '^"'^'  ^* 
for  the  greatest  matter  (saith  he)  laid  unto  his  charge,  is  the  reserving 
of  the  Amalekits  cattell,  &c.     He  was  an  elect,  &c  :  confiiming  his    i.  Samu.  28, 
opinion  with  manie  ridiculous  fables,  &  with  this  argument,  to  wit  : 
His  fault  was  too  little  to  deserve  damnation  ;  for  Paule  would  not    i.  Cor.  5. 
have  the  incestuous  man  punished  too  sore,  that  his  soule  might  be    j.  Martyr  in 
saved.    Justine  Martyr  in  another  place  was  not  onlie  deceived  in  the    coiioquio 
actuall  raising  up  of  Samuels  soule,  but  affirmed  that  all  the  soules  of   nTjiidL^''^' 
the  prophets  and  just  men  are  subject  to  the  power  of  witches./     And    105. 
yet  were  the  Heathen  much  more  fond  herein,  who   (as  Lactantius   Lact.  lib.  7. 
affirmeth)  boasted  that  they  could  call  up  the  soules  of  the  dead,  and    '^'^^'  '•''■ 
yet  did  thinke  that  their  soules  died  with  their  bodies.     Whereby  is 
to  be  seene,  how  alwaies  the  world  hath  beene  abused  in  the  matters 
of  witchcraft  &  conjuration.     The  Necromancers    affirme,  that   the 
spirit  of  anie  man  may  be  called  up,  or  recalled   (as  they  terme  it) 
before  one  yeare  be  past  after  their  departure  from  the  bodie.    Which 
C.  Agrippa  in  his  booke  De  occulta  philosophia  saith,  may  be  doone 




The  discoverie 


by  certeine  naturall  forces  and  bonds.  And  therefore  corpses  in  times 
past  were  accompanied  and  watched  with  lights,  sprinkled  with  holie 
water,  perfumed  with  incense,  and  purged  with  praier  all  the  while 
they  were  above  grcimd  :  otherwise  the  serpent  (as  the  Maisters  of 
the  Hebrues  saie)  woula  levoure  them,  as  the  food  appointed  to  him 

142.  by  God  :  Gen.  3.  alled/ging  also  this  place  ;  We  shall  not  all  sleepe, 
but  we  shall  be  changed,  bicause  manie  shall  remaine  for  perpetuall 
meate  to  the  serpent  :  whereupon  riseth  the  contention  betweene  him 

'■  and  Michael/,  concerning  the  bodie  of  Moses ;  wherein  scripture  is 

alledged.  I  confesse  that  Augustine,  and  the  residue  of  the  doctors, 
that  denie  the  raising  of  Sainuell,  conclude,  that  the  divell  was  fetcht 
up  in  his  likenesse  :  from  whose  opinions  (with  reverence)  I  hope  I 
may  dissent. 

7is  lib.  de  in- 
eant-  cap.  2. 

The    tenth    Chapter. 

That  neither  the  divell  nor  Samtiell  was  raised,  hit  that  it  ivas  a 
nieere  consenage,  accordijig  to  the  guise  of  our  Pythonists. 

JGAINE,  if  the  divell  appeared,  and  not  Samuell :  whie  is 
it  said  in  Eccle.  that  he  slept  ?  for  the  divell  neither 
sleepeth  nor  dieth.  But  in  truth  we  may  gather,  that  it 
was  neither  the  divell  in  person,  nor  Samuell :  but  a 
circumstance  is  here  described,  according  to  the  deceived  opinion  and 
imagination  of  Saule.  Howbeit  Atigustitie  saith,  that  both  these 
sides  may  easilie  be  defended.  But  we  shall  not  need  to  fetch  an 
exposition  so  farre  off :  for  indeed  (me  thinkes)  it  is  Longe  petita  ; 
nor  to  descend  so  lowe  as  hell,  to  fetch  up  a  divell  to  expound  this 
place.  For  it  is  ridiculous  (as  Pompanacitis  saith)  to  leave  manifest 
things,  and  such  as  by  naturall  reason  may  be  prooved,  to  seeke 
unknowne  things,  which  by  no  likeliehood  can  be  conceived,  nor  tried 
by  anie  rule  of  reason.  But  in  so  much  as  we  have  libertie  by  S. 
Atigustines  rule,  in  such  places  of  scripture  as  seeme  to  conteine 
either  contrarietie  or  absurditie,  to  varie  from  the  letter,  and  to  make 
a  godlie  construction  agreeable  to  the  word  ;  let  us  confesse  that 
Samuell  was  not  raised  (for  that  were  repugnant  to  the  word)  and  see 
whether  this  illusion  may  not  be  contrived  by  the  art  and  cunning  of 
the  woman,  without  anie  of  these  supernaturall  devices  :  for  I  could 
14J.  cite  a  hundred  papisticall  and  cousening  practises,  as/  difficult  as  this, 
and  as  cleanlie  handled.  And  it  is  to  be  surelie  thought,  if  it  had 
beene  a  divell,  the  text  would  have  noted  it  in  some  place  of  the  storie: 
as  it  dooth  not.  But  Bodin  helpeth  me  exceedinglie  in  this  point, 
,106.    wherein  he  for  saketh  (he  saith)  Aiignstine,  Tertullian.  and  D.  Kimhi 

of  Witchcraft.  chip.  n.  115 

himselfe,  who  sale  it  was  the  divell  that  was  raised  up  :  which  (saith    j.  Bod.  Ub.  de 
Bodin)  could  not  be  ;  for  that  in  the  same  communication  betweene   '^^'"" ""  '"'^'  '• 
Sauk  and  Samteell,  the  name  of  Jehovah  is  five  times  repeated,  of 
which  name  the  divell  cannot  abide  the  hearing. 

The   eleventh    Chapter. 

The  objection  of  ihe  ivitclunojigers  concerning  this  place  fullie 
answered^  and  what  circutnstances  are  to  be  considered  for  the 
understanding  of  this  storie,  which  is  plainelie  opened  from  the 
beginning  of  the  28.  chap,  of  the  i.  Samuel,  to  the  12.  verse. 

HERE  such  a  supernaturall  miracle  is  wrought,  no  doubt    P-  Martyr 
it  is  a  testimonie  of  truth  ;  as  Peter  Martyr  affirmeth.    /"  'ianuiL ' 
And  in  this  case  it  should  have  beene  a  witnesse  of  lies  :    ''"''•  9- 
for  (saith  he)  a  matter  of  such  weight  cannot  be  attributed 
unto  the  divell,  but  it  is  the  mightie  power  of  God  that  dooth  accom- 
plish it.     And  if  it  laic  in  a  witches  power  to  call  up  a  divell,  yet  it 
lieth  not  in  a  witches  power  to  worke  such  miracles  :  for  God  will  not    isaj.  42. 

,      ,       .  .  rr-  1  1     1  •         1  ■•  Sam.  28. 

give  his  power  and  glorie  to  ame  creature.  1  o  understand  this  place, 
we  must  diligentlie  examine  the  circumstance  thereof  It  was  well 
knovvne  that  Saule,  before  he  resorted  to  the  witch,  was  in  despaire  of 
the  mercies  and  goodnes  of  God  ;  partlie  for  that  Saniucll  told  him 
long  before,  that  he  should  be  overthrowne,  and  David  should  have 
his  place  ;  and  partlie  bicause  God  before  had  refused  to  answer  him, 
either  by  Samucll  when  he  lived,  or  by  anie  other  prophet,  or  by 
Urim  or  Thumim,  &c.  And  if  you  desire  to  see  this  matter  dis- 
cussed, turne  to  the  first  oi  Samteell,  the  28.  chapter,  and  conferre  my 
words  therewith./ 

Saule  seeing  the  host  of  the  Philistines  come  upon  him  (which  thing  144. 
could  not  be  unknown  to  all  the  people)  fainted,  bicause  he  sawe 
their  strength,  and  his  owne  weaknesse,  and  speciallie  that  he  was 
forsaken  :  so  as  being  now  straught  of  mind,  desperate,  and  a  verie 
foole,  he  goeth  to  certeine  of  his  servants,  that  sawe  in  what  taking  i.  Sam.  28, 7. 
he  was,  and  asked  them  for  a  woman  that  had  a  familiar  spirit,  and 
they  told  him  by  and  by  that  there  dwelt  one  at  Endor.  By  the  waie 
you  shall  understand,  that  both  Saule  and  his  servants  ment  such  a  one 
as  could  by  hir  spirit  raise  up  Samuell,  or  any  other  that  was  dead  and 
buried.  Wherein  you  see  they  were  deceived,  though  it  were  true,  that 
she  tooke  upon  hir  so  to  doo.  To  what  use  then  served  hir  familiar 
spirit,  which  you  conceive  she  had,  bicause  Saules  servants  said  so .'' 
Surelie,  as  they  were  deceived  and  abused  in  part,  so  doubtlesse  were 
they  in  the  rest.  For  to  what  purpose  (I  sale)  should  hir  familiar  serve,    familiar. 

1 1 6  7-  Booke.  The  discoverie 

if  not  for  such  intents  as  they  reported,  and  she  undertooke  ?  I  thinke 
you  will  grant  that  Sanies  men  never  sawe  hir  familiar  :  for  I  never 
heard  any  yet  of  credit  saie,  that  he  was  so  much  in  the  witches  favour, 
as  to  see  hir  divell  ;  although  indeed  we  read  among  the  popish  trum- 
perie,  that  S.  Cicilie  had  an  angell  to  hir  familiar,  and  that  she  could 
shew  him  to  whom  she  would,  and  that  she  might  aske  and  have  what 
107.  she  or  hir/  friend  list  :  as  appeareth  in  the  lesson  read  in  the  popish 
church  on  saint  Cicilies  dale.  Well,  I  perceive  the  woman  of  Endors 
spirit  was  a  counterfeit,  and  kept  belike  in  hir  closet  at  Etidor,  or  in 
the  bottle,  with  mother  Alices  divell  at  IVestwell,  and  are  now 
bewraied  and  fled  togither  to  Limbo palrjun,  &^c.  And  though  Saule 
were  bewitched  and  blinded  in  the  matter  ;  yet  doubtlesse  a  wise 
man  wold  have  perchance  espied  her  knaverie.      Me  thinks  Sanle 

D.  Burcot,  was  brought  to  this  witch,  much  after  the  maner  that  doctor  Bnrcot 

was  brought  to  Feats,  who  sold  maister  Doctor  a  familiar,  wherby 
he  thought  to  have  wrought  miracles,  or  rather  to  have  gained  good 
store  of  monie.  This  fellowe  by  the  name  oi  Feats  was  a  jugler,  by 
the  name  oi  Hilles  a  witch  or  conjurer,  everie  waie  a  cousener  :  his 
qualities  and  feats  were  to  me  and  manie  other  well  knowne 
and  detected.  And  yet  the  opinion  conceived  of  him  was  most 
strange  and  woonderfuU  ;  even  with  such  and  in  such  cases,  as  it 
greeveth  me  to  thinke  of;  speciallie  bicause  his  knaverie  and 
^45-    cou/senage   reached   to  the  shedding  of  innocent   bloud.     But  now 

I.  Sam.  28,  8  forsooth  Satile  covereth  himselfe  with  a  net  ;  and  bicause  he  would 
not  be  knowne,  he  put  on  other  garments.     But  to  bring  that  matter 

I.  Sa  10, 23.  to  passe,  he  must  have  beene  cut  shorter  by  the  head  and  shoulders, 

for  by  so  much  he  was  higher  than  any  of  the  people.  And  therfore 
whatsoever  face  the  craftie  quene  did  set  upon  it,  she  knew  him  well 
enough.  And  for  further  proofe  thereof,  you  may  understand,  that 
the  princes  of  the  Jewes  were  much  conversant  with  the  people.    And 

Ibiriem.  it  appccrcth  manifestlie,  that  Saule  dwelt  verie  neere  to  Endor,  so  as 

she  should  the  rather  knowe  him  ;  for  in  the  evening  he  went  from 
his  lodging  unto  hir  house  :  neither  should  it  seeme  that  she  was 
gone  to  bed  when  he  came.  But  bicause  that  may  be  uncerteine,  you 
may  see  in  the  processe  of  the  text,  that  in  a  peece  of  the  night  he 
went  from  his  house  to  hirs,  and  with  much  adoo  intreated  her  to 
consent  to  his  request.  She  finished  hir  conjuration,  so  as  both 
Saules  part,  the  witches  part,  and  also  Samuels  part  was  plaied  :  and 
after  the  solemnization  therof,  a  calfe  was  killed,  a  batch  of  bread 
baked,  and  a  supper  made  readie  and  eaten  up  ;  and  after  all  this,  he 
went  home  the  same  night  :  and  had  need  so  to  doo,  for  he  had  some 
businesse  the  next  daie.  By  these  and  manie  other  circumstances  it 
may  bee  gathered,  that  she  dissembled,  in  saieng  she  knew  him  not, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  12. 


and  consequentlie  counterfaited,  and  made  a  foole  of  him  in  all  the 

It  appeereth  there,  that  he,  with  a  couple  of  his  men,  went  to  liir   ibidem, 
by  night,  and  said  ;  Conjecture  unto  me  by  thy  familiar  spirit,  and 
bring  me  up  whom   I   shall  name  unto  thee.     The  godlie  learned 
knowe  that  this  was  not  in  the  power  of  the  witch  of  Endor,  but  in  the 
God  of  heaven  onelie  to  accomplish.     Howbeit,  Saicle  was  bewitched 
so  to  suppose  :  and  yet  is  he  more  simple  that  will  be  overtaken  with 
the  devises  of  our  old  witches,  which  are  produced  to  resemble  hir. 
And  why  should  we  thinke,  that  GOD  would  rather  permit  the  witch  to 
raise  Saintiel,  than  that  Dives  could  obteine  Lazarus  to  come  out  of 
Ab7'ahanis  bosome,  upon  more  likelie  and  more  reasonable  condi- 
tions.-'    Well  now  dooth  this  strumpet  (according  to  the  guise  of  our 
cousening  witches   and  conjurers)    make   the   matter   strange    unto 
Smih\  saieng  that  he  came  to  take  hir  in  a  snare,  &c./     But  witches    i- Sam.  28,9. 108. 
seldome  make/  this  objection,  saving  when  they  mistrust  that  he  which   14^- 
commeth  to  them  will  espie  their  jugling  :  for  otherwise,  where  the 
witchmonger  is  simple  and  easie  to  be  abused,  the  witch  will  be  as 
easie  to  be  intreated,  and  nothing  dangerous  of  hir  cunning  ;  as  you 
see  this  witch  was  soone  persuaded  (notwithstanding  that  objection) 
bicause  she  perceived  and  sawe  that  Saule  was  afifraid  and  out  of  his 
wits.      And  therfore  she  said  unto  him;   Whom  shall  I  raise  up?    i.  Sa.  28.  12. 
As  though  she  could  have  brought  unto  him  Abraham,  Isaac,  or 
Jacob  ;  who  cannot  heare  us,  therefore  cannot  rise  at  our  call.     For 
it  is  written  ;  Looke  thou  downe  from  heaven  and  behold  us,  &c  :  as    isa.  63, 15. 16 
for  Abraham  he  is  ignorant  of  us,  and  Israel  knovveth  us  not. 

The    twelfe    Chapter. 

The  12.  13.  (Sr»  14.  verses  of  i.  Samuel  28.  expounded :  ivherin  is 
shewed  that  Saule  was  cousened  and  abused  by  the  witch,  and 
that  Samuel  was  not  raised,  is  prooved  by  the  witches  owne  talke. 

IjHE  manner  and  circumstance  of  their  communication,  or 
of  hir  conjuration,  is  not  verbatim  set  downe  and  ex- 
pressed  in   the   text  ;    but   the    effect    thereof   breeflie 
touched  :  yet  will  I  shew  you  the  common  order  of  their 
conjuration,  and  speciallie  of  hirs  at  this  time  used.     When  Saule   The  maner 
had  told  hir,  that  he  would  have  Samuel  brought  up  to  him,  she   of  Endors 
departed  from  his  presence  into  hir  closet,  where  doubtles  she  had    '^^  g^'^^j'"^ 
hir  familiar ;  to  wit,  some  lewd  craftie  preest,  and  made  Saule  stand 
at  the  doore  like  a  foole  (as  it  were  with  his  finger  in  a  hole)  to  heare 
the  cousening  answers,  but  not  to  see  the  cousening  handling  thereof, 

1 1 8  7  Booke.  The  discoverie 

and  the  couterfetting  of  the  matter.  And  so  goeth  she  to  worke,  using 
ordinarie  words  of  conjuration,  of  which  there  are  sundrie  varieties 
and  formes  (whereof  I  shall  have  occasion  to  repeat  some  in  another 
place)  as  you  see  the  juglers  (which  be  inferior  conjurors)  speake 
147-  certeine  strange  words  of  course  to  lead  awaie  the  eie  from  espi/eng 
the  maner  of  their  conveiance,  whilest  they  may  induce  the  mind  to 
conceive  and  suppose  that  he  dealeth  with  spirits  ;  saieng,  Hay, 
fortH7te  furie^  nunqj  credo,  passe,  passe,  when  come  you  sirra.  So 
belike  after  many  such  words  spoken,  she  saith  to  hir  selfe  ;  Lo  now 
the  matter  is  brought  to  passe,  for  I  see  woonderfull  things.     So  as 

I.  Sa.  28, 13.  Saule  hearing  these  words,  longed  to  knowe  all,  and  asked  hir  what 
she  sawe,  Whereby  you  may  know  that  Sajile  sawe  nothing,  but 
stood  without  like  a  mome,  whilest  she  plaied  hir  part  in  hir  closet  : 

1.  Sa.  :8, 21.  as  may  most  evidentlie  appeere  by  the  21.  verse  of  this  chapter  where 
it  is  said ;  Then  the  woman  came  out  unto  Saule.  Howbeit,  a  little 
before  she  cunninglie  counterfaited  that  she  sawe  Samuel,  and  thereby 
knewe  it  was  Saule  that  was  come  unto  hir.  Whereby  all  the  world 
may  perceive  the  cousening,  and  hir  dissimulation.  For  by  that 
which  hath  beene  before  said,  it  must  needs  be  that  she  knew  him. 
And  (I  praie  you)  why  should  she  not  have  suspected  aswell  him  to 
be  Saule  before,  when  in  expresse  words  he  required  hir  to  bring 
unto  him  Samuel,  as  now,  when  Sainnel  appeered  unto  hir .''  / 

i.Sa.28,  4.109.  Well,  to  the  question  before  proposed  by  Saule,  she  answereth  and 
lieth,  that  she  saw  angels  or  gods  ascending  up  out  of  the  earth. 
Then  proceedeth  she  with  her  inchanting  phrases  and  words  of 
course  :  so  as  thereby  Satcle  gathereth  and  supposeth  that  she  hath 
raised  a  man.  For  otherwise  his  question  dependeth  not  upon  any 
thing  before  spoken.  For  when  she  hath  said;  I  sawe  angels  ascend- 
ing, &c  :  the  next  word  he  saith  is  ;  What  fashion  is  he  of?  Which 
(I  saie)  hangeth  not  upon  hir  last  expressed  words.  And  to  this 
she  answered  not  directlie,  that  it  was  Samuel ;  but  that  it  was  an  old 
man  lapped  in  a  mantell  :  as  though  she  knew  not  him  that  was  the 
most  notorious  man  in  Israeli,  that  had  beene  her  neighbour  by  the 
space  of  manie  yeeres,  and  upon  whom  (while  he  lived)  everie  eie 
was  fixed,  and  whom  also  she  knew  within  lesse  than  a  quarter  of  an 
houre  before,  as  by  whose  meanes  also  she  came  acquainted  with 

I.  Sa.  28, 12.         Saule.     Read  the  text  and  see. 

But  she  describeth  his  personage,  and  the  apparell  which  he  did 
usuallie  weare  when  he  lived  :  which  if  they  were  both  buried  to- 
gither,  were  consumed  and  rotten,  or  devoured  with  wormes  before 
148.  that  time.  Belike  he  had  a  new  mantell  made  him  in  hea/ven  :  and 
yet  they  saie  Tailors  are  skantie  there,  for  that  their  consciences  are 
so  large  here.     In  this  countrie,  men  give  awaie  their  garments  when 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  i^  119 

they  die  :  if  Satmeel  had  so  doone,  hee  could  not  have  borrowed  it 
againe  ;  for  of  likliehood  it  would  have  beene  worne  out  in  that  space, 
except  the  donee  had  beene  a  better  husband  than  I :  for  the  testator 
was  dead  (as  it  is  supposed)  two  yeares  before. 

The    xiii.    Chapter, 

The  residue  of  i.  SaJii.  28.  expounded :  ivherin  is  declared  how 
cunuinglie  this  witch  brought  Saide  resolutelie  to  beleeve  that  she 
raised  Samuel,  what  words  are  used  to  colour  the  cousenage,  and 
hotv  all  might  also  be  wrought  by  ventriloquie. 

||0W  commeth  in  Samuel  to  plaie  his  part  :  but  I  am  per- 
suaded it  was  performed  in  the  person  of  the  witch  hir 
selfe,  or  of  hir  confederate.  He  saith  to  Saule  ;  Why  i-  Sa.  28,  15. 
has  thou  disquieted  me,  to  bring  me  up  ?  As  though 
without  guile  or  packing  it  had  beene  Samuel  himselfe.  Saule  ibidem. 
answered  that  he  was  in  great  distresse  :  for  the  Philistines  made  warre 
upon  him.  Whereby  the  witch,  or  hir  confederate  priest  might  easilie 
conjecture  that  his  heart  failed,  and  direct  the  oracle  or  prophesie 
accordinglie  :  especiallie  understanding  by  his  present  talke,  and 
also  by  former  prophesies  and  dooings  that  were  past,  that  God  had 
forsaken  him,  and  that  his  people  were  declining  from  him.  For 
when  JonatJiaii  (a  little  before)  overthrew  the  Philistines,  being  thirtie 
thousand  chariots  and  six  thousand  horssemen  ;  Saule  could  not 
assemble  above  six  hundred  souldiers.  i.  Sa.  13, 15. 

Then   said    Samuel  (which  some  suppose   was  sathan,  and  as  I 
thinke  was  the  witch,  with  a  confederate  ;  for    what  need  so  farre 
fetches,  as  to  fetch  a  divell  supernaturallie    out    of  hell,  when  the 
illusion  may  be  here  by  natu  rail  meanes  deciphered  ?     And  if  you    110. 
note  the  words  well,  you  shall  perceive  the  phrase  not  to  come  out/ 
of  a  spirituall  mouth  of  a  divell,  but  from  a  lieng  corporall  toong  of  I4g. 
a  cousener,  that  careth  neither  for  God  nor  the  divell,  fro  whence 
issueth  such  advise  and  communication,  as  greatlie  disagreeth  from 
sathans  nature  and   purpose.     For  thus    (I   saie)    the    said    Samuel 
speaketh  :  Wherefore  dooest  thou  aske  me,  seeing  the  Lord  is  gone    i.  Sam.  28. 
from  thee,  and  is  thine  enemie.-'     Even  the  Lord  hath  doon  unto  him         '  '  ''^' 
as  he  spake  by  mine  hand:  for  the  Lord  will  rent  thy  kingdome  out    >•  Sa.  15, 28. 
of  thine  hand,  and  give  it  to  thy  neighbour  David,   bicause  thou 
obeiedst  not  the  voice  of  the  Lord,  &c.     This  (I  say)  is  no  phrase  of 
a  divell,  but  of  a  cousener,  which  knew  before   what  Samuel  had 
prophesied  concerning  Saules  destruction.     For  it  is  the  divels  con- 
dition,  to  allure  the  people   unto  wickednes,  and  not  in  this  sort  to 

1 20  7-  Booke.  The  discoverie 

admonish,  vvarne,  and  rebuke  them  for  evill.  And  the  popish  writers 
confes,  that  the  divell  would  have  beene  gone  at  the  first  naming  of 
God.  If  it  bee  said,  that  it  was  at  Gods  speciall  commandement  and 
will,  that  Saiiniel  or  the  divell  should  be  raised,  to  propound  this 
admonition,  to  the  profit  of  all  posteritie:  I  answer,  that  then  he 
would  rather  have  doone  it  by  some  of  his  living  prophets,  and  that 
sathan  had  not  beene  so  fit  an  instrument  for  that  purpose.  After 
this  falleth  the  witch  (I  would  saie  Samuel)  into  the  veine  of  prophe- 

1.  Sa  28, 17.  sieng,  and  speaketh  to  Sank  on  this  wise  ;  The  Lord  will  rent  thy 

'^'  kingdome  out  of  thine  hand,  and  give  it  to  thy   neighbor  David, 

bicause  thou  obeiedst  not  the  voice  of  the  Lord,  nor  executedst  his 
fierse  wrath  upon  the  Amalekites:  therefore  hath  the  Lord  doone  this 

19.  unto  thee  this  daie.     Moreover,  the  Lord  will  deliver  thee  into  the 

hands  of  the  Philistmes,  and  to  morrowe  shalt  thou  and  thy  sonnes  be 
with  me,  and  the  Lord  shall  give  the  host  of  Israel  into  the  hands  of 
the  Philtsiines.     What  could  Samuel  have  said  more  ? 

Me  thinks  the  divell  would  have  used  another  order,  encouraging 
Saule  rather  than  rebuking  him  for  his  evill.  The  divell  is  craftier 
than  to  leave  such  an  admonition  to  all  posterities,  as  should  be 
prejudicial!  unto  his  kingdome,  and  also  be  void  of  all  impietie.  But 
so  divine  a  sentence  maketh  much  for  the  maintenance  of  the  witches 
credit,  and  to  the  advancement  of  hir  gaines.  Howbeit,  concerning  the 
veritie  of  this  prophesie,  there  be  many  disputable  questions:  first, 
whether  the  battell  were  fought  the  next  daie;  secondlie,  whether  all 
750.  his  sonnes  were  kil/led  with  him;  item,  whether  they  went  to  heaven 
or  hell  togither,  as  being  with  Samuel,  they  must  be  in  heaven,  and 
being  with  sathan,  they  must  be  in  hell.  But  although  everie  part  of 
this  prophesie  were  false,  as  that  all  his  sonnes  were  not  slaine  {Ishbo- 
sheth  living  and  reigning  in  Israel  two  yeares  after  Saules  death)  and 
that  the  battell  was  not  on  the  morrow,  and  that  wicked  Saule,  after 

2.  Reg.  4.  that  he  had  killed  himselfe,  was  not  with  good  Samuel ;  yet  this  witch 

did  give  a  shrewd  gesse  to  the  sequele.     Which  whether  it  were  true 

or  false,  perteins  not  to  my  purpose  ;  and  therfore  I  will  omit  it.     But 

as  touching  the  opinion  of  them  that  saie  it  was  the  divell,  bicause 

that  such  things  came  to  passe  ;  I  would  faine  knowe  of  them   where 

they  learne  that  divels  foreknow   things  to  come.     If  they  saie  he 

gesseth  onelie  upon  probabilities,  the  witch  may  also  doo  the  like. 

Canon.  2(>.  But  here  I  may  not  forget  the  decrees,  which  conclude,  that  Samtiel 

'ZTmirMu}'        appeered  not  unto  Satde  ;    but  that  the  historiographer  set  foorth/ 

111.    Saules  mind  and  Samuels  estate,  and  certeine  things  which  were  said 

&  scene,  omitting  whether  they  were  true  or  false  :  and  further,  that 

it  were  a  great  offense  for  a  man  to  beleeve  the  bare  words  of  the 

storie.     And  if  this  exposition  like  you  not,   I  can  easilie  frame  my 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  14.  121 

selfe  to  the  opinion  of  some  of  great  learning,  expounding  this  place, 
and  that  with  great  probabilitie,  in  this  sort;  to  wit,  that  this 
Pythotiist  being  Veiitriloqiia  ;  that  is,  Speaking  as  it  were  from  the 
bottome  of  hir  bellie,  did  cast  hir  selfe  into  a  transe,  and  so  abused 
Saule,  answering  to  Saiile  in  Samuels  name,  in  hir  counterfeit 
hollow  voice  :  as  the  wench  of  Westzuell  spake,  whose  historie  I  have 
rehearsed  before  at  large,  in  pag.  127  and  this  is  right  Veniriloquic.j 

Right  Ventrilo- 

The  xiiii.  Chapter.  -O'a 

Opinions  of  some  learned  men.,  that  Samuel  was  indeed  raised,  not 
by  the  witches  art  or  power,  but  by  the  speciall  jniracle  of  God, 
that  there  are  no  such  visions  in  these  our  dales,  (&-»  that  our 
witches  cannot  doo  the  like. 

IAS  and  Sadaias  write,  that  when  the  woman  sawe  the 
miracle  indeed,  and  more  than  she  looked  for,  or  was 
woont  to  doo;  she  began  to  crie  out,  that  this  was  a 
vision  indeed,  and  a  true  one,  not  doone  by  hir  art,  but 
by  the  power  of  God.  Which  exposition  is  far  more  probable  than 
our  late  writers  judgements  hereupon,  and  agreeth  with  the  exposition 
of  diverse  good  divines.  Gelasius  saith,  it  was  the  verie  spirit  of 
Samiiel :  and  where  he  suffered  himself  to  be  worshipped,  it  was  but 
in  civill  salutation  and  courtesie;  and  that  God  did  interpose  Samuel,  ^-  y°,Yus* 
as  he  did  Elias  to  the  messenger  of  Ochosias,  when  he  sent  to  differ  here- 
Belzebub  the  god  of  Acharon.  And  here  is  to  be  noted,  that  the 
witchmongers  are  set  up  in  this  point:  for  the  papists  sale,  that  it 
cannot  be  a  divell,  bicause  Jehovah  is  thrise  or  five  times  named  in 
the  storie.  Upon  this  peece  of  scripture  arguments  are  daielie 
devised,  to  proove  and  mainteine  the  miraculous  actions  of  witch- 
craft, and  the  raising  of  the  dead  by  conjurations.  And  yet  if  it  were 
true,  that  Safnuel  himselfe  were  raised,  or  the  divell  in  his  likenesse; 
and  that  the  witch  of  Endor  by  hir  art  and  cunning  did  it,  &c:  it 
maketh  rather  to  the  disproofe  than  to  the  proofe  of  our  witches, 
which  can  neither  do  that  kind  of  miracle,  or  any  other,  in  any  such 
place  or  companie,  where  their  jugling  and  cousenage  may  be  seen 
and  laid  open.  And  I  challenge  them  all  (even  upon  the  adventure  A  bold,  dis- 
of  my  life)  to  shew  one  peece  of  a  miracle,  such  as  Christ  did  trulie,  flhWuii 
or  such  as  they  suppose  this  witch  did  diabolicallie,  be  it  not  with  challenge 
art  nor  confederacie,  whereby  some  colour  thereof  may  be  made  ; 
neither  are  there  any  such  visions  in  these  dales  shewed. 

Heretofore  God  did  send  his  visible  angels  to  men  :  but  now/  we    152 
heare  not  of  such  apparitions,  neither  are  they  necessarie.     Indeed  it 



7.  Bouke. 

The  discoverie 

[*  7is  read  ti%.'\ 

"  At  Can- 
turburie  by 
Kich.  Lee 
tsquire,  & 
anno.  1573. 
At  Rie  "by 
Gaymor  & 
anno.  1577. 

y.  Wier.  lib.  3 
caf.  8. 
Lavat.  de 
sped,  is!  le- 
mur ib. 

Cardan,  de 
var.  rem VI 
Fencer,  i^c. 

pleased  God  heretofore,  by  the  hand  of  Moses  and  his  prophets,  and 
speciallie  by  his  sonne  Christ  and  his  apostles,  to  worke  great 
112.  miracles,  for  the  establish/ing  of  the  faith:  but  now  whatsoever  is 
necessarie  for  our  salvation,  is  conteined  in  the  word  of  God  :  our 
faith  is  alredie  confirmed,  and  our  church  established  by  miracles;  so 
as  now  to  seeke  for  them,  is  a  point  of  infidelitie.  Which  the  papists 
(if  you  note  it)  are  greatlie  touched  withall,  as  in  their  lieng  legends 
appeareth.  But  in  truth,  our  miracles  are  knaveries  most  commonlie, 
and  speciallie  of  priests,  whereof  I  could  cite  a  thousand.  If  you 
read  the  storie  of  Bell  and  the  dragon,  you  shall  find  a  cousening 
miracle  of  some  antiquitie.  If  you  will  see  newer  devises,  read 
JVz'erus,  Cardanus.,  Ba/eus,  and  speciallie  Lavaterns*  &^c.  There 
have  beene  some  ^walking  spirits  in  these  parts  so  conjured  not  long 
since,  as  afterwards  they  little  delighted  to  make  anie  more  appari- 

The   XV.    Chapter. 

Of  vaine  apparitions.,  how  people  have  beene  brought  to  fear e  bugges, 
which  is  part  lie  reformed  by  preaching  of  the  go  spell,  the  true 
effect  of  Christes  miracles. 

UT  certeinlie,  some  one  knave  in  a  white  sheete  hath 
cousened  and  abused  manie  thousands  that  waie;  special- 
lie  when  Robin  good-fellow  kept  such  a  coile  in  the 
countrie.  But  you  shall  understand,  that  these  bugs 
speciallie  are  spied  and  feared  of  sicke  folke,  children,  women,  and 
cowards,  which  through  weaknesse  of  mind  and  bodie,  are  shaken 
with  vaine  dreames  and  continuall  feare.  The  Scythians,  being  a 
stout  and  a  warlike  nation  (as  divers  writers  report)  never  see  anie 
vaine  sights  or  spirits.  It  is  a  common  saieng;  A  lion  feareth  no 
bugs.  But  in  our  childhood  our  mothers  maids  have  so  terrified  us 
with  an  ouglie  divell  having  homes  on  his  head,  fier  in  his  mouth,  and 
1^3.  a  taile  in/  his  breech,  eies  like  a  bason,  fanges  like  a  dog,  clawes  like 
a  beare,  a  skin  like  a  Niger,  and  a  voice  roring  like  a  lion,  whereby 
we  start  and  are  afraid  when  we  heare  one  crie  Bough :  and  they  have 
so  fraied  us  with  bull  beggers,  spirits,  witches,  urchens,  elves,  hags, 
fairies,  satyrs,  pans,  faunes,  sylens,  kit  with  the  cansticke,  tritons, 
centaurs,  dwarfes,  giants,  imps,  calcars,  conjurors,  nymphes,  chang- 
lings.  Incubus,  Robin  good-fellowe,  the  spoorne,  the  mare,  the  man  in 
the  oke,  the  hell  waine,  the  fierdrake,  the  puckle,  Tom  thombe,  hob 
gobblin,  Tom  tumbler,  boneles,  and  such  other  bugs,  that  we  are  afraid 
of  our  owne  shadowes:  in  so  much  as  some  never  feare  the  divell,  but 
in  adarkenight;  and  then  a  polled  sheepe  is   a  perillous  beast,  and 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   15. 


manie  times  is  taken  for  our  fathers  soule,  speciallie  in  a  churchyard, 
where  a  right  hardie  man  heretofore  scant  durst  passe  by  night,  but 
his  haire  would  stand  upright.  For  right  grave  writers  report,  that 
spirits  most  often  and  speciallie  take  the  shape  of  women  appearing  to 
monks,  &c  :  and  of  beasts,  dogs,  swine,  horsses,  gotes,  cats,  haires  ;  of 
fowles,  as  crowes,  night  owles,  and  shreeke  owles;  but  they  delight 
most  in  the  likenes  of  snakes  and  dragons.  Well,  thanks  be  to  God, 
this  wretched  and  cowardlie  infidelitie,  since  the  preaching  of  the 
gospell,  is  in  part  forgotten  :  and  doubtles,  the  rest  of  those  illusions 
will  in  short  time/  (by  Gods  grace)  be  detected  and  vanish  awaie. 

Divers  writers  report,  that  in  Germame,  since  Lnthers  time,  spirits 
and  divels  have  not  personallie  appeared,  as  in  times  past  they  were 
woont  to  doo.  This  argument  is  taken  in  hand  of  the  ancient  fathers, 
to  proove  the  determination  and  ceasing  of  oracles.  For  in  times 
past  (saith  Athanasius)  divels  in  vaine  shapes  did  intricate  men  with 
their  illusions,  hiding  themselves  in  waters,  stones,  woods,  &c.  But 
now  that  the  word  of  GOD  hath  appeared,  those  sights,  spirits,  and 
mockeries  of  images  are  ceased.  Truelie,  if  all  such  oracles,  as  that 
oi  Apollo,  &c  (before  the  comming  of  Christ)  had  beene  true,  and 
doone  according  to  the  report,  which  hath  beene  brought  through 
divers  ages,  and  from  farre  countries  unto  us,  without  preestlie  fraud 
or  guile,  so  as  the  spirits  of  prophesie,  and  working  of  miracles,  had 
beene  inserted  into  an  idoll,  as  hath  beene  supposed:  yet  we  christians 
may  conceive,  that  Christs  coming  was  not  so  fruteles  and  pre/judi- 
ciall  in  this  point  unto  us,  as  to  take  awaie  his  spirit  of  prophesie  and 
divination  from  out  of  the  mouth  of  his  elect  people,  and  good 
prophets,  giving  no  answers  of  anie  thing  to  come  by  them,  nor  by 
Urhn  nor  Thumim,  as  he  was  woont,  &c.  And  yet  to  leave  the  divell 
in  the  mouth  of  a  witch,  or  an  idoll  to  prophesie  or  worke  miracles, 
&c:  to  the  hinderance  of  his  glorious  gospell,  to  the  discountenanceof 
his  church,  and  to  the  furtherance  of  infidelitie  and  false  religion, 
whereas  the  working  of  miracles  was  the  onelie,  or  at  least  the  most 
speciall  meanes  that  mooved  men  to  beleeve  in  Christ:  as  appeareth 
in  sundrie  places  of  the  gospell,  and  speciallie  in  John,  where  it  is 
written,  that  a  great  multitude  followed  him,  bicause  they  sawe  his 
miracles  which  he  did,  &c.     Naie,  is  it  not  written,  that  Jesus  was 

approoved  by  God  among  the  Jewes,  with  miracles,  wonders 

and  signes,  &c  ?     And  yet,  if  we  conferre  the  miracles 

wrought  by  Christ,  and  those  that  are  imputed 

to  witches  ;  witches  miracles  shall 

appeare  more  common,  and 

nothing  inferior 

unto  his. 

Lavat.  de 


Car.  de  var. 
reru  771  ■ 
J.  IVier.  de 
prcest.  danion. 

Athanas.  de 


The  true 
end  of  mi- 

John  2. 

Act.  2.  2 
John.  5. 


7-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

An  ironi- 
call  colla- 

Mai.  male/, 
far.  2.  qua.  i. 
cap.  14. 


Acts.  17. 
Tim. 6,  13. 
Col.  I,  16. 

Apollo  Py- 
tho  unca- 



The    xvi.    Chapter. 

Witches  miracles  compared  to  Christs,  thai  God  is  the  creator  of  all 
things,  of  Apollo,  and  of  his  names  and  portraiture. 

]f  this  witch  of -£"«^tf?- had  performed  that,  which  manie 
conceive  of  the  matter,  it  might  have  beene  compared 
with  the  raising  up  of  Lazarus.  I  praie  you,  is  not  the 
converting  of  water  into  milke,  as  hard  a  matter  as  the 
turning  of  water  into  wine  ?  And  yet,  as  you  may  read  in  the  gospell, 
that  Christ  did  the  one,  as  his  first  miracle;  so  may  you  read  in  M. 
Mai.  and  in  Boditt,  that  witches  can  easiUe  doo  the  other  :  yea,  and 
that  which  is  a  great  deale  more,  of  water  they  can  make  butter. 
But  to  avoid  all  cavils,  and  least  there  should  appeare  more  matter  in 
Christs  miracle,  than  the  others,  you  shall  find  in  M.  Mai.  that  they 
can  change  water  into  wine:  and  what  is  it  to  attribute  to/  a  creature, 
the  power  and  worke  of  the  creator,  if  this  be  not?  Christ  saith. 
Opera  qiice  ego  facio  7iemo  potest  facere.  Creation  of  substance  was 
never  granted  to  man  nor  angell;  E7go  neither  to/  witch  nor  divell : 
for  God  is  the  onlie  giver  of  life  and  being,  and  by  him  all  things  are 
made,  visible  and  invisible. 

Finallie,  this  woman  of  E^tdor  is  in  the  scripture  called  Pythonissa: 

whereby  it  may  appeare  that  she  was  but  a  verie  cousener.     For  Pytho 

himselfe,  whereof  Pytho7iissa  is  derived,  was  a  counterfet.     And  the 

originall  storie  of  Apollo,  who  was  called  Pytho,  bicause  he  killed  a 

serpent  of  that  name,  is  but  a  poeticall  fable.     For  the  poets  saie  he 

was  the  god  of  musicke,  physicke,  poetrie,  and  shooting.     In  heaven 

he  is  called  Sol,  in  earth  Liber  pater,  in  hell  Apollo.     He  florisheth 

alwaies  with  perpetuall  youth,  and  therefore  he  is  painted  without  a 

beard:  his  picture  was  kept  as  an  oracle-giver:  and  the  preests  that 

attended  thereon  at  Delphos  were  couseners,  and  called  Pytho7iists  of 

Pytho,  as  papists  of  Papa  ;  and  afterwards  all  women  that  used  that 

trade,  were  named  Pytho7tisscE,  as  was  this  woman  oi  E7idor. 

But  bicause  it  concerneth  this  matter,  I  will  breefelie  note 

the   opinions  of  divers  learned   men,  and    cer- 

teine  other  proofes,  which  I  find  in  the 

scripture  touching  the  ceasing  of 

miracles,  prophesies  and 


of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   I. 


Tf  The  eight  booke. 

IS  6.     116. 

The    first    Chapter. 

That  miracles  are  ceased. 

liLTHOUGH  in  times  past,  it  pleased  God,  extraordina- 
rilie  to  shew  miracles  amongest  his  people,  for  the 
strengthening  of  their  faith  in  the  Messias;  and  againe  at 
his  comming  to  confirme  their  faith  by  his  wonderful! 
dooings,  and  his  speciall  graces  and  gifts  bestowed  by  him  upon  the 
apostles,  &c:  yet  we  ordinarilie  read  in  the  scriptures,  that  it  is  the 
Lord  that  worketh  great  wonders.  Yea  David  saith,  that  among  the 
dead  (as  in  this  case  of  Samuel)  God  himselfe  sheweth  no  wonders.  I 
find  also  that  God  will  not  give  his  glorie  and  power  to  a  creature. 
Nichodenms  being  a  Pharisie  could  sale,  that  no  man  could  do  such 
miracles  as  Christ  did,  except  God  were  with  him,  according  to  the 
saieng  of  the  prophet  to  those  gods  and  idols,  which  tooke  on  them 
the  power  of  God  ;  Doo  either  good  or  ill  if  you  can,  &c.  So  as  the 
prophet  knew  and  taught  thereby,  that  none  but  God  could  worke 
miracles.  Infinite  places  for  this  purpose  might  be  brought  out  of 
the  scripture,  which  for  brevitie  I  omit  and  overslip. 

S.  At(gt(stine,  among  other  reasons,  whereby  he  prooveth  the 
ceasing  of  miracles,  saith;  Now  blind  flesh  dooth  not  open  the  eies 
of  the  blind  by  the  miracle  of  God,  but  the  eies  of  our  hart  are 
opened  by  the  word  of  God.  Now  is  not  our  dead  carcase  raised 
any  more  up  by  miracle,  but  our  dead  bodies  be  still  in  the  grave,/ 
and  our  soules  are  raised  to  life  by  Christ.  Now  the  eares  of  the 
deafe  are  not  opened  by  miracle,  but  they  which  had  their  eares  shut 
before,  have  them  now  opened  to  their  salvation.  The  miraculous 
healing  of  the  sicke,  by  annointing,  spoken  oihy  S.  James,  is  objected 
by  manie,  speciallie  by  the  papists,  for  the  maintenance  of  their 
sacrament  of  extreame  unction  :  which  is  apishlie  and  vainelie  used 
in  the  Romish  church,  as  though  that  miraculous  gift  had  continu- 
ance till  this  daie  :  wherein  you  shall  see  what  Calvine  speaketh  in 
his  institutions.  The  grace  of  healing  (saith  he)  spoken  of  by  S. 
James,  is  vanished  awaie,  as  also  the  other  miracles,  which  the  Lord 
would  have  shewed  onelie  for  a  time,  that  he  might  make  the  new 
preaching  of  the  gospell  mervellous  for  ever.  Why  (saith  he)  doo  not 
these  (meaning  miraclemongers)  appoint  some  Siloah  to  swim  in, 
whereinto  at  certeine  ordinarie  recourses  of  times  sicke  folke  male 

Psal.  136,  4. 
Psal.  72.  18. 
Psal.  88.  10. 

Isai.  42. 
John  3,  2. 
Ibid.  7,  16. 
In  annotat. 
in  Johan.  3. 

Isai.  45. 

August,  de 
verbis  Dom. 
Matth.  ser- 
monc.  18. 


James.  5,  14. 

J.  Calvin.  In- 
stitut.  lib.  4. 
cap.  19.  sect. 

Idem,  ibid . 
sect.  19. 
Isai.  9,  7. 

I  26 

8.  Booke. 

TJic  discoverie 

Acts.  20,  10. 
Idem.  ibid. 
nempe  J.  Cal- 



Prov.  51. 

H.  Card,  de 

plunge  themselves  ?  Why  doo  they  not  lie  a  long  upon  the  dead, 
bicause  Paule  raised  up  a  dead  child  by  that  meanes  ?  Verelie  (saith 
he)  James  in  the  miracle  to  annoint,  spake  for  that  time,  whiles  the 
church  still  enjoied  such  blessings  of  God.  Item,  he  saith,  that  the 
Lord  is  present  with  his  in  all  ages  ;  and  so  often  as  need  is,  he  help- 
eth  their  sicknesses,  no  lesse  than  in  old  time.  But  he  dooth  not  so 
utter  his  manifest  powers,  nor  distributeth  miracles,  as  by  the  hands 
of  the  apostles,  bicause  the  gift  was  but  for  a  time.  Cah'ine  even 
there  concludeth  thus  ;  They  saie  such  vertues  or  miracles  remaine, 
but  experience  saith  naie.  And  see  how  they  agree  among  them- 
selves. Danaus  saith,  that  neither  witch  nor  divell  can  worke 
miracles.  Giles  Alley  saith  directlie,  /  that  witches  worke  miracles. 
Calvine  saith  they  are  all  ceased.  All  witchmongers  saie  they  con- 
tinue. But  some  affirme,  that  popish  miracles  are  vanished  and  gone 
awaie  :  howbeit  witches  miracles  remaine  in  full  force.  So  as  S.  Loy 
is  out  of  credit  for  a  horsseleach,  Maister  T.  and  mother  Btmgie  re- 
maine in  estimation  for  prophets  :  naie  HobgobUn  and  Robin  good- 
fellow  are  contemned  among  yoong  children,  and  mother  Alice  and 
mother  Bungie  are  feared  among  old  fooles.  The  estimation  of  these 
continue,  bicause  the  matter  hath  not  beene  called  in  question  :  the 
credit  of  the  other  decaieth,  bicause  the  matter  hath  beene  looked 
into.  Whereof  I  saie  no  more,  but  that  S.  Anthonies  blisse  will  helpe/ 
your  pig,  whensoever  mother  Bungie  dooth  hurt  it  with  hir  cursse. 
And  therefore  we  are  warned  by  the  word  of  God,  in  anie  wise  not  to 
feare  their  cursses.  But  let  all  the  witchmongers,  and  speciallie  the 
miraclemongers  in  the  world  answer  me  to  this  supposition  ;  Put 
case  that  a  woman  of  credit,  or  else  a  woman-witch  should  saie  unto 
them,  that  she  is  a  true  prophet  of  the  Lord,  and  that  he  revealeth 
those  secret  mysteries  unto  hir,  whereby  she  detecteth  the  lewd  acts 
and  imaginations  of  the  wicked,  and  that  by  him  she  worketh 
miracles,  and  prophesieth,  &c  ;  I  thinke  they  must  either  yeeld,  or 
confesse  that  miracles  are  ceased.  But  such  things  (saith  Cardatie) 
as  seeme  miraculous,  are  cheeflie  doone  by  deceipt,  legier- 
demaine,  or  confederacie  ;  or  else  they  male 
be  doone,  and  yet  seeme  unpossible, 
or  else  things  are  said  to  be 
done,  and  never  were 
nor  can  be 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  2.  127 

The   second    Chapter. 

That  the  gift  of  prophesie  is  ceased. 

|HAT  witches,  nor  the  woman  of  Endor,    nor   yet    hir 
famihar  or  divell  can  tell  what  is  to  come,  may  plainelie 
appeare  by  the  words  of  the  prophet,  who  saith  ;  Shew    isai.  41. 
what  things  are  to  come,  and  we   will  sale  you  are  gods 
indeed.     According  to  that  which  Salomoti  saith  ;  Who  can  tell  a 
man  what  shall  happen  him  under  the  sunne  ?     Marrie  that  can  I    i-  Sam.  28. 
(saith  the  witch  oi  Endor  to  Saule.)     But  I  will  rather  beleeve  Paule    i.°a,'r.'i2. 
and  Peter,  which   sale,  that  prophesie  is  the  gift  of  God,  and  no    '•  ^^^-  '• 
worldlie  thing.     Then  a  cousening  queane,  that  taketh  upon  hir  to    [(/^/.  the  full  stop] 
doo  all  things,  and  can  doo  nothing  but  beguile  men  :  up  steppeth  also 
mother  Bi/ngie,  and  she  can  tell  you  where  your  horsse  or  your  asse 
is  bestowed,  or  anie  thing  that  you  have  lost  is  become,  as  Saj>mell 
could  ;  and  what  you  have  doone  in  all  your  age  past,  as  Christ  did 
to  the  woman  of  Sichar  ^X  facobs  well ;  yea  and  what  your  errand  is,    John.  4. 
before  you  speake,  as  Elizceus  did. 

Peter  Martyr  saith,  that  onelie  God  and  man  knoweth  the/  heart  of  i^g. 
man,  and  therefore,  that  the  divell  must  be  secluded,  alledging  these   p.  Martyr. 
places  ;  So/us  Bens  est  scrutator  cordium,  Onelie  God  is  the  searcher   ^seu\T'  ' 
of  hearts.    And,  Nemo  scit  qucB  sunt  hominis,  nisi  spiritus  hotniftis  qtd 
est  in  eo,  None  knoweth  the  things  of  man,  but  the  spirit  of  man 
which  is  within  him.     And  Salomon  saith,  Tu  solus  nosti  cogitationes 
honiinu7n,  Thou  onelie  knowest  the  thoughts  of  men.     Ar\6.  Jeretnie 
saith  in  the  person  of  God,  Ego  Deus  scrutans  corda  6-^  renes,  I  am 
God  searching  hearts  and  reines.     Also  Matthew  saith  of  Christ, 
fesHS   atctem  videns    cogitationes    eorum,   And   Jesus    seeing    their 
thoughts,  who  in  scripture  is  called  the  searcher  and  knower/  of  the   117. 
thoughts  in  the  heart  :  as  appeareth  in  Acts,  i.  &^  15.  Ro7n.  8.  Matth. 
9.  12.  &r'  22.  Marke.  2.  Luke.  6,  Or'  7.  &^  11.  fohn.  i.  2.  6.  &=  13.  Apoc. 
2.  &-=  3.  and  in  other  places  infinite. 

The  same  Peter  Martyr  also  saith,  that  the  divell  maie  suspect,   />.  Martyr. 
but  not  know  our  thoughts  :  for  if  he  should  know  our  thoughts,  he   '"  ^"^^  '^'""'"• 
should  understand  our  faith  ;  which  if  he  did,  he  would  never  assalt 
us    with  one  temptation.     Indeed  we  read  that  Samuel  could  tell 
where  things  lost  were  straied,  &c  :  but  we  see  that  gift  also  ceased 
by  the  comming  of  Christ,   according  to  the  saieng  oi  Paule  ;  At    Hebr.  1,8. 
sundrie  times,  and  in  diverse  maners  God  spake  in  the  old  times  by       ^' 
our  fathers  the  prophets,  in  these  last  dales  he  hath  spoken  unto  us 
by  his  Sonne,  &c.     And  therefore  I  sale  that  gift  of  prophesie,  where- 


8    Bookc. 

The  discoverie 

2.  Pet.  2.  I. 

Zach.  n. 

y.  Chrysost. 
in  evang.  Ji 
han.  horn,  i 
Pet.  Blest, 
tpist.  49. 


Canon,  de 
male/.  (^ 

with  God  in  times  past  endued  his  people,  is  also  ceased,  and  counter- 
feits and  couseners  are  come  in  their  places,  according  to  this  saieng 
of  Peter  ;  There  were  false  prophets  among  the  people,  even  as  there 
shalbe  false  teachers  among  you,  «&:c.  And  thinke  not  that  so  notable 
a  gift  should  be  taken  from  the  beloved  and  elect  people  of  God,  and 
committed  to  mother  Bimgie,  and  such  like  of  hir  profession. 

The  words  of  the  prophet  Zacharie  are  plaine,  touching  the  ceasing 
both  of  the  good  and  bad  prophet,  to  wit  :  I  will  cause  the  prophets 
and  uncleane  spirits  to  depart  out  of  the  land,  and  when  anie  shall 
yet  prophesie,  his  parents  shall  sale  to  him  ;  Thou  shalt  not  live,  for 
thou  speakest  lies  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  :  and  his  parents  shall 
thrust  him  through  when  he  prophesieth,  &c.  No,  no  :  the  foretelling 
of  things  to  come,  is  the  onelie  worke  of  God,  who  disposeth  all 
things  sweetlie,  of  whose  counsell  there  hath  never  yet  beene  anie  man. 
And  to  know  our  labours,  the  times  /  and  moments  God  hath  placed  in 
his  owne  power.  Also  Phavorinus  saith,  that  if  these  cold  prophets  or 
oraclers  tell  thee  prosperitie,  and  deceive  thee,  thou  art  made  a  miser 
through  vaine  expectation  :  if  they  tell  thee  of  adversitie,  &c  :  and  lie, 
thou  art  made  a  miser  through  vaine  feare.  And  therefore  I  saie,  we 
male  as  well  looke  to  heare  prophesies  at  the  tabernacle,  in  the  bush, 
of  the  cherubin,  among  the  clouds,  from  the  angels,  within  the  arke,  or 
out  of  the  flame,  &c:  as  to  expect  an  oracle  of  a  prophet  in  these  dales. 

But  p.ut  the  case,  that  one  in  our  common  wealth  should  step  up 
and  saie  he  were  a  prophet  (as  manie  frentike  persons  doo)  who 
would  beleeve  him,  or  not  thinke  rather  that  he  were  a  lewd  person  ? 
See  the  statutes  Elizah.  5.  whether  there  be  not  lawes  made  against 
them,  condemning  their  arrogancie  and  cousenage  :  see  also  the 
canon  lawes  to  the  same  effect. 

lib.  2. 

Cicer.  de  di- 
vin.  lib.  2. 


The    third    Chapter. 

Thai  Oracles  are  ceased. 

OUCHING  oracles,  which  for  the  most  part  were  idols  of 
silver,  gold,  wood,  stones,  &c  :  within  whose  bodies  some 
saie  uncleane  spirites  hid  themselves,  and  gave  answers  : 
as  some  others  saie,  that  exhalations  rising  out  of  the 
ground,  inspire  their  minds,  whereby  their  priests  gave  out  oracles  ; 
so  as  spirits  and  winds  rose  up  out  of  that  soile,  and  indued  those  men/ 
with  the  gift  of  prophesie  of  things  to  come,  though  in  truth  they  were 
all  devises  to  cousen  the  people,  and  for  the  profit  of  preests,  who 
received  the  idols  answers  over  night,  and  delivered  them  backe  to 
the  idolaters  the  next  morning  :  you  shall  understand,  that  although 

of  Witchcraft.  chip.  3.  129 

it  had  beene  so  as  it  is  supposed  ;  yet  by  the  reasons  and  proofes 
before  rehearsed,  they  should  now  cease  :  and  whatsoever  halh 
affinitie  with  such  miraculous  actions,  as  witchcraft,  conjuration, 
&c  :  is  knocked  on  the  head,  and  nailed  on  the  crosse  with  Christ, 
who  hath  broken  the  power  of  divels,  and  satisfied  Gods  justice,/ 
who  also  hath  troden  them  under  his  feete,  &  subdued  them,  &c.  At  161. 
whose  comming  the  prophet  Zacharie  saith,  that  the  Lord  will  cut  Zach.  13, 2. 
the  names  of  idols  out  of  the  land,  and  they  shall  be  no  more  remem- 
bered; and  he  will  then  cause  the  prophets  and  uncleane  spirits  to 
depart  out  of  the  land.  It  is  also  written;  I  will  cut  off  thine  Mich.  5, 12. 
inchanters  out  of  thine  hand,  and  thou  shalt  have  no  more  soothsaiers. 
And  indeed  the  gospell  of  Christ  hath  so  laid  open  their  knaverie, 
&c:  that  since  the  preaching  thereof,  their  combes  are  cut,  and  few 
that  are  wise  regard  them.  And  if  ever  these  prophesies  came  to 
take  effect,  it  must  be  upon  the  coming  of  Christ,  whereat  you  see  the 
divels  were  troubled  and  fainted,  when  they  met  him,  saieng,  or 
rather  exclaming  upon  him  on  this  wise ;  Fili  Dei  cur  venisti  nos 
cruciare  ante  tempus  ?  O  thou  sonne  of  God,  whie  commest  thou  to 
molest  us  (or  confound  us)  before  our  time  appointed .?  Which  he 
indeed  prevented,  and  now  remaineth  he  our  defender  and  keeper 
from  his  clawes.  So  as  now  you  see  here  is  no  roome  left  for  such 

Howbeit,  you  shall  heare  the  opinion  of  others,  that  have  beene  as 
much  deceived  as  your  selves  in  this  matter:  and  yet  are  driven  to 
confesse,  that  GOD  hath  constituted  his  sonne  to  beat  downe  the 
power  of  divels,  and  to  satisfie  Gods  justice,  and  to  heale  our  wound 
received  by  the  fall  of  Adam,  according  to  Gods  promise  in  Genesis.    Gen.  3. 
3.     The  seed  of  the  woman  shall  tread  downe  the  serpent,  or  the 
divell.     Eusebius  (in  his  fift  booke  De  prcedicatione  Evangelii,  the   Etiscb.  lib.  5, 
title  whereof  is  this,  that  the  power  of  divels  is  taken  awaie  by  the 
comming  of  Christ)  saith;  All   answers  made  by  divels,  all  sooth- 
saiengs  and  divinations  of  men  are  gon  and  vanished  awaie.     Item 
he  citeth  Porphyrie  in  his  booke  against  christian  religion,  wherein   idtm.  ibid. 
these  words  are  rehearsed  ;  It  is  no  mervell,  though  the  plague  be  so   Porphyr.  in 
hot  in  this  citie:  for  ever  since  Jesus  hath  beene  worshipped,  we  can    ^l^^/iX^^dig. 
obteine  nothing  that  good  is  at  the  hands  of  our  gods.     And  of  this 
defection  and  ceasing  of  oracles  writeth  Cicero  long  before,  and  that   ^'■^•f'^"""' 
to   have   happened    also    before    his    time.     Howbeit,    Cluysosfome   j.  chrysost. 
living  long  since  Cicero,  saith,  that  Apollo  was  forced  to  grant,  that   '^p^j^^'\oin  4. 
so  long  as  anie  relike  of  a  martyr  was  held  to  his  nose,  he  could  not 
make  anie  answer  or  oracle.      So  as  one   may  perceive,   that  the 
heathen  were  wiser  in  this  behalfe  than  manie  christians,  who  in/ 
times  past  were  called  Oppirgnatores  incantamentoriint,  as  the  English    162. 



8.  Bookc. 

The  discoverie 


verses  in  A- 
pollos  name, 
of  the  death 
of  Apollo  : 
cited  by 
J.  Bod.  fol.  ( 

j)rinces  are  called  Defensores fidei.  Plutarch  calleth  Bceotia  (as  we 
call  bablers)  by  the  name  of  manie  words,  bicause  of  the  multitude 
of  oracles  there,  which  now  (saith  he)  are  like  to  a  spring  or  foun- 
taine  which  is  dried  up.  If  anie  one  remained,  I  would  ride  five 
119.  hundred  miles  to  see  it:  but  in  the  whole  world  there  is  not  one  to 
be  scene  at  this  houre  ;  popish  cousenages  excepted. 

But  Plutarch  saith,  that  the  cause  of  this  defection  of  oracles,  was 
the  divels  death,  whose  life  he  held  to  be  determinable  and  mortall, 
saieng  they  died  for  verie  age;  and  that  the  divining  preests  were 
blowne  up  with  a  whirlewind,  and  soonke  with  an  earthquake. 
Others  imputed  it  to  the  site  or  the  place  of  the  planets,  which 
when  they  passed  over  them,  carried  awaie  that  art  with  them,  and 
by  revolution  may  returne,  &c.  Eusebitis  also  citeth  out  of  him  the 
storie  of /'a;;,  which  bicause  it  is  to  this  purpose,  I  will  insert  the 
same  ;  and  since  it  mentioneth  the  divels  death,  you  may  beleeve 
it  if  you  list:  for  I  will  not,  as  being  assured  that  he  is  reserved  alive 
to  punish  the  wicked,  and  such  as  impute  unto  those  idols  the  power 
of  almightie  God. 

The    fourth    Chapter. 

A  tale  written  by  manie  grave  authors,  and  beleeved  by  manie  wise 
me7t  of  the  divels  death.  An  other  storie  written  by  papists,  atid 
beleeved  of  all  catholikes,  approoving  the  divels  honestie,  con- 
science, and  coui'tesie. 

[*  read  £■/■/]  |h~^^^|LUTARCH  saith,  that  his  countriman  *^/<7//z^;'j'^i'  told 

him,  that  as  he  passed  by  sea  into  Italie,  manie  pas- 
sengers being  in  his  bote,  in  an  evening,  when  they  were 
about  the  ilands  Echijiadce,  the  wind  quite  ceased:  and 
the  ship  driving  with  the  tide,  was  brought  at   last   to  Paxe.     And 
whilest  some  slept,  and  others  cjuaft,  and  othersome  were  awake  (per- 
haps in  as  ill  case  as  the  rest)   after  supper  suddenlie  a  voice  was 
heard  calling,  Thamus ;  in  such  sort  as  everie  man  marvelled.     This 
i6j.    Thamtis  was  a  pilot,/  borne  in  Aegypt,  unknowne  to  manie  that  were 
in  the  ship.     Wherefore  being  twise  called,  he  answered  nothing;  but 
the  third  time  he  answered  :  and  the  other  with  a  lowder  voice  com- 
manded him,  that  when  he  came  to  Palodes,  he  should  tell  them  that 
the  great  God  Pan  was  departed.     Whereat  everie  one  was  astonied 
{^?>  Epitherses  zSaxxxi^^)     And  being  in  consultation  what  were  best 
to  doo,  Thamus  concluded,  that  if  the  wind  were  hie,  they  must  passe 
by  with  silence;  but  if  the  weather  were  calme,  he  must  utter  that 

having  lit- 
tle to  doo, 
thought  to 
plaie  with 
his  eompa- 
nie,  whom 
he  might 
easilie  o- 
with  such 
a  jest. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  4. 


which  he  had  heard.  But  when  they  came  to  Palodes,  and  the  wether 
calme,  Thamus  looking  out  toward  the  land,  cried  alowd,  that  the 
o-reat  god  Pan  was  deceased:  and  immediatlie  there  followed  a 
lamentable  noise  of  a  multitude  of  people,  as  it  were  with  great 
vvoonder  and  admiration.  And  bicause  there  were  manie  in  the  ship, 
they  said  the  fame  thereof  was  speedilie  brought  to  Rome,  and  Thamus 
sent  for  by  Tiberius  the  Emperour,  who  gave  such  credit  thereto,  that 
he  diligentlie  inquired  and  asked,  who  that  Pan  was.  The  learned  men 
about  him  supposed,  that  Pan  was  he  who  was  the  sonne  of  Mercuric 
and  Penelope,  &c.  Euscbius  saith,  that  this  chanced  in  the  time  of 
Tiberius  the  Emperor,  when  Christ  expelled  all  divels,  &c. 

Paulus  Marsus,  in  his  notes  upon  Ovids  Fasti,?,?a\h,  that  this  voice 
was/  heard  out  of  Paxe,  that  verie  night  that  Christ  suffered,  in  the 
yeare  of  Tiberius  the  nineteenth.  Surelie,  this  was  a  nierrie  jest 
devised  by  Thamus,  who  with  some  confederate  thought  to  make  sport 
with  the  passengers,  who  were  some  asleepe,  and  some  droonke,  and 
some  other  at  plaie,  &c:  whiles  the  first  voice  was  used.  And  at 
the  second  voice,  to  wit,  when  he  should  deliver  his  message,  he 
being  an  old  pilot,  knew  where  some  noise  was  usuall,  by  meanes 
of  some  eccho  in  the  sea,  and  thought  he  would  (to  the  astonish- 
ment of  them)  accomplish  his  devise,  if  the  wether  prooved  calme. 
Whereby  may  appeare,  that  he  would  in  other  cases  of  tempests, 
&c:  rather  attend  to  more  serious  busines,  than  to  that  ridiculous 
matter.  For  whie  else  should  he  not  doo  his  errand  in  rough 
wether,  as  well  as  in  calme  ?  Or  what  need  he  tell  the  divell 
thereof,  when  the  divell  told  it  him  before,  and  with  much  more  ex- 
pedition could  have  done  the  errand  himselfe? 

*  But  you  shall  read  in  the  Legend  a  fable,  an  oracle  I  would/  saie, 
more  authentike.  For  many  will  say  that  this  was  a  prophane  storie, 
and  not  so  canonicall  as  those  which  are  vei'efied  by  the  popes  autho- 
ritie  :  and  thus  it  is  written.  A  woman  in  hir  travell  sent  hir  sister  to 
Diana,  which  was  the  divell  in  an  idoll  (as  all  those  oracles  are  said 
to  be)  and  willed  hir  to  make  hir  praiers,  or  rather  a  request,  to  knowe 
of  hir  safe  deliverie  :  which  thing  she  did.  But  the  divell  answered  ; 
Why  praiest  thou  to  me  1  I  cannot  helpe  thee,  but  go  praie  to 
Andrew  the  apostle,  and  he  may  helpe  thy  sister,  &c.  Lo,  this  was 
not  onelie  a  gentle,  but  a  godlie  divell,  pittieng  the  womans  case, 
who  revealing  his  owne  disabilitie,  enabled  S.  Andrew  more.  I 
knowe  some  protestants  will  saie,  that  the  divell,  to  mainteine  idola- 
trie,  &c:  referred  the  maid  to  S.  Andrew.  But  what  answer  will  the 
papists  make,  who  thinke  it  great  pietie  to  praie  unto  saints,  and  so 
by  consequence  honest  courtesie  in  the  divell,  to  send  hir  to  S. 
Andretv,  who  wold  not  faile  to  serve  hir  turne,  &c. 


A  detecli- 
on  of  Tha- 
mus his 


'•^Legend,  atir. 
in  vita  satic- 
ti  A  ndrece, 
fol.  39. 

A  gentle 
and  a  god- 
lie  divell. 


8.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

The    fift    Chapter. 

Athanas.  dc 
human,  vcr- 
bi.  fol.  55  &■ 

The  judgmetits  of  the  ancient  fathers  touching  oracles.,  aiid  their 
abolishjnent,  and  that  they  be  now  transferred  from  Delphos  to 



HE  opinions  of  the  fathers,  that  oracles  are  ceased  by  the 
coming  of  Christ,  you  shall  find  in  these  places  following, 
to  wit  :  Justi7ius  ht  dialogis  adversns  Jicdceos,  Athana- 
sins  De  huinanitate  verbi,  Augtistifie  De  civitate  Dei., 
Etcsebius  Lib.  7.  cap.  6,  Item  lib.  5.  cap.  \.  8.  Riipertus  In  foan.  lib, 
10.  12.  Phitarch  De  abolitione  oractilorum,  Plinie  lib.  30.  statural. 
historicB.  Finallie,  Athanasius  concludes,  that  in  times  past  there 
were  oracles  in  Delphos,  Bceotia,  Lycia,  and  other  places  :  but 
now  since  Christ  is  preached  to  all  men,  this  madnesse  is 
ceased.  So  as  you  see,  that  whatsoever  estimation  in  times 
past,  the  ancient  fathers  conceived  (by  heeresaie)  of  those  mira- 
culous matters  of  idols  and  oracles,  &c :  they  themselves  refuse 
now,  not  onelie  to  beare  witnesse  of;  but  also  affirme,  that  ever/ 
since  Christs  comming  their  mouthes  have  beene  stopped.  / 

For  the  ceasing  of  the  knaveries  and  cousening  devises  of  preests, 
I  see  no  authoritie  of  scripture  or  ancient  father,  but  rather  the  con- 
trarie  ;  to  wit,  that  there  shall  be  strange  illusions  shewed  by  them, 
even  till  the  end.  And  truelie,  whosoever  knoweth  and  noteth  the 
order  and  devises  of  and  in  popish  pilgrimages,  shall  see  both  the 
oracles  &  their  conclusions  remaining,  and  as  it  were  transferred 
from  Delphos  to  Rome,  where  that  adulterous  generation  continuallie 
seeketh  a  signe,  though  they  have  Moses  &.  the  prophets,  yea  even 
Christ  &  his  apostles  also,  &c. 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

Where  and  wherein  couseners,  witches,  and  preests  were  woont  to 
give  oracles,  and  to  worke  their  feats. 

HESE  cousening  oracles,  or  rather  oraclers  used  (I  sale) 
to  exercise  their  feats  and  to  doo  their  miracles  most 
commonly  in  maids,  in  beasts,  in  images,  in  dens,  in 
^  cloisters,  in  darke  holes,  in  trees,  in  churches  or  church- 
yards, &c:  where  preests,  moonks,  and  friers  had  laid  their  plots,  and 
made  their  confederacies  aforehand,  to  beguile  the  world,  to  gaine 
monie,  and  to  adde  credit  to  their  profession.     This  practise  began 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  e.  133 

in  the  okes  of  Z?^^t7«a,  in  the  which  was  a  wood,  the  trees  thereof  siraho  Geog. 
(they  saie)  could  speake.  And  this  was  doone  by  a  knave  in  a  ^j  l^ier  u  i. 
hollowe  tree,  that  seemed  sound  unto  the  simple  people.  This  wood  de  pras.  dam. 
was  in  Molosstts  a  part  of  Greece.,  called  Epyrics,  and  it  was  named 
Dodonas  oracles.  There  were  manie  oracles  in  Aegypt ;  namelie,  of 
Hercules.,  oi  Apollo.,  of  Minerva,  of  Diana,  of  Mars,  oi  Jupiter,  and 
of  the  oxe  Apys,  who  was  the  sonne  of  Jupiter,  but  his  image  was 
worshipped  in  the  likenesse  of  an  oxe.  Latona,  who  was  the  mother 
of  Apollo,  was  an  oracle  in  the  citie  of  Bute.  The  preests  of  Apollo, 
who  alwaies  counterfaited  furie  and  madnesse,  gave  oracles  in  the 
temple  called  Clarius,\\\\.h.\n  the  citie  of  Colophon  in  Greece.  At  Thebes 
in  Bceotia  and  also  in  Lcebadia,  Trophonius  was  the  cheefe  oracle. 
At  Memphis  a  cow,  at  Corinth  an  oxe  called  Mitieus,  in  Arsinoe  a 
crocodile,  in  Athens  a  prophet  called  Ainphiaraus,  who  /  indeed  166. 
died  at  Thebes,  where  they  saie  the  earth  opened,  &  swallowed  him 
up  quicke.  At  Delphos  was  the  great  temple  of  Apollo,  where 
divels  gave  oracles  by  maides  (as  some  saie)  though  indeed  it  was 
doone  by  preests.  It  was  built  upon  Parnassus  hill  in  Greece. 
And  the  defenders  of  oracles  saie,  that  even  as  rivers  oftentimes 
are  diverted  to  another  course  ;  so  likewise  the  spirit,  which  in- 
spired the  cheefe  prophets,  may  for  a  time  be  silent,  and  revive 
againe  by  revolution. 

Demetrius  saith,  that  the  spirits,  which  attended  on  oracles,  waxed 
wearie  of  the  peoples  curiositie  and  importunitie,  and  for  shame  for- 
sooke  the  temple.     But  as  *one  that  of  late  hath  written  against    *H.  Haw.  in 
prophesies  saith  ;  It   is  no  marvell,  that   when   the   familiars   that    sathea-"' 
speake  in  trunks  were  repelled  from  their  harbour  for  feare  of  dis-   gainst  pro- 
coverie,  the  blocks  almightie  lost  their  senses.     For  these  are  all 
gone  now,  and  their  knaverie  is  espied  ;  so  as  they  can  no  longer 
abuse  the  world  with  such  babies.     But  whereas  /  these  great  doctors    122. 
suppose,  that  the  cause  of  their  dispatch  was  the  comming  of  Christ  ; 
if  they  meane  that  the  divell  died,  so  soone  as  he  was  borne,  or  that 
then  he  gave  over  his  occupation:  they  are  deceived.     For  the  popish 
church  hath  made  a  continuall  practise  hereof,  partlie  for  their  owne 
private  profit,  lucre,  and  gaine  ;  and  partly  to  be  had  in  estimation 
of  the  world,  and  in   admiration  among  the  simple.     But  indeed, 
men  that  have  learned   Christ,  and  beene  conversant  in  his  word, 
have  discovered   and   shaken    off    the    vanitie    and    abhomination 
heereof.     But  if  those  doctors  had  lived  till  this  daie,  they  would 
have  said  and  written,  that  oracles  had  ceased,  or  rather  beene  driven 
out  oi  England  m  the  time  of  K.  Henrie  the  eight,  and  of  Queene    ln."hose 

^    .  .  o      '  ^  daies  ora- 

Elizabetli  his  daughter  ;  who  have  doone  so  much  in  that  behalfe,  as    cies  ceased 
at  this  houre  they  are  not  onlie  all  gone,  but  forgotten  here  in  this    '"    "^^" 

134  8  Booke,  The  discoverie 

English  nation,  where  they  swarmed  as  thicke  as  they  did  in  Boeotia^ 
or  in  any  other  place  in  the  world.     But  the  credit  they  had,  depended 
not  upon  their  desart,  but  upon  the  credulitie  of  others.     Now  there- 
fore I  will  conclude  and  make  an  end  of  this  matter,  with  the 
Zach.  10.  opinion  and  saiengof  the  prophet  ;  Vaine  is  the  answer 

^''  '*'*■  of  idols.     For  they  have  eies  and   see   not, 

eares   and   heare    not,    mouthes    and 
speake   not,    &c:  and   let   them 
shew   what   is   to  come, 
and    I    will    saie 
they  are  gods 

of  Witchcraft. 



Tf    The  ninth   Booke. 

The    first    Chapter. 

The  Hcbrue  word  Kasam  expounded,  and  how  far  re  a  Christian 
may  conjecture  of  thiftgs  to  come. 

lASAM  (as  fohn  Wierus  upon  his  owne  knowledge 
affirmeth,  and  upon  the  word  of  A7idrceas  Masius  re- 
porteth)  differeth  little  in  signification  from  the  former 
word  Ob:  betokening  Vaticinari,  which  is,  To  prophesie, 
and  is  most  commonlie  taken  in  evill  part ;  as  in  Deut.  \Z.  ferent.  27. 
&c:  howbeit,  sometime  in  good  part,  as  in  Esaie  3.  verse.  2.  To 
foretell  things  to  come  upon  probable  conjectures,  so  as  therein  we 
reach  no  further  than  becommeth  humane  capacitie,  is  not  (in  mine 
opinion)  unlawfuU,  but  rather  a  commendable  manifestation  of  wise- 
dome  and  judgment,  the  good  gifts  and  notable  blessings  of  GOD, 
for  the  which  we  ought  to  be  thankfull  ;  as  also  to  yeeld  due  honour 
and  praise  unto  him,  for  the  noble  order  which  he  hath  appointed  in 
nature  :  praieng  him  to  lighten  our  hearts  with  the  beames  of  his 
wisedome,  that  we  may  more  and  more  profit  in  the  true  knowledge 
of  the  workemanship  of  his  hands.  But  some  are  so  nise,  that  they 
condemne  generallie  all  sorts  of  divinations,  denieng  those  things 
that  in  nature  have  manifest  causes,  and  are  so  framed,  as  they  for- 
shew  things  to  come,  and  in  that  shew  admonish  us  of  things  after  to 
insue,  exhibiting  signes  of  unknowne  and  future  matters  to  be  judged 
upon,  by  the  order,  lawe,  and  course  of  nature  /  proposed  unto  us  by 

And  some  on  the  other  side  are  so  bewitched  with  follie,  as  they 
attribute  to  creatures  that  estimation,  which  rightlie  and  truelie 
apperteineth  to  God  the  creator  of  all  things  ;  affirming  that  the 
publike  and  private  destinies  of  all  humane  matters,  and  whatsoever 
a  man  would  knowe  of  things  come  or  gone,  is  manifested  to  us  in  the 
heavens  :  so  as  by  the  starres  and  planets  all  things  might  be 
knowne.  These  would  also,  that  nothing  should  be  taken  in  hand  or 
gone  about,  without  the  favourable  aspect  of  the  planets.  By  which, 
and  other  the  like  devises  they  deprave  and  prophane  the  ancient  and 
commendable  observations  of  our  forfathers  :  as  did  Colebrasus,  who 
taught,  that  all  mans  life  was  governed  by  the  seven  planets  ;  and 
yet  a  christian,  and  condemned  for  heresie.  But  let  us  so  farre  foorth 
imbrace  and  allow  this  philosophie  and  prophesieng,  as  the  word  of 
God  giveth  us  leave,  and  commendeth  the  same  unto  us.  / 

16-].     123. 

J.  IVn-r.  lib. 
de  prcest.  da- 

All  divina- 
tions are 
not  con- 


&  impious 


9.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 


Psalm.  13. 
Jerem.  54. 
Gen.  I. 
Ezech.  I. 
Gen.  9. 

Ecclus.  43. 
Ps.  19.  &  50. 

Ecclus.  43. 
Baruch.  3. 


Luk.  I  J,  24. 

^Mispr.  saire.] 
Matt.  16.  2, 

Lad  ant.  co. 
tra  astrolo- 

Peucer.  de 
astrol.  pag. 

The    second   Chapter. 

Proofes  by  the  old  and  iietu  testament.,  that  certaine  observations 
of  the  weather  are  lawfull. 

[hen  God  by  his  word  and  wisedome  had  made  the 
heavens,  and  placed  the  starres  in  the  firmament,  he 
said  ;  Let  them  be  for  signes,  and  for  seasons,  and  for 
daies,  and  yeares.  When  he  created  the  rainebowe  in 
the  clouds,  he  said  it  should  be  for  a  signe  and  token  unto  us. 
Which  we  find  true,  not  onelie  of  the  floud  past,  but  also  of  shewers 
to  come.  And  therefore  according  to  Jesus  Sirachs  advise,  let  us 
behold  it,  and  praise  him  that  made  it.  The  prophet  David  saith  ; 
The  heavens  declare  the  gloria  of  God,  and  the  firmament  sheweth 
his  handie  worke  :  daie  unto  daie  uttereth  the  same,  and  night  unto 
night  teacheth  knowledge.  It  is  also  written  that  by  the  commandement 
of  the  holie  one  the  starres  are  placed,  and  continue  in  their  order,  & 
faile  not  in  their  watch.  It  should  appeare,  that  Christ  himselfe  did  not 
altogither  neglect  the  course  &  order  of  the  heavens,  in  that  he  said ; 
When  you  see  a/  cloud  rise  out  of  the  west,  streight  waie  you  saie  a 
shewer  commeth  :  and  so  it  is.  And  when  you  see  the  southwind 
blowe  ;  you  saie  it  will  be  hot,  and  so  it  commeth  to  passe.  Againe, 
when  it  is  evening,  you  saie  faire*  weather,  for  the  skie  is  red :  and 
in  the  morning  you  saie,  to  daie  shalbe  a  tempest,  for  the  skie  is  red 
and  lowring.  Wherein  as  he  noteth  that  these  things  doo  trulie  come 
to  passe,  according  to  ancient  observation,  and  to  the  rule  astro- 
nomicall  :  so  doth  he  also  by  other  words  following  admonish  us, 
that  in  attending  too  much  to  those  obsevations,  we  neglect  not 
speciallie  to  follow  our  christian  vocation. 

The  physician  is  commended  unto  us,  and  allowed  in  the  scriptures  : 
but  so  to  put  trust  in  him,  as  to  neglect  &  distrust  God,  is  severelie 
forbidden  and  reproved.  Surelie  it  is  most  necessarie  for  us  to  know 
and  observe  diverse  rules  astrologicall  ;  otherwise  we  could  not  with 
oportunitie  dispatch  our  ordinarie  affaires.  And  yet  Lactantiiis  con- 
demneth  and  recounteth  it  among  the  number  of  witchcrafts  :  from 
whose  censure  Calvine  doth  not  much  varie.  The  poore  husbandman 
perceiveth  that  the  increase  of  the  moone  maketh  plants  and  living 
creatures  frutefull  :  so  as  in  the  full  moone  they  are  in  best  strength, 
decaieng  in  the  wane,  and  in  the  conjunction  doo  utterlie  wither 
and  vade.  Which  when  by  observation,  use  and  practise  they 
have  once  learned,  they  distribute  their  businesse  accordinglie  ;  as 
their  times  and  seasons  to  sowe,  to  plant,  to  proine,  to  let  their  cattell 
bloud,  to  cut,  &c./ 

of  IVitcJnraft. 

Chap.   \. 


The    third    Chapter. 

That  cerfeine  observations  are  indifferent,  certeine  ridiculous,  and 
certeine  impious,  whence  that  cunning  is  derived  of  Apollo,  and 
of  Aruspices. 

KNOW  not  whether  to  disallow  or  discommend  the 
curious  observation  used  by  our  elders,  who  conjectured 
upon  nativities  :  so  as,  if  Saturne  and  Mercurie  were 
opposite  in  anie  brute  signe,  a  man  then  borne  should  be 
dumbe  or  stammer  much  ;  whereas  it  is  dailie  scene,  that  children 
naturallie  imitate  their  parents/  conditions  in  that  behalfe.  Also  they 
have  noted,  that  one  borne  in  the  spring  of  the  moone,  shalbe 
healthie  ;  in  that  time  of  the  wane,  when  the  moone  is  utterlie  decaied, 
the  child  then  borne  cannot  live  ;  and  in  the  conjunction,  it  cannot 
long  continue. 

But  I  am  sure  the  opinion  of  Julius  Matermis  is  most  impious, 
who  writeth,  that  he  which  is  borne  when  Saturne  is  in  Leone,  shall 
live  long,  and  after  his  death  shall  go  to  heaven  presentlie.  And  so 
is  this  oi  Albumasar,  who  saith,  that  whosoever  praieth  to  God,  when 
the  moone  is  in  Capite  draconis,  shalbe  heard,  and  obteine  his  praier. 
Furthermore,  to  plaie  the  cold  prophet,  as  to  recount  it  good  or  bad 
lucke,  when  salt  or  wine  falleth  on  the  table,  or  is  shed,  &c  :  or  to 
prognosticate  that  ghests  approch  to  your  house,  upon  the  chattering 
of  pies  or  haggisters,  wherof  there  can  be  yeelded  no  probable 
reason,  is  altogither  vanitie  and  superstition  :  as  hereafter  shalbe 
more  largelie  shewed.  But  to  make  simple  people  beleeve,  that  a 
man  or  woman  can  foretell  good  or  evill  fortune,  is  meere  witchcraft 
or  cousenage.  For  God  is  the  onlie  searcher  of  the  heart,  and  de- 
livereth  not  his  counsell  to  so  lewd  reprobates.  I  know  diverse 
writers  afifirme,  that  witches  foretell  things,  as  prompted  by  a  reall 
divell ;  and  that  he  againe  learneth  it  out  of  the  prophesies  written  in 
the  scriptures,  and  by  other  nimble  sleights,  wherein  he  passeth  anie 
other  creature  earthlie  ;  and  that  the  same  divell,  or  some  of  his 
fellowes  runnes  or  flies  as  farre  as  Rochester,  to  mother  Bungle  ;  or  to 
Catiturburie  to  M.  T ;  or  to  Delphos,  to  Apollo  ;  or  to  Aesculapius, 
in  Pargamo  ;  or  to  some  other  idoU  or  witch,  and  there  by  waie  of 
oracle  answers  all  questions,  through  his  understanding  of  the  pro- 
phesies conteined  in  the  old  testament,  especiallie  in  Daniel  and 
Esaie  :  whereby  the  divell  knew  of  the  translation  of  the  monarchie 
from  Babylon  to  Grcecia,  &c.  But  either  they  have  learned  this  of 
some  oracle  or  witch  ;  or  else  I  know  not  where  the  divell  they  find  it. 



The  ridicu- 
lous art  of 


Julius  Ma- 
te rnus  his 
most  impi- 
ous opi- 

Mai.  nialef. 
Thorn.  Aqui- 
nas, (sfc. 


9-  Boolte. 

The  discoverie 


Marrie  certeine  it  is,  that  herein  they  shew  themselves  to  be  witches 
and  fond  divinors  :  for  they  find  no  such  thing  written  in  Gods 

Of  the  idoll  called  Apollo,  I  have  somewhat  alreadie  spoken  in 
the  former  title  of  Ob  or  Pytho  ;  and  some  occasion  I  shall  have 
to  speake  thereof  hereafter  :  and  therfore  at  this  time  it  shall 
suffice  to  tell  you,  that  the  credit  gained  thereunto,  was  by  the  craft  / 
^IJ-  and  cunning  of  the  priests,  which  tended  thereupon  ;  who  with  their 
126.  counterfeit  miracles  so/  bewitched  the  people,  as  they  thought  such 
vertue  to  have  beene  conteined  in  the  bodies  of  those  idols,  as  God 
hath  not  promised  to  anie  of  his  angels,  or  elect  people.  For  it  is 
said,  that  if  Apollo  were  in  a  chafe,  he  would  sweat  :  if  he  had 
remorse  to  the  afflicted,  and  could  not  help  them,  he  would  shed 
teares,  which  I  beleeve  might  have  beene  wiped  awaie  with  that 
handkerchiefe,  that  wiped  and  dried  the  Rood  of  graces  face,  being 
in  like  perplexities.  Even  as  another  sort  of  witching  priests  called 
Aruspices,  prophesied  victorie  to  Alexander,  bicause  an  eagle  lighted 
on  his  head  :  which  eagle  might  (I  beleeve)  be  cooped  or  caged  with 
MaJwmets  dove,  that  picked  peason  out  of  his  eare. 

What  pro- 

fihesies  al- 

J.  Bod.  lib. 
dtPin.  lib  I. 
cat.  4. 


The  fourth  Chapter. 

The  predictions  of  soothsaiers  and  lewd  priests,  the  prognostications 
of  astro7iomers  and  physicians  allowable,  divine  prophesies  holie 
and  good. 

I  HE  cousening  tricks  of  oracling  priests  and  monkes,  are 
and  have  beene  speciallie  most  abhominable.  The  super- 
stitious observations  of  sensles  augurors  and  soothsaiers 
(contrarie  to  philosophie,  and  without  authoritie  of  scrip- 
ture) are  verie  ungodlie  and  ridiculous.  Howbeit,  I  reject  not  the 
prognostications  of  astronomers,  nor  the  conjectures  or  forewarnings 
of  physicians,  nor  yet  the  interpretations  of  philosophers  ;  although 
in  respect  of  the  divine  prophesies  conteined  in  holie  scriptures,  they 
are  not  to  be  weighed  or  regarded.  For  the  end  of  these  and  the 
other  is  not  onlie  farre  differing  ;  but  whereas  these  conteine  onlie 
the  word  and  will  of  God,  with  the  other  are  mingled  most  horrible 
lies  and  cousenages.  For  though  there  may  be  many  of  them  learned 
and  godlie,  yet  lurke  there  in  corners  of  the  same  profession,  a  great 
number  of  counterfets  and  couseners.  f.  Bodin  putteth  this  differ- 
ence betweene  divine  prophets  and  inchantors  ;/  to  wit,  the  one  saith 
alwaies  true,  the  others  words  (proceeding  from  the  divell)  are 
alwaies  false  ;  or  for  one  truth  they  tell  a  hundred  lies.     And  then 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  5. 


why  maie  not  everie  witch  be  thought  as  cunning  as  Apollo}  And 
why  not  everie  counterfet  cousener  as  good  a  witch  as  mother  Bioi^iel 
For  it  is  ods,  but  they  will  hit  the  truth  once  in  a  hundred  divinations 
as  well  as  the  best. 

The    fift    Chapter. 

The  diversitie  of  trice  prophets^  of  Urim,  and  of  the  propheticall 
use  of  the  twelve  precious  stones  cofttetned  therein,  of  the  divine 
voice  called  Eccho. 

T  should  appeare,  that  even  of  holie  prophets  there  were 
diverse  sorts.  For  David  and  Salomon,  although  in 
their  psalmes  and  parables  are  conteined  most  excellent 
mysteries,  and  notable  allegories :  yet  they  were  not  indued  Diverse  de- 
with  that  degree  of  prophesie,  that  Elie  and  Elisha  were,  &c./  For  as  prophesie.  127. 
often  as  it  is  said,  that  God  spake  to  David  or  Salomon,  it  is  meant 
to  be  done  by  the  prophets.  For  Nathan  or  Gad  were  the  messengers 
and  prophets  to  reveale  Gods  will  to  David.  And  Ahiam  the  Silo-  2.  Reg.  2. 
nite  was  sent  from  God  to  Salomon.  Item,  the  spirit  of  prophesie, 
which  Elias  had,  was  doubled  upon  Elisha.  Also  some  prophets 
prophesied  all  their  lives,  some  had  but  one  vision,  and  some  had 
more,  according  to  Gods  pleasure  ;  yea  some  prophesied  unto  the 
people  of  such  things  as  came  not  to  passe,  and  that  was  where  Gods 
wrath  was  pacified  by  repentance.  But  these  prophets  were  alwaies 
reputed  among  the  people  to  be  wise  and  godlie  ;  whereas  the  heathen 
prophets  were  evermore  knowne  and  said  to  be  mad  and  foolish  :  as 
it  is  written  both  of  the  prophets  oi  Sibylla,  and  also  oi  Apollo  ;  and 
at  this  daie  also  in  the  Indies,  Slc. 

But  that   anie  of  these  extraordinarie  gifts  remaine  at  this  daie, 
Bodin,  nor  anie  witchmonger  in  the  world  shall  never  be  able  to    J-  Bodin. 
proove  :  though  he  in  his  booke  of  divelish  madnesse  would  make 
men  beleeve  it.     For  these  were  miraculouslie  mainteined/  by  God   lyj. 
among  the  Jewes,  who  were  instructed  by  them  of  all  such  things  as 
should  come  to  passe  ;  or  else  informed  by  Urint  :  so  as  the  preests 
by   the   brightnes  of  the  twelve  pretious  stones  conteined  therein, 
could  prognosticate  or  expound  anie  thing.     Which  brightnes  and 
vertue  ceased  (as yi^jfc'/J/n^j  reporteth)  two  hundred  yeares  before  he   yoseph. dean- 
was  borne.     So  as  since  that  time,  no  answers  were  yelded  thereby   '"^"''• 
of  Gods  will  and  pleasure.     Nevertheles,  the   Hebrues  write,  that   Josue fiUus 
there  hath  beene  ever  since  that  time,  a  divine  voice  heard  among   ^Z'keaboth. 
them,   which    in   Latine   is   called    Filia   vocis,  in    Greeke  ^x^^'i    ""^ 
English  The  daughter  of  speech. 


9-  Booke. 

The  discoverie 



The  subject  128. 
of  the  pro- 
phesies of 
the  old  te- 

2.  Reg.  2.  13. 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

Of  prophesies  cottditiojiall :  whereof  the  prophesies  in  the  old 
testamefit  doo  intreate^  and  by  whom  they  were  pjiblishedj  witch- 
mongers  aunswers  to  the  objections  against  witches  st/pernaturall 

HRIST  and  his  apostles  prophesied  of  the  calamities  and 
afflictions,  which  shall  greeve  and  disturbe  the  church  of 
God  in  this  life  :  also  of  the  last  dale,  and  of  the  signes 
and  tokens  that  shall  be  shewed  before  that  dale  :  and 
finallie  of  all  things,  which  are  requisite  for  us  to  foreknowe.  How- 
beit,  such  is  the  mercie  of  God,  that  all  prophesies,  threatnings, 
plagues,  and  punishments  are  annexed  to  conditions  of  repentance  : 
as  on  the  other  side,  corporall  blessings  are  tied  under  the  condition 
of  the  crosse  and  castigation.  So  as  by  them  the  mysteries  af  our 
salvation  being  discovered  unto  us,  we  are  not  to  seeke  new  signes  and 
miracles  ;  but  to  attend  to  the  doctrine  of  the  apostles,  who  preached 
Christ  exhibited  and  crucified  for  our  sinnes,  his  resurrection,  ascen- 
sion, and  thereby  the  redemption  of  as  manie  as  beleeve,  &c. 

The  prophesies  in  the  old  testament  treat  of  the  continuance,  the 
governement,  and  the  difference  of  estates  :  of  the  distinction  of  the 
foure  monarchies,  of  their  order,  decaie,  and  instauration  ;/  of  the 
changes  and/  ruines  of  the  kingdomes  oi  fuda,  Israel,  Aegypt,  Persia, 
Grcscia,  Gr'c  :  and  speciallie  of  the  comming  of  our  Saviour  Jesus 
Christ  ;  and  how  he  should  be  borne  of  a  virgine,  and  where,  of  his 
tribe,  passion,  resurrection,  &c.  These  prophesies  were  published 
by  Gods  speciall  and  peculiar  prophets,  endued  with  his  particular 
and  excellent  gifts,  according  to  his  promise  ;  I  will  raise  them  up  a 
prophet  out  of  the  midst  of  their  brethren,  I  will  put  my  words  in  his 
mouth,  &c.  Which  though  it  were  speciallie  spoken  of  Christ,  yet 
was  it  also  spoken  of  those  particular  prophets,  which  were  placed 
among  them  by  God  to  declare  his  will ;  which  were  also  figures  of 
Christ  the  prophet  himselfe.  Now,  if  prophesie  be  an  extraordinarie 
gift  of  God,  and  a  thing  peculiar  to  himselfe,  as  without  whose  speciall 
assistance  no  creature  can  be  a  prophet,  or  shew  what  is  to  come  ; 
whie  should  we  beleeve,  that  those  lewd  persons  can  performe  by 
divinations  and  miracles  that  wliich  is  not  in  humane  but  in  divine 
power  to  accomplish  .-' 

Howbeit,  when  I  denie  that  witches  can  ride  in  the  aire,  and  the 
miraculous  circumstance  thereof:  by  and  by  it  is  objected  unto  me, 
that  Enoch  and  Elie  were  rapt  into  heaven  bodilie  ;  and  that  Abactike 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  7.  141 

was  carried  in  the  aire,  to  feed  Daniel :  and  so  falselie  oppose  a  divels 
or  a  witches  power  against  the  vertue  of  the  Holy-ghost.  If  I  deride 
the  poets  opinions,  saieng,  that  witches  cannot  Caelo  dediicere  Ittnain, 
fetch  the  moone  from  heaven,  &c:  they  tell  me  that  at  Jos/nias  battell 
the  sunne  staied,  and  at  the  passion  of  Christ  there  was  palpable 
darknes.  If  I  denie  their  cunning  in  the  exposition  of  dreames,  ad- 
vising them  to  remember  Jereinles  counsell,  not  to  followe  or  credit 
the  expositors  of  dreames  ;  they  hit  me  in  the  teeth  with  Daniel  and 
Joseph  :  for  that  the  one  of  them  expounded  Pharao  the  Persian 
kings,  the  other  Nabuchadnez-zar  the  Aegyptia7i  kings  dreame.  If  I 
saie  with  Salomon^  that  the  dead  knowe  nothing,  and  that  the  Eccles.  9, 5. 
dead  knowe  us  not,  neither  are  remooveable  out  of  Abrahams 
bosome,  &c  :  they  produce  the  storie  of  Saimiel :  wherein,  I  saie,  i.  Sam.  j8. 
they  set  the  power  of  a  creature  as  high  as  the  creator.  If  I  saie, 
that  these  witches  cannot  transubstantiate  themselves,  nor  others 
into  beasts,  &c.  they  cite  the  storie  of  Nabuchad7iez-xar ;  as  though 
indeed  he  were  made  a  materiall  beast,  and  that  also  by  witch-/ 
craft ;  and  strengthen  that  their  assertion  with  the  fables  of  Circe  and  //j. 
Ulysses  his  companions,  &c. 

The   seventh    Chapter. 

What  were  the  miracles  expressed  in  the  old  testament,  and  what 
are  they  in  the  new  testajnent :  a7id  that  we  are  7iot  fioiu  to  looke 
for  anie  jnore  miracles. 

HE  miracles  expressed  in  the  old  testament  were  manie, 
but  the  end  of  them  all  was  one,  though  they  were  divers 
and  differing  in  shew  :  as  where  the  sacrifices  of  Moses, 
Elias,  and  Salomon,  being  abundantlie  wet  were  burnt 
with  fier  from  heaven,  &c.  The  varietie  of  toongs  at  the  building  of  Gen.  11,6. 
Babylon,  Isaachs  birth  of  Sarah  being  by  nature  past  children,/  the  ^an'  "i".  129. 
passage  through  the  red  sea,  Daniels  foretelling  of  the  foure 
monarchies,  in  the  fourth  whereof  he  apparantlie  foresheweth  the 
comming  of  the  Lord.  All  these,  and  manie  other,  which  are  expressed 
in  the  old  testament,  were  mercifull  instructions  and  notable  miracles 
to  strengthen  the  faith  of  Gods  people  in  their  Messias.  If  you  had 
gone  to  Delphos,  Apollo  would  have  made  you  beleeve  with  his 
amphibologicall  answers,  that  he  could  have  foretold  you  all  these 

The  miracles  wrought  by  Christ  were  the  raising  up  of  the  dead  a  summe 
(which  manie  would  impute  to  the  woman  of  Endor,  and  also  to  our  ^i^j'jJe's'' 
witches  and  conjurors)  the  restoring  of  the  lame  to  lims,  the  blind  to 

142  Q.  Booke.  The  discove7'ie 

sight,  the  dumbe  to  speach,  and  finallie  the  healing  of  all  diseases  ; 
which  manie  beleeve  our  witches  can  doo  ;  yea,  and  as  they  them- 
selves will  take  it  upon  them.  As  for  casting  out  of  divels  (which 
was  another  kind  of  miracles  usuall  with  Christ)  witches  and  con- 
jurors are  said  to  be  as  good  thereat  as  ever  he  was  :  and  yet,  if  you 
will  beleeve  Christs  words,  it  cannot  be  so.  For  he  saith  ;  Everie 
Matt.  ij.  35.  kingdome  divided  against  it  selfe,  shall  be  brought  to  naught,  &c.     If 

sathan  cast  out  sathan,  he  is  divided,  &c  :  and  his  kingdome  shall  not 
endure,  &c./ 
lyO.  Peters  chaines  fell  off  in  prison,  so  did  Richard  Gallisies  fetters  at 
Windsor  :  marrie  the  prison  doores  opened  not  to  Richard,  as  they 
did  to  Peter.  Helias  by  speciall  grace  obtained  raine,  our  witches 
can  make  it  raine,  when  they  list,  &c.  But  sithens  Christ  did  these 
miracles,  and  manie  more,  and  all  to  confirme  his  truth,  and  strengthen 
our  faith,  and  finallie  for  the  conversion  of  the  people  (as  appeareth 
in  John.  6.  7,  and  12  :  in  so  much  as  he  vehementlie  reprooved  such, 
Luk.  10,  13.  as  upon  the  sight  of  them  would  not  beleeve,  saieng ;  Wo  be  to  thee 

Chorazin,  wo  be  to  thee  Bethsaida.    If  the  miracles  had  beene  doone  in 
Tyre  and  Sidon,  which  have  beene  doone  in  you,  they  had  a  great  while 
ago  repented,  &c.     Let  us  settle  and  acquiet  our  faith  in  Christ,  and 
beleeving  all  his  wonderous  works,  let  us  reject  these  old  wives  fables, 
as  lieng  vanities  :  whereof  you  may  find  in  the  golden  legend,  Af.  Mai. 
and  speciallie  in  Bodin  miraculous  stuffe,  enough  to  checke  all  the 
miracles  expressed  in  the  old  and  new  testament  ;  which  are  of  more 
credit  with  manie  bewitched  people,  than  the  true  miracles  of 
Christ  himselfe.     Insomuch  as  they  stand  in  more  awe 
of  the  manacies  of  a  witch,  than  of  all  the 
threatnings  and  cursses  pronounced 
by  God,  and  expressed  in  his 
word.     And  thus  much 
touching  the  word 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  2. 


f  The  tenth  Booke, 

The    first    Chapter. 



The  interpretation  of  this  Hebrue   word  Onen,  of  the  vanitie   of 
dreafties,  and  divi^iations  thereupoit. 

MEN  differeth  not  much  ixon-\Kasain,  but  that  it  is  extended 
to  the  interpretation  of  dreames.  Andas  for  dreames,  what- 
soever credit  is  attributed  unto  them,  proceedeth  of  foUie  :  Eccius.  24, 
and  they  are  fooles  that  trust  in  them,  for  whie  they  have 
deceived  many.  In  which  respect  the  Prophet  giveth  us  good  warn- 
ing, not  to  followe  nor  hearken  to  the  expositors  of  dreames,  for  they 
come  through  the  multitude  of  busines.  And  therefore  those  witches, 
that  make  men  beleeve  they  can  prophesie  upon  dreames,  as  knowing 
the  interpretation  of  them,  and  either  for  monie  or  gloria  abuse  men 
&  women  therby,  are  meere  couseners,  and  worthie  of  great  punish- 
ment :  as  are  such  witchmongers,  as  beleeving  them,  attribute  unto 
them  such  divine  power  as  onelie  belongeth  to  God  :  as  appeereth  in 
feretnie  the  Prophet./ 

Jerem.  27. 
Eccle.  5. 

Jerem.  23, 
25.  26.  27. 
Read  the 

The   second    Chapter.  178. 

Of  divine,   naturally   and  casuall  dreames,   with   their  differing 
causes  and  effects. 

lACROBIUS   recounteth    five   differences   of  images,   or 
rather    imaginations    exhibited  unto   them   that    sleepe, 
which  for  the  most  part  doo  signifie  somewhat  in  admo- 
nition.    There  be  also  many  subdivisions  made  hereof, 
which  I  thinke  needlesse  to  reherse.    In  faster  Peucer  they  are  to  be   Peucerin 

...  ,  .  r   1  ^1  dtvmat.  ex 

scene.  With  the  causes  and  occasions  of  dreames.      1  here  were  woont    somniis. 
to  be  delivered  from  God  himselfe  or  his  angels,  certeine  dreames 
and  visions  unto  the  prophets  and  holie  fathers  :  according  to  the 
saieng  oi  foci ;  I  will  powre  my  spirit  upon  all  flesh,  your  yoong  men    joei.  2. 
shall  dreame  dreames,  and  your  old  men  shall  see  visions.     These 
kind  of  dreames  (I  say)  were  the  admonishments  and  forewarnings    Matth.  i.  20. 
of  God  to  his  people  :  as  that  oi  foseph,  to  abide  with  Marie  his  wife, 
after  she  was  conceived  by  the  Holie-ghost,  as  also  to  conveie  our    Matih.  2, 13. 
Saviour  Christ  into  Aegypt,  &c  :  the  interpretation  whereof  are  the 
peculiar  gifts  of  God,  which  foseph  the  patriarch,  and  Daniel  the    Gen.  39.  & 
prophet  had  most  speciallie.  Dani.  t' 

As  for  physicall  conjectures  upon  dreames,  the  scriptures  *improove    [*  ?  reproove] 


10.  Booke. 

The  disc  ore  vie 


Eccles.  5.     lyQ- 

Englished  by 



them  not  :  for  by  them  the  physicians  manie  times  doo  understand 
the  state  of  their  patients  bodies.  For  some  of  them  come  by  meanes 
of  choler,  flegme,  melanchoHe,  or  bloud  ;  and  some  by  love,  surfet, 
hunger,  thirst,  &c.  Gallen  and  Boetius  were  said  to  deale  with 
divels,  bicause  they/  told  so  justlie  their  patients  dreames,  or  rather 
by  their  dreames  their  speciall  diseases.  Howbeit,  physicall  dreames 
are  natural!,  and  the  cause  of  them  dwelleth  in  the  nature  of  man. 
For  they  are  the  inward  actions  of  the  mind  in  the  spirits  of  the 
braine,  whilest  the  bodie  is  occupied  with  sleepe  :  for  as  touching 
the  mind  it  selfe,  it  never  sleepeth.  These  dreames  varie,  according 
to  the  difference  of  humors  and  vapors.  There  are  also  casuall 
dreames,  which  (as  Salomon  saith)/  come  through  the  multitude  of 
businesse.  For  as  a  looking  glasse  sheweth  the  image  or  figure  there- 
unto opposite  :  so  in  dreames,  the  phantasie  &  imagination  informes 
the  understanding  of  such  things  as  haunt  the  outward  sense. 
Whereupon  the  poet  saith  : 

Soiimia  tie  cures,  nam  mens  humana  quod  optai, 
Dmn  vigilat  sperans,per  somtium  cernit  id  ipsum  : 

Regard  no  dreames,  for  why  the  mitid 
Of  that  in  sleepe  a  view  dooth  take. 
Which  it  dooth  wish  and  hope  to  find, 
At  such  time  as  it  is  awake. 

A  dissonan- 
cie  in  opi- 
nions a- 

The   third    Chapter. 

The  opinion  of  divers  old  writers  touching  dreames,  and  how  they 
varie  in  noting  the  causes  thereof 

YNESIUS,  Themistius,  Democritus,  and  others  grounding 
themselves  upon  examples  that  chance  hath  sometimes 
verified,  persuade  men,  that  nothing  is  dreamed  in  vaine  : 
affirming  that  the  hevenlie  influencies  doo  bring  foorth 
divers  formes  in  corporall  matters  ;  and  of  the  same  influencies,  visions 
and  dreames  are  printed  in  the  fantasticall  power,  which  is  instru- 
mental!, with  a  celestial!  disposition  meete  to  bring  foorth  some  effect, 
especiallie  in  sleepe,  when  the  mind  (being  free  from  bodilie  cares)  may 
more  liberallie  receive  the  heavenlie  influencies,  wherby  many  things 
are  knowne  to  them  sleeping  in  dreames,  which  they  that  wake  cannot 
see.  Plato  attributeth  them  to  the  formes  and  ingendred  knowledges 
of  the  soule  ;  Avicen  to  the  last  intelligence  that  moveth  the  moone, 
through  the  light  that  lighteneth  the  fantasie  in  sleepe  ;  Aristotle  to 
the  phantasticall  sense;  Averroes  io  the  imaginative;  Albert  to  the 
influence  of  superior  bodies,/,' 

of  Witchcraft. 

Cliap.  4. 


The    fourth    Chapter. 

Against  interpreters  of  dreanies,  of  the  or  dinar ie  cause  of  dreanies^ 
Heviingius  his  opinion  of  diabolicall  dreaines,  the  interpretation 
of  dreames  ceased. 

HERE  are  bookes  carried  about  concerning  this  matter, 
under  the  name  oi  Abraham,  who  (as  Philo  In  lib.  gigan- 
tiini  saith)  was  the  first  inventor  of  the  exposition  of 
dreames :  and  so  likewise  of  Salomon  and  Daniel.  But 
Cicero  In  lib.  dc  divinatiotte  confuteth  the  vanitie  and  follie  of  them 
that  give  credit  to  dreames.  And  as  for  the  interpretors  of  dreames, 
as  they  knowe  not  before  the  dreame,  nor  yet  after,  any  certeintie  ; 
yet  when  any  thing  afterwards  happeneth,  then  they  applie  the  dreame 
to  that  which  hath  chanced. 

Certeinlie  men  never  lightHe  faile  to  dreame  by  night,  of  that  which 
they  meditate  by  daie  :  and  by  daie  they  see  divers  and  sundrie 
things,  and  conceive  them  severalHe  in  their  minds.  Then  those 
mixed  conceits  being  laid  up  in  the  closset  of  the  memorie,  strive 
togither;  which,  bicause  the  phantasie  cannot  discerne  nor  discusse, 
some  certeine  thing  gathered  of  manie  conceits  is  bred  and  contrived 
in  one  togither.  And  therefore  in  mine  opinion,  it  is  time  vainelie 
emploied,  to  studie  about  the  interpretation  of  dreames.  He  that  list 
to  see  the  follie  and  vanitie  thereof,  maie  read  a  vaine  treatise,  set 
out  by  Thomas  Hill  Londoner,  1568. 

Lastlie,  there  are  diabolicall  dreames,  which  Nicolaus  Hemingius 
divideth  into  three  sortes.  The  first  is,  when  the  divell  immediatlie 
of  himselfe  (he  meaneth  corporallie)  offereth  anie  matter  of  dreame. 
Secondlie,  when  the  divell  sheweth  revelations  to  them  that  have 
made  request  unto  him  therefore.  Thirdlie,  when  magicians  by  art 
bring  to  passe,  that  other  men  dreame  what  they  will.  Assuredlie 
these,  and  so  all  the  rest  (as  they  maie  be  used)  are  verie  magicall 
and  divelish  dreames.  For  although  we  maie  receive  comfort  of 
mind  by  those,  which  are  called  divine/  dreames,  and  health  of  bodie 
through  physicall  dreames  :  yet  if  we  take  upon  us  to  use  the  office  of 
God  in  the  revelation  or  rather  the  interpretation  of  them  ;  or  if  we 
attribute  unto  them  miraculous  effects  (now  when  we  see  the  gifts  of 
prophesie,  and  of  interpretation  of  dreames,  and  also  the  operation  of 
miracles  are  ceased,  which  were  speciall  and  peculiar  gifts  of  God,  to 
confirme  the  truth  of  the  word,  and  to  establish  his  people  in  the  faith 
of  the  Messias,  who  is  now  exhibited  unto  us  both  in  the  testament, 
and  also  in  the  bloud  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ)  we  are  bewitched, 


iSo.     132. 

The  plea- 
sant art  of 
the  inter- 
of  dreames. 
A'.  Hcmin.  in 
nib.  dc  super- 
stitionib.  tna- 
gicis  vitadii. 


The  end  & 
use  of  pro- 
phesie, in- 
of  dreames, 
of  mira- 
cles, &c. 


lo.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

and  both  abuse  and  offend  the  majestie  of  God,  and  ah:o  seduce, 
delude  and  cousen  all  such  as  by  our  persuasion,  and  their  ovvne 
light  beleefe,  give  us  credit. 


Seeke  for 
such  stutfe 
in  my  booke 
of  Hartu- 

Dan.  2. 

Gen.  II,  8. 
Gen.  37,  & 

Isai.  II. 
Dan.  i. 

Aristnt.  de 

The    fift    Chapter. 

That  neither  witches,  nor  anie  other,  can  either  by  words  or  hearts, 
ihnist  into  the  mind  of  a  sleepi7i_s;  man,  what  cogitations  or 
dreames  they  list ;  and  whence  jnagicall  df-eames  come. 

GRANT  there  maie  be  hearbs  and  stones  found  and 
kno'.vne  to  the  physicians,  which  maie  procure  dreames ; 
and  other  hearbs  and  stones,  &c  :  to  make  one  bewraie 
all  the  secrets  of  his  mind,  when  his  bodie  sleepeth,  or  at 
least  wise  to  procure  speech  in  sleepe.  But  that  witches  or  magicians 
have  power  by  words,  herbs,  or  imprecations  to  thrust  into  the  mind 
or  conscience  of  man,  what  it  shall  please  them,  by  vertue  of  their 
charmes,  hearbs,  stones,  or  familiars,  &c  :  according  to  the  opinion  , 
of  Hemingiiis,  I  denie  :  though  therewithal!  I  confesse,  that  the 
divell  both  by  daie  and  also  by  night,  travelleth  to  seduce  man,  and 
to  lead  him  from  God  ;  yea  and  that  no  waie  more  than  this,  where 
he  placeth  himselfe  as  God  in  the  minds  of  them  that  are  so  cre- 
dulous, to  attribute  unto  him,  or  unto  witches,  that  which  is  onlie  in 
the  office,  nature,  and  power  of  God  to  accomplish. 

Doth  not  Daniel  the  prophet  sale,  even  in  this  case  ;  It  is  the/ 
182.  Lord  onelie  that  knovi^eth  such  secrets,  as  in  the  exposition  of  dreames 
is  required  ?  And  doth  not  Joseph  repeat  those  verie  words  to  Pharaos 
officers,  who  consulted  with  him  therein  .-'  Examples  of  divine 
dreames  you  maie  find  a  great  number  in  the  scripture,  such  (I 
meane)  as  it  pleased  God  to  reveale  his  pleasure  by.  Of  physicall 
dreames  we  maie  both  read  in  authors,  and  see  in  our  owne  experi- 
ence dailie,  or  rather  nightly.  Such  dreams  also  as  are  casuall,  they 
are  likewise  usuall,  and  come  (as  hath  beene  said)  through  the  multi- 
tude of  affaires  and  businesse.  Those  which  in  these  dales  are 
called  magicall  or  diabolicall  dreames,  maie  rather  be  called  melan- 
cholicall.  For  out  of  that  blacke  vapor  in  sleepe,  through  dreames, 
appeareth  (as  Aristotle  saith)  some  horrible  thing  ;  and  as  it  were  the 
image  of  an  ouglie  divell  :  sometimes  also  other  terrible  visions, 
imaginations,  counsels,  and  practises.  As  where  we  read  of  a  cer- 
teine  man,  that  dreamed  there  appeared  one  unto  him  that  required 
him  to  throwe  himselfe  into  a  deepe  pit,  and  that  he  should  reape 
great  benefit  thereby  at  Gods  hands.  So  as  the  miserable  wretch 
giving  credit  thereunto,  performed  the  matter,  and  killed  himselfe. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  7. 


Now  I  confesse,  that  the  interpretation  or  execution  of  that  dreame 
was  indeed  diaboHcall  :  but  the  dreame  was  casuall,  derived  from  the 
heavie  and  blacke  humor  of  melancholie./ 

The   sixt    Chapter. 

Ho7u  men  have  beene  bewitched,  coitsened  or  abused  by  dreauies  to  diir 
and  sca?'ch  for  inom'e. 

OW  manie  have  beene  bewitched  with  dreames,and  thereby 
made  to  consume  themselves  with  digging  and  searching 
formonie,  &c  :  whereof  they,  or  some  other  have  drempt? 
I  my  selfe  could  manifest,  as  having  knowne  how  wise 
men  have  beene  that  waie  abused  by  verie  simple  persons,  even  where 
no  dreame  hath  beene  met  withall,  but  waking  dreames.  And  this  hath 
beene  used  heretofore,  as  one  of  the  finest  cousening  feates  :  in  so  much/ 
as  there  is  a  verie  formall  art  thereof  devised,  with  manie  excellent 
superstitions  and  ceremonies  thereunto  belonging,  which  I  will  set 
dovvne  as  breeflie  as  male  be.  Albeit  that  here  in  England,  this 
proverbe  hath  beene  current  ;  to  wit,  Dreames  proove  contrarie  : 
according  to  the  answer  of  the  priests  boy  to  his  master,  who  told  his 
said  boy  that  he  drempt  he  kissed  his  taile  :  Yea  maister  (saith  he) 
but  dreames  proove  contrarie,  you  must  kisse  mine. 


Such  would 
be  im  bar- 
ked in  the 
ship  of 


An  english 

The   seventh    Chapter. 

The  art  and  order  to  be  used  in  digging  for  nionie,  revealed  by 
dreames,  Jiow  to  procure  pleasant  dreames,  of  morning  atid  mid- 
night dreames. 

HERE  must  be  made  upon  a  hazell  wand  three  crosses.    Note  this 

ous do- 

and  certeine  words  both  blasphemous  and  impious  must 
be  said  over  it,  and  hereunto  must  be  added  certeine 
characters,  &  barbarous  names.  And  whilest  the  trea- 
sure is  a  digging,  there  must  be  read  the  psalmes,  De  profimdis, 
Missa,  Misereatur  nostri,  Requiem,  Pater  noster,  Ave  Maria,  Et  7ie 
nos  ijiducas  in  tentationem,  sed  libera  7ios  a  malo,  Amen.  A  porta 
inferi  credo  videre  bona,  &^c.  Expectate  Dominum,  Requiem  ceternam. 
And  then  a  certeine  praier.  And  if  the  time  of  digging  be  neglected, 
the  divell  will  carie  all  the  treasure  awaie.  See  other  more  absolute 
conjurations  for  this  purpose,  in  the  word  lidoni  following. 

You  shall  find  mfohannes  Baptista  Neapolitanus,  diverse  receipts 
by  hearbes  and  potions,  to  procure  pleasant  or  fearefull  dreames  ;  and    '«<2g-  ii>>. 
perfumes  also  to  that  effect  :  who  affirmeth,  that  dreames  in  the  dead  of  sf  i' s/"'' 

J.  Bap.  Neap, 
in  natural. 


10.  Buoke. 

The  discoverie 

the  night  are  commonlie  preposterous  and  monstrous;  and  in  the  morn- 
ing when  the  grosse  humors  be  spent,  there  happen  more  pleasant  and 
certeine  dreames,  the  bloud  being  more  pure  than  at  other  times : 
the  reason  whereof  is  there  expressed.// 

ons or  re- 
ceipts for 
the  mira- 
tation of 

184.    135.  The    eight    Chapter. 

Sujidrie  receipts  and  oiiitnioiis^  made  and  used  for  the  transporta- 
tion of  witches,  and  other  miraculous  effects  :  an  instance  therof 
reported  and  credited  by  some  that  are  learned. 

|T  shall  not  be  amisse  here  in  this  place  to  repeate  an 
ointment  greatlie  to  this  purpose,  rehearsed  by  the  fore- 
said John  Bapt.  Neap,    wherein  although  he  male  be 
overtaken  and  cousened  by  an  old  witch,  and  made  not 
onelie  to  beleeve,  but  also  to  report  a  false   tale  ;    yet   bicause   it 
greatlie  overthroweth  the  opinion  of  M.  Mai.  Bodin,  and  such  other, 
as  write  so  absolutelie  in  maintenance  of  witches  transportations,  I 
will  set  downe  his  words  in  this  behalfe.     The  receipt  is  as  followeth. 

R  The  fat  of  yoong  children,  and  seeth  it  with  water  in  a  brasen 
vessell,  reserving  the  thickest  of  that  which  remaineth  boiled  in  the 
bottome,  which  they  laie  up  and  keepe,  untill  occasion  serveth  to  use 
it.  They  put  hereunto  Eleoselintim,  Acotiitum,  Frondes populeas,  and 

Another  receipt  to  the  same  purpose. 
R.  Slum,  acartim  vulgare,  pentaphyllon,  the  bloud  of  a  flitter- 
mouse,  solanum  somniferitm,  &^  oleum.  They  stampe  all  these 
togither,  and  then  they  rubbe  all  parts  of  their  bodies  exceedinglie, 
till  they  looke  red,  and  be  verie  hot,  so  as  the  pores  may  be  opened, 
and  their  flesh  soluble  and  loose.  They  joine  herewithall  either  fat, 
or  oile  in  steed  thereof,  that  the  force  of  the  ointment  male  the  rather 
pearse  inwardly,  and  so  be  more  efFectuall.  By  this  means  (saith  he) 
in  a  moone  light  night  they  seeme  to  be  carried  in  the  aire,  to  feast- 
ing, singing,  dansing,  kissing,  culling,  and  other  acts  of  venerie,  with 
such  youthes  as  they  love  and  desire  most  :  for  the  force  (saith  he)  ot 
their  imagination  is  so  vehement,  that  almost  all  that  part  of  the 
braine,  wherein  the  memorie  consisteth,  is  full  of  such  conceipts. 
j8j.  And  whereas  they  are  naturallie  prone/  to  beleeve  anie  thing  ;  so  doo 
they  receive  such  impressions  and  stedfast  imaginations  into  their 
minds,  as  even  their  spirits  are  altered  thereby  ;  not  thinking  upon 
anie  thing  else,  either  by  dale  or  by  night.  And  this  helpeth  them 
forward  in  their  imaginations,  that  their  usuall  food  is  none  other 
commonlie  but  beets,  rootes,  nuts,  beanes,  peaze,  &c. 

of  IVitchcf'aft. 

Chap.  g. 


Now  (saith  he)  when   I   considered  throughlie  hereof,  remaining    Vetule,quas 
doubtfuU  of  the  matter,  there  fell  into  my  hands  a  witch,  who  of  hir   ]ifudfne'lTri' 
ovvne  accord  did  promise  me  to  fetch  me  an  errand  out  of  hand  from    &^^  vacant, 

,.,,,,,,  ,  Till  1  •  luaq;  noctu 

farre  countries,  and  willed  all  them,  whome  I  had  brought  to  witnesse   p,u-ruiorum 
the   matter,    to   depart  out  of  the   chamber.      And  when    she    had   ',"",,^-"cuban" 
undressed  hir  selfe,  and  froted  hir  bodie  with  certeine   ointments    tium  exsor- 
(which  action  we  beheld  through  a  chinke  or  little  hole  of  the  doore) 
she  fell  downe  thorough  the  force  of  those  soporiferous  or  sleepie  oint- 
ments into  a  most   sound  and  heavie  sleepe  :  so  as  we  did  breake 
open  the  doore,  and  did  beate  hir  exceedinglie  ;  but/  the  force  of  hir    136. 
sleepe  was  such,  as  it  tooke  awaie  from  hir  the  sense  of  feeling  :  and 
we  departed  for  a  time.     Now  when  hir  strength  and  powers  were 
wearie  and  decaied,  shee  awooke  of  hir  owne  accord,  and  began  to 
speake  manie  vaine  and  doting  words,  affirming  that  she  had  passed 
over  both  seas  and  mountaines  ;  delivering  to  us  manie  untrue  and 
false  reports  :  we  earnestlie  denied  them,   she  impudentlie  affirmed 
them.     This  (saith  he)  will  not  so  come  to  passe  with  everie  one,  but 
onlie  with  old  women  that  are  melancholike,  whose  nature  is  extreame 
cold,    and  their   evaporation    small  ;    and   they   both   perceive   and 
remember  what  they  see  in  that  case  and  taking  of  theirs. 

The    ninth    Chapter. 

A  confutation  of  the  former  follies,  as  well  concerning  ointments, 
dreames,  &^c.  as  also  of  the  assemblie  of  witches,  and  of  their  con- 
sultations and  bankets  at  sundrie  places,  and  all  in  dreames. 

lUT  if  it  be  true  that  S.  Augustine  saith,  and  manie  other 
writers,  that  witches  nightwalkings  are  but  phantasies 
and  dreames  :  then  all  the  reportes  of  their  bargaine, 
I  transporting,  and  mee/tings  with  Diana,  Minerva,  &c  : 
are  but  fables  ;  and  then  do  they  lie  that  mainteine  those  actions  to 
be  doone  in  deed  and  veritie,  which  in  truth  are  doone  no  waie.  It 
were  marvell  on  the  one  side  (if  those  things  happened  in  dreames, 
which  neverthelesse  the  witches  affirme  to  be  otherwise)  that  when 
those  witches  awake,  they  neither  consider  nor  remember  that  they 
were  in  a  dreame.  It  were  marvell  that  their  ointments,  by  the 
physicians  opinions  having  no  force  at  all  to  that  effect,  as  they  con- 
fesse  which  are  inquisitors,  should  have  such  operation.  It  were 
marvell  that  their  ointments  cannot  be  found  anie  where,  saving  onelie 
in  the  inquisitors  bookes.  It  were  marvell,  that  when  a  stranger  is 
annointed  therewith,  they  have  sometimes,  and  yet  not  alwaies,  the 
like  operation  as  with  witches  ;  which  all  the  inquisitors  confesse. 


Barihol.  Spi- 
ntrus,  q.  de 
strigib.  f.  31. 


10.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Bar.  Spin.  qu. 
lie  strigib.  c, 

New  mat- 
ter &  wor- 
thie  to  be 



Legend-  aur. 
in  vita  S. 

But  to  this  last,  frier  Bartholo»iceHS  saith,  that  the  witches  them- 
selves, before  they  annoint  themselves,  do  heare  in  the  night  time  a 
great  noise  of  minstrels,  which  flie  over  them,  with  the  ladie  of  the 
fairies,  and  then  they  addresse  themselves  to  their  journie.  But  then 
I  marvell  againe,  that  no  bodie  else  heareth  nor  seeth  this  troope  of 
minstrels,  especiallie  riding  in  a  moone  light  night.  It  is  marvell 
that  they  that  thinke  this  to  be  but  in  a  dreame,  can  be  persuaded 
that  all  the  rest  is  anie  other  than  dreames.  It  is  marvell  that  in 
dreames,  witches  of  old  acquaintance  meet  so  just  togither,  and  con- 
clude upon  murthers,  and  receive  ointments,  roots,  powders,  &c  :  (as 
witchmongers  report  they  doo,  and  as  they  make  the  witches  confesse) 
and  yet  lie  at  home  fast  asleepe.  It  is  marvell  that  such  preparation 
is  made  for  them  (as  Sprenger,  Bartholomezv,  and  Bodm  report)  as 
well  in  noble  mens  houses,  as  in  alehouses  ;  and  that  they  come  in 
dreames,  and  eate  up  their  meate  :  and  the  alewife  speciallie  is  not 
wearied  with  them  for  non  paiment  of  their  score,/  or  false  paiment  ; 
to  wit,  with  imaginarie  monie,  which  they  saie  is  not  substantial!,  and 
that  they  talke  not  afterwards  about  the  reckoning,  and  so  discover 
the  matter.  And  it  is  most  marvell  of  all,  that  the  hostesse,  &c:  dooth 
not  sit  among  them,  and  take  part  of  their  good  cheere.  For  so  it  is, 
that  if  any  part  of  these  their  meetings  and  league  be  true,  it  is  as 
true  and  as  certeinlie  prooved  and  confessed,  that  at  some  alehouse, 
or  sometime  at  some  Gen/tlemans  house,  there  is  continual!  pre- 
paration made  monethlie  for  this  assemblie  :  as  appeereth  in  S. 
Ger?iians  storie. 

7.  Re.  3,  5.  15. 

I.  Reg.  9. 

The    tenth    Chapter. 

Thai  mos I  pari  of  prophesies  in  ihe  old  iesiament  were  revealed  in 
dreames,  ihat  we  are  not  nozu  to  looke  for  such  revelations,  of 
some  who  have  drempt  of  that  which  hath  come  to  passe,  ihat 
dreames  proove  contrarie,  Nabiichadiiez-zars  rttle  to  knowe  a  true 
expositor  of  dreames. 

JT  is  held  and  mainteined  by  divers,  and  gathered  out  of 
the  12.  oi  Numbers,  that  all  which  was  written  or  spoken 
by  the  prophets,  among  the  children  of  Israel  {Moses  ex- 
cepted) was  propounded  to  them  by  dreames.  And  indeed 
it  is  manifest,  that  manie  things,  which  are  thought  by  the  unlearned 
to  have  beene  reallie  finished,  have  beene  onlie  performed  by  dreams 
and  visions.  As  where  Salomon  required  of  God  the  gift  of  wis- 
dome  :  that  was  (I  say)  in  a  dreame  ;  and  also  where  he  received 
promise  of  the  continuance  of  the  kingdome  of  Israel  in  his  line.    So 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.    10. 


J.  Bodin. 
lib.  de  da- 
man. I.  cap.  5. 

was  Esnis  vision  in  the  6.  of  his  prophesie  :  as  also  that  of  Ezechiel  isai.  6. 
the  12.  Finallie,  where  Jeremze  was  commanded  to  hide  his  girdle  in  jerem.  13! 
the  clift  of  a  rocke  at  the  river  Euphrates  in  Babylon  ;  and  that  after 
certeine  daies,  it  did  there  putrifie,  it  must  needs  be  in  a  dreame  ;  for 
Jerctnie  was  never  (or  at  leastwise  not  then)  at  Babylon.  We  that  are 
christians  must  not  now  slumber  and  dreame,  but  watch  and  praie, 
and  meditate  upon  our  salvation  in  Christ  both  daie  and  night.  And 
if  we  expect  revelations  in  our  dreames,  now,  when  Christ  is  come, 
we  shall  deceive  our  selves  :  for  in  him  are  fulfilled  all  dreames  and 
prophesies.  Howbeit,  Bodin  holdeth  that  dreames  and  visions  con- 
tinue till  this  daie,  in  as  miraculous  maner  as  ever  they  did. 

If  you  read  Arteinidorus,  you  shall  read  manie  stories  of  such  as 
drempt  of  things  that  afterwards  cam  to  passe.     But  he  might  have 
cited  a  thousand  for  one  that  fell  out  contrarie  :  for  as  for  /  such    188. 
dreamers   among  the  Jews  themselves,   as   had  not    extraordinarie 
visions  miraculouslie  exhibited  unto  them  by  God,  they  were  counted 
couseners,  as  may  appeere  by  these  words  of  the  prophet  Zacharie  ;    Zach.  10, 2. 
Surelie  the  idols  have  spoken  vanitie,  and  the  soothsaiers  have  scene 
a   lie,   and   the   dreamers   have  told  a   vaine  thing.     According  to 
Salomons  saieng  ;    In  the  multitude  of   dreames  and   vanities   are    Eccies.  5, 6. 
manie  words.     It  appeereth   in  Jeremie  23.  that  the  false  prophets,   J^''^"'-  ^3- 
whilest  they  illuded  the    people  with    lies,  counterfetting    the   true 
prophets,  used  to  crie  out  ;  Dreames,  dreames  ;  We  have  dreamed  a 
dreame,  &c.  Finallie,  NabucJiadnez-zar  teacheth  all  men  to  knowe  a 
true  expositor  of  dreames  ;  to  wit,  such  a  one  as  hath  his 
revelation  from  GOD.     For  he  can  (as  Daniel  did) 
repeate  your  dreame  before  you  discover  it : 
which  thing  if  anie  expounder  of 
dreames  can  doo.  at 
this  daie,  I  will 



II.  Booke. 

TJie  discoverie 

The  slo- 
venlie  art 
of  augurie. 

'^9-    138.  ^  The  eleventh  booke. 

The  first  Chapter. 

The  Hebrue  word  Nahas  expoimded,  of  the  art  of  attgurie,  who 
invented  it,  how  slove^ilie  a  science  it  is  :  the  multitude  of  sacri- 
fices and  sacrificers  of  the  heathen,  and  the  caiises  therof 

AH  AS,  is  To  observe  the  flieng  of  birds,  &  comprehendeth 

all  such  other  observations,  where  men  do  ghesse  upon 

uncerteine  toies.      It    is    found  in  Deut.   i8.  and  in    2. 

Chron.  ■},■}).  and  else-where.  Of  this  art  of  augurie  Tyresias 

the  king  of  the   Thebans  is  said  to   be  the  first  inventor  :  but  Tages 

first  published  the  discipline  thereof,  being  but  a  little  boie  ;  as  Cicero 

reporteth   out  of  the  bookes  of  the  Hetruscans  themselves.     Some 

points  of  this  art  are  more  high  and  profound  than  some  others,  and 

yet  are  they  more  homelie  and  slovenlie  than  the  rest  ;  as  namelie, 

the  divination  upon  the   entrailes  of  beasts,  which  the  Gentiles  in 

their  sacrifices  speciallie  observed.      Insomuch    as  Marcus   Varro, 

seeing  the  absurditie  thereof,  said  that  these  gods  were  not  onlie  idle, 

but  verie  slovens,  that  used  so  to  hide  their  secrets  and  counsels  in 

the  guts  and  bowels  of  beasts. 

How  vainlie,  absurdlie,  and  superstitiouslie  the  heathen  used  this 

kind  of  divination  in  their  sacrifices,  is  manifested  by  their  actions 

&  ceremonies  in  that  behalfe  practised,  as  well  in  times  past,  as  at 

this  houre.     The  Aegyptians  had  666.   severall  sorts  and  kinds  of 

jgo.    sacrifices  ;  the  Ronia7is  had  almost  as  manie  ;  the  Grcejcians  had  not 

so  few  as  they  ;  the  Persians  and  the  Medes  were  not  behind  them  ; 

the  Indies  and  other  nations  have  at  this  instant  their  sacrifices  full 

of  varietie,  and  more  full  of  barbarous  impietie.     For  in  sundrie 

places,  these  offer  sacrifices  to  the  divell,  hoping  thereby  to  moove 

him  to   lenitie  :   yea,  these  commonlie  sacrifice  such  of 

their  enimies,  as  they  have  taken  in  warre  :    as 

we  read  that  the  Gentiles  in  ancient  time 

did  offer  sacrifice,  to  appease  the 

wrath  and  indignation  of 

their  feigned 


of  Witchcraft.  chap.  3.  153 

The  second  Chapter. 

0/  the  Jcwes  sacrifice  to  Moloch,  a  discourse  thereupon,  and  0/ 

|HE  Jewes  used  one  kind  of  diabolical  sacrifice,  never   2.  Re.  23, 10 
taught  them  by  Moses,  namelie,  to  offer  their  children  to    \^^^  "' 
Moloch,  making  their  sonnes  and  their  daughters  to  runne 
through  the  fire  ;  supposing  such  grace  and  efficacie  to 
have  beene  in  that  action,  as  other  witches  affirme  to  be  in  charmes 
and  words.     And  therfore  among  other  points  of  witchcraft,  this  is    D^ut.  18,  10 
speciallie  and  namelie  forbidden  by  Moses.     We  read  of  no  more   IJ-?^'-  '8, 21. 

^  .  .  .  \.a.  cap.  20.  2. 

miracles  wrought  hereby,  than  by  any  other  kmd  of  witchcraft  m  the 
old  or  new  testament  expressed.     It  was  no  ceremonie  appointed  by    ,    ,    . 
God,/  no  figure  of  Christ  :  perhaps  it  might  be  a  sacrament  or  rather   cibie  argu-  139. 
a  figure  of  purgatorie,  the  which  place  was  not  remembred  by  Moses,   g'-ilnst'pur- 
Neither  was  there  anie  sacrifice  appointed  by  the  lawe  for  the  releefe   g"''''^- 
of  the  Israelites  soules  that  there  should  be  tormented.     Which  with- 
out all  doubt  should  not  have  beene  omitted,  if  any  such  place  of 
purgatorie  had  beene  then,  as  the  Pope  hath  latelie  devised  for  his 
private   and  speciall  lucre.     This    sacrificing    to   Moloch   (as   some 
afiirme)   was  usuall   among  the  Gentiles,  from    whence    the   Jewes 
brought  it  into  Israel :  and  there  (of  likeliehood)  the  £'/^//t7^/.y/j- learned 
the  abhomination  in  that  behalfe./ 

The  third   Chapter.  igi. 

The  Canibals  crueliie,  of  popish  sacrifices  exceeding  in  tyrannie  the 
Jewes  or  Gentiles. 

H  E   incivilitie  and  cruell  sacrifices  of  popish  preests  do   Agninst  the 
yet  exceed  both  the  Jew  and  the  Gentile  :  for  these  take   P'^'^'^uf'' 

■'  ■'  hominable 

upon  them  to  sacrifice  Christ  himselfe.      And  to  make   and  bias- 
their  tyrannie  the  more  apparent,  they  are  not  contented   saT.^ce^of 
to  have  killed  him  once,  but  dailie  and  hourelie  torment  him  with   tller"ts^e. 
new  deaths  ;  yea  they  are  not  ashamed  to  sweare,  that  with  their 
carnall  hands  theyteare  his  humane  substance,  breaking  it  into  small 
gobbets  ;   and  with  their   externall  teeth  chew  his  flesh  and  bones, 
contrarie  to  divine  or  humane  nature  ;  and  Contrarie  to  the  prophesie, 
which  saith  ;  There  shall  not  a  bone  of  him  be  broken.     Finallie,  in   p.-,ai.  34.  -o 
the  end  of  their  sacrifice  (as  they  say)  they  eate  him  up  rawe,  and 
swallow  downe  into  their  guts  everie  member  and  parcell   of  him  : 



The  discoverie 

and  last  of  all,  that  they  conveie  him  into  the  place  where  they 
bestowe  the  residue  of  all  that  which  they  have  devoured  that  daie. 
And  this  same  barbarous  impietie  exceedeth  the  crueltie  of  all  others: 
for  all  the  Gentiles  consumed  their  sacrifices  with  fier,  which  they 
thought  to  be  holie. 



*  The  Gym- 
of  India 
their  apish 
of  Esaie. 


The  fourth  Chapter. 

The  superstition  of  the  heathen  about  the  element  of  fier,  and  how  it 
grew  in  such  reverence  ajnojtg  them,  of  their  corruptions,  and 
that  they  had  some  inklittg  of  the  godlie  fathers  dooings  in  that 

|S  touching  the  element  of  fier,  &  the  superstition  therof 
about  those  businesses,  you  shall  understand,  that  manie 
superstitious  people  and  nations  have  received,  reverenced, 
&  reserved  fier,  as  the  most  holy  thing  among  their  sacri- 
insomuch   (I   sale)  as  they  have    worshipped  it  a/mong   their 
gods,  calling  it  Oriinasda  (to  wit)  holie  fier,  and  divine  light.     The 
Greekes  called  it  ealai',  the  Romans  Vesta,  which  is,  The  fier  of  the 
Lord.      Surelie   they  had  heard  of  the  fier   that  came  downe  from 
heaven,  and  consumed  the  oblations  of  the  fathers ;  and  they  under- 
stood it  to  be  God  himselfe.     For  there  came  to  the  heathen,  the 
bare  names  of  things,  from  the  doctrine  of  the  godlie  fathers  and 
patriarchs,   and  those  so  ob/scured  with  fables,  and  corrupted  with 
lies,  so  overwhelmed  with  superstitions,  and  disguised  with  ceremonies, 
that  it  is  hard  to  judge  from  whence  they  came.     Some  cause  thereof 
(I   suppose)  was  partlie  the  translations  of  governements,  whereby 
one  nation   learned  follie  of  another  ;    and  partlie  blind   devotion, 
without  knowledge  of  Gods  word  :  but  speciallie  the  want  of  grace, 
which  they  sought  not  for,  according  to  Gods  commandement  and 
will.     And  that  the  Gentiles  had   some  inkling  of  the  godlie  fathers 
dooings,  may  diverslie  appeare.     Doo  not  the  Muscovits  and  *Indian 
prophets   at  this  daie,  like  apes,  imitate  Esaie  f    Bicause  he  went 
naked  certeine  yeares,  they  forsooth  counterfet  madnes,  and 
drinke  potions  for  that  purpose  ;  thinking  that  what- 
soever they  sale  in  their  madnes,  will  cer- 
teinelie  come  to  passe.     But  hereof 
is  more  largelie  discoursed 
before  in  the  word 

of  Witchcraft.  ci.^ir.  5  155 

The    fift    Chapter. 

Of  the  Romane  sacrifices  :  of  the  estimation  they  had  of  at/gurie,  of 
the  lawe  of  the  twelve  tables. 

HE  Romans,  even  after  they  were  growne  to  great 
civilitie,  and  enjoied  a  most  flourishing  state  and  com- 
monwealth, would  sometimes  sacrifice  themselves,  some- 
times their  children,  sometimes  their  friends,  &c  :  consum- 
ing the  same  with  fier,  which  they  thought  holie.  Such  estimation 
(I  saie)  was  attributed  to  this  art  of  divination  upon  the  entrails  of 
beasts,  &c  :  at  Rome,  as  the  cheefe  princes  themselves  exercised  the 
same  ;  namelie,/  Romithis,  Fabius  MaxiniKs,  Qr'c  :  in  so  much  as  rgj. 
there  was  a  decree  made  there,  by  the  whole  senate,  that  six  of  the 
cheefe  magistrats  sonnes  should  from  time  to  time  be  put  foorth,  to 
learne  the  mysterie  of  these  arts  of  augurie  and  divination,  at  Hetru- 
ria,  where  the  cunning  and  knowledge  thereof  most  abounded. 
When  they  came  home  well  informed  and  instructed  in  this  art,  their 
estimation  and  dignitie  was  such,  as  they  were  accounted,  reputed, 
and  taken  to  be  the  interpretors  of  the  gods,  or  rather  betweene  the 
gods  and  them.  No  high  preest,  nor  anie  other  great  officer  was 
elected,  but  these  did  either  absolutelie  nominate  them,  or  else  did 
exhibit  the  names  of  two,  whereof  the  senate  must  choose  the  one. 

In   their   ancient   lawes  were  written    these    words:  Prodigia   &r'   The  lawe 

portettta    ad    Hetruscos    aruspices    [si    senatus  jicsserit)    deferunto,    °l!^^ 

Hetruricaq;  principes  disciplinatn  discttnto.     Quibiis  divis  decrevemnt,    tables. 

procieranto,   iisdem  fulgura   &^   ostenta   pianto,   auspicia   servanto, 

atfgtiri pai-ento  :  the  effect  of  which  words  is  this  ;  Let  all  prodigious 

and  portentous  matters  be  carried    to  the  soothsaiers  of  Hetruria, 

at   the   will   and   commandement  of  the   senat  ;    and  let  the  yoong 

princes  be  sent  to  Hetruria,  there  to  learne  that  discipline,  or  to  be 

instructed  in  that  art  and  knowledge.     Let  there  be  alvvaies  some 

solicitor,  to  learne  with  what  gods  they  have  decreed  or  determined 

their  matters,  and  let  sacrifices  be  made  unto  them  in  times 

of  lightening,  or  at  anie  strange  or  supernaturall 

shew.     Let  all  such  conjecturing  tokens  be 

observed  ;  whatsoever  the  sooth- 

saier  commandeth,  let  it 

be  religicuslie 



I.  Booke. 

The  discove7'ie 



chart  a.  Hen. 
3.  36.  7  l^d.  I. 
15.  Ri.  2  5. 

A  manifest 
of  augurors 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

Colleges  of  angtirors,  their  office,  their  member,  the  signification  of 
augitrie,  that  the  practisers  of  that  art  were  cousetiers,  their 
profession,  their  places  of  exercise,  their  apparrell,  their  supersti- 

lOMULUS  erected  three  colleges  or  centuries  of  those 
kinds  of  soothsaiers,  which  onehe  (and  none  other)  should 
have  authoritie  to  expound  the  minds  and  admonish- 
ments of  the  gods.  Afterwards  that/  number  was  aug- 
mented to  five,  and  after  that  to  nine  :  for  they  must  needs  be  od. 
In  the  end,  they  increased  so  fast,  that  they  were  feine  to  make  a 
decree  for  staie  from  the  further  proceeding  in  those  erections  :  hke 
to  our  statute  of  Mortinaine.  Howbeit,  Silla  (contrarie  to  all  orders 
and  constitutions  before  made)  increased  that  number  to  foure  and 

And  though  Atiguriuni  be  most  properlie  that  divination,  which  is 
gathered  by  birds  ;  yet  bicause  this  word  Nahas  comprehendeth  all 
other  kinds  of  divination,  as  Extispicittm,  artispicium,  &^c :  which  is 
as  well  the  ghessing  upon  the  entrailes  of  beasts,  as  divers  other 
waies  :  omitting  physiognomie  and  palmestrie,  and  such  like,  for  the 
tediousnes  and  follie  thereof;  I  will  speake  a  little  of  such  arts,  as 
were  above  measure  regarded  of  our  elders  :  neither  mind  I  to  dis- 
cover the  whole  circumstance,  but  to  refute  the  vanitie  thereof,  and 
speciallie  of  the  professors  of  them,  which  are  and  alwaies  have  beene 
cousening  arts,  and  in  them  conteined  both  speciall  and  severall 
kinds  of  witchcrafts.  For  the  maisters  of  these  faculties  have  ever 
taken  upon  them  to  occupie  the  place  and  name  of  God  ;  blasphem- 
ouslie  ascribing  unto  themselves  his  omnipotent  power,  to  foretell,  (S:c  : 
whei'eas,  in  truth,  they  could  or  can  doo  nothing,  but  make  a  shew  of 
that  which  is  not. 

One  matter,  to  bewraie  their  cousening,  is  ;  that  they  could  never 
worke  nor  foreshew  anie  thing  to  the  poore  or  inferior  sort  of  people  : 
for  portentous  shewes  (sale  they)  alwaies  concerned  great  estates. 
Such  matters  as  touched  the  baser  sort,  were  inferior  causes  ; 
which  the  superstition  of  the  people  themselves  would  not  neglect 
to  learne.  Howbeit,  the  professors  of  this  art  descended  not  so 
lowe,  as  to  communicate  with  them  :  for  they  were  preests  (which  in 
all  ages  and  nations  have  beene  jollie  fellowes)  whose  office  was,  to 
tell  what  should  come  to  passe,  either  touching  good  lucke,  or  bad 
fortune  ;  to  expound  the  minds,  admonitions,  warnings  and  threat- 

of  Witchcraft.  ciiap.  s.  157 

nings  of  the  gods,  to  foreshew  calamities,  &c  :  which  might  be  (by 
their  sacrifices  and  common  contrition)  remooved  and  qualified.  And 
before  their  entrance  into  that  action,  they  had  manie  observations, 
which  they  executed  verie  superstitiouslie  ;  pretending  that  everie 
bird  and  beast,  &c,  should  be  sent  from  the  gods  as  foreshewes  of 
somewhat.  And/  therefore  first  they  used  to  choose  a  cleare  daie,  and  IQS- 
faire  wether  to  doo  their  busines  in  :  for  the  which  their  place  was 
certeinelie  assigned,  as  well  in  Rome  as  in  Hetruria^  wherein  they 
observed  everie  quarter  of  the  element,  which  waie  to  looke,  and 
which  way  to  stand,  &c.  Their  apparell  was  verie  preestlike,  of  142. 
fashion  altered  from  all  others,  speciallie  at  the  time  of  their  praiers, 
wherein  they  might  not  omit  a  word  nor  a  syllable  :  in  respect 
whereof  one  read  the  service,  and  all  the  residue  repeated  it  after 
him,  in  the  maner  of  a  procession. 

The  seventh  Chapter. 

The  times  atid  seasons  to  exercise  augzcrie,  the  maner  and  order 
thereof^  of  the  ceretnomes  thereunto  belongi7ig. 

I O  lesse  regard  was  there  had  of  the  times  of  their  practise    Note  the 
in  that  ministcrie  :  for  they  must  beginne  at  midnight,    ous'cere-" 
and  end  at  noone,  not  travelling  therein  in  the  decaie  of  monies  of 

1         1  1  •         1       •  r     ■,  ...  augurors. 

the  day,  but  m  the  mcrease  of  the  same  ;  neither  m  the 
si.xt  or  seventh  houre  of  the  daie,  nor  yet  after  the  moneth  of  August; 
bicause  then  yoong  birds  flie  about,  and  are  diseased,  and  unperfect, 
mounting  their  fethers,  and  flieng  out  of  the  countrie  :  so  as  no 
certeine  ghesse  is  to  be  made  of  the  gods  purposes  by  them  at  those 
seasons.  But  in  their  due  times  they  standing  with  a  bowed  wand  in 
their  hand,  their  face  toward  the  east,  &c :  in  the  top  of  an  high 
tower,  the  weather  being  cleare,  watch  for  birds,  noting  from  whence 
they  came,  and  whether  they  flie,  and  in  what  sort  they  wag  their 
wings,  «&c./ 

The  eight  Chapter.  ^^,5 

upon  what  sigties  a7id  tokens  attgitrors  did  prognosticate.,  obser- 
vations tonching  the  inward  and  outward  parts  of  beasts,  with 
notes  of  beasts  behaviour  in  the  slaughterhouse. 

HESE  kind  of  witches,  whom  we  have  now  in  hand,  did 
also  prognosticate  good  or  bad  lucke,  according  to  the 
soundnes  or  imperfection  of  the  entrailes  of  beasts  ;  or 
according  to  the  superfluities  or  infirmities  of  nature  ;  or 
according  to  the  abundance  of  humors  unnecessarie,  appearing  in 
the  inward  parts  and  bowels  of  the  beasts  sacrificed.     For  as  touch- 


II.   Booke. 

The  discovtrie 

ons in  the 
art  auguri- 

ing  the  outward  parts,  it  was  alwaies  provided  and  foreseene,  that 
they  should  be  without  blemish.  And  yet  there  were  manie  tokens 
and  notes  to  be  taken  of  the  externall  actions  of  those  beasts,  at  the 
time  of  sacrifice  :  as  if  they  would  not  quietlie  be  brought  to  the 
place  of  execution,  but  must  be  forceablie  hailed  ;  or  if  they  brake 
loose  ;  or  if  by  hap,  cunning,  or  strength  they  withstood  the  first 
blowe  ;  or  if  after  the  butchers  blowe,  they  leaped  up,  rored,  stood 
fast ;  or  being  fallen,  kicked,  or  would  not  quietlie  die,  or  bled  not 
well;  or  if  anie  ill  newes  had  beene  heard,  or  anie  ill  sight  scene  at 
the  time  of  slaughter  or  sacrifice  :  which  were  all  significations  of  ill 
lucke  and  unhappie  successe.  On  the  other  side,  if  the  slaughterman 
performed  his  office  well,  so  as  the  beast  had  beene  well  chosen,  not 
infected,  but  whole  and  sound,  and  in  the  end  faire  killed  ;  all  had 
beene  safe  :  for  then  the  gods  smiled./ 

Plato  in 
Phcedro,  in 
Titneo,  in 
lib.  de  Re- 

the  papists 
are  more 
blame  wor- 
thie  than 
the  hea- 

148  The  ninth  Chapter. 

A  confutation  of  augurie,  Plato  his  reverend  opinion  thereof,  of 
contrarie  events.,  a7id  false  predictions. 

iUT  what  credit  is  to  be  attributed  to  such  toies  and 
chances,  which  grow  not  of  nature,  but  are  gathered  by 
the  superstition  of  the  interpreters?  As  for  birds,  who  is 
so  ignorant  that  conceiveth  not,  that/  one  flieth  one  waie, 
another  another  waie,  about  their  privat  necessities?  And  yet  are  the 
other  divinations  more  vaine  and  foolish.  Howbeit,  Plato  thinketh 
a  commonwealth  cannot  stand  without  this  art,  and  numbereth  it 
among  the  liberall  sciences.  These  fellowes  promised  Pompeie, 
Cassius,  and  Ccesar,  that  none  of  them  should  die  before  they  were 
old,  and  that  in  their  ovvne  houses,  and  in  great  honor  ;  and  yet  they 
all  died  cleane  contrarilie.  Howbeit  doubtles,  the  heathen  in  this 
point  were  not  so  much  to  be  blamed,  as  the  sacrificing  papists  :  for 
they  were  directed  hereunto  without  the  knowledge  of  Gods  promises  ; 
neither  knew  they  the  end  why  such  ceremonies  and  sacrifices  were 
instituted  ;  but  onelie  understood  by  an  uncerteine  and  slender  re- 
port, that  God  was  woont  to  send  good  or  ill  successe  to  the  children 
of  Israeli,  and  to  the  old  patriarchs  and  fathers,  upon  his  acceptance 
or  disallowance  of  their  sacrifices  and  oblations.  But  men  in  all  ages 
have  beene  so  desirous  to  know  the  effect  of  their  purposes,  the 
sequele  of  things  to  come,  and  to  see  the  end  of  their  feare  and 
hope ;  that  a  seelie  witch,  which  had  learned  anie  thing  in  the  art  of 
cousenage,  may  make  a  great  manie  jollie  fooles. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap,  10. 


The  tenth  Chapter. 

The  cousening  art  of  sortilege  or  lotarie,  practised  especiallie  by  Aegyp- 
iia)i  vagabonds,  0/ allowed  tots,  0/  Pythagoras  his  lot,  &^c. 

HE  counterfeit  Aegyptians,  which  were  indeed  cousening 
vagabonds,  practising  the  art  called  Sortilegitan,  had  no 
small  credit  among  the  multitude  :  howbeit,  their  divi- 
nations were  as  was  their  fast  and  loose,  and  as  the 
witches  cures  and  hurtes,  &  as  the  soothsaiers  answers,  and  as  the 
conjurors  raisings  up  of  spirits,  and  as  Apollos  or  the  Rood  of  graces 
oracles,  and  as  the  jugglers  knacks  of  legierdemaine,  and  as  the 
papists  exorcismes,  and  as  the  witches  charmes,  and  as  the  counter- 
feit visions,  and  as  the  couseners  knaveries.  Hereupon  it  was  said  ; 
No7i  i7ivelniatHr  ititer  vos  7iienahas,  that  is  Sortilegus,  which  were  like 
to  these  Aegyptian  couseners.  As  for  other  lots,  they  were  used,  and 
that  lawfuUie  ;  as  appeareth  hy  Jonas  a.nd.  others  that  were  holie  men, 
and  as  may  be  seene  among  all  commonwelths,  for  the  deciding  of 
diverse  controversies,  &c  ;  wherein  thy  neighbour  is  not  misused,  nor 
God  anie  waie  offended.  But  in  truth  1  thinke,  bicause  of  the  cou- 
senage  that  so  easilie  may  be  used  herein,/  God  forbad  it  in  the 
commonwealth  of  the  Jewes,  though  in  the  good  use  thereof  it  was 
allowed  in  matters  of  great  weight ;  as  appeareth  both  in  the  old  and 
new  testament ;  and  that  as  well  in  doubtfull  cases  and  distributions, 
as  in  elections  and  inheritances,  and  pacification  of  variances.  I  omit 
to  speake  anie  thing  of  the  lots  comprised  in  verses,  concerning  the 
lucke  ensuing,  either  of  Virgil,  Homer,  or  anie  other,  wherein  fortune 
is  gathered  by  the  sudden  turning  unto  them  :  bicause  it  is  a  childish 
and  ridiculous  toie,  and  like  unto  childrens  plaie  at  Priimcs  seamdus, 
or  the  game  called  The  philosophers  table  :  but  herein  I  will  referre 
you  to  the  bable  it  selfe,  or  else  to  Bodin,  or  to  some  such  sober  writer 
thereupon;  of  whome  there  is  no  want. 

There  is  a  lot  also  called  Pythagoras  lot,  which  (some  saie)  Ari- 
stotle beleeved  :  and  that   is,   where  the  characters  of  letters  have 
certeine  proper  numbers  ;  whereby  they  divine  (through  the  proper 
names  of  men)  so  as  the  numbers  of  each  letters  being  gathered  in 
a  summe,  and  put  togither,  give  victorie  to  them  whose  summe  is 
the  greater  ;  whether  the  question  be  of  warre,  life,  matri- 
monie,  viclorie,  &c  :  even   as  the  unequall  number  of 
vowels  in   proper  names  portendeth  lacke  of  sight, 
halting,  &c  :    which  the   godfathers  and   god- 
mothers  might   easilie  prevent,    if  the 
f"asc    stood  so. 

or  lotshare. 



Levit.  16. 
Num.  33. 
Josu.  14. 
I.  Chron.  24 
&  26. 
P  rover.  i8. 
Jonas.  I. 
Acts.  I. 

Of  Pytha- 
goras lot. 


II    Booke. 

The  discoverie 

The  art 
call  divi- 

C.  A  grip  pa 
lib.  de  vanit. 

The  blas- 
phemie  of 
the  Caba- 


The  eleventh  Chapter. 

Of  the  Cabalisticall  art,  consistin_^  of  traditions  and  unwritten  veri- 
ties learned  ivithout  booke,  and  of  the  division  thereof 

ERE  is  place  also  for  the  Cabalisticall  art,  consisting 
of  unwritten  verities,  which  the  Jewes  doo  beleeve  and 
brag  that  God  himselfe   gave   to   Moses   in  the   mount 

igg.  'iKiHThfjJmpSHJ  Sinai  ;  and  afterwards  was  taught/  onelie  with  livelie 
voice,  by  degrees  of  succession,  without  writing,  untill  the  time 
of  Esdras  :  even  as  the  scholers  of  Archippus  did  use  wit  and 
memorie  in  steed  of  bookes.  They  divide  this  in  twaine  ;  the  one 
expoundeth  with  philosophicall  reason  the  secrets  of  the  lawe  and 
the  bible,  wherein  (they  saie)  that  Salomon  was  verie  cunning ; 
bicause  it  is  written  in  the  Hebrew  stories,  that  he  disputed  from  the 
Cedar  of  Liban!es,e.vQr\.  to  the  Hisop,  and  also  of  birds,  beasts,  &c. 
The  other  is  as  it  were  a  symbolicall  divinitie  of  the  highest  contem- 
plation, of  the  divine  and  angelike  vertues,  of  holie  names  and 
signes  ;  wherein  the  letters,  numbers,  figures,  things  and  armes,  the 
prickes  over  the  letters,  the  lines,  the  points,  and  the  accents  doo  all 
signifie  verie  profound  things  and  great  secrets.  By  these  arts  the 
Atheists  suppose  Moses  wrote  all  his  miracles,  and  that  hereby 
they  have  power  over  angels  and  divels,  as  also  to  doo  miracles  :  yea 
and  that  hereby  all  the  miracles  that  either  anie  of  the  prophets,  or 
Christ  himselfe  wrought,  were  accomplished. 

But  C.  Agrippa  having  searched  to  the  bottome  of  this  art,  saith  it 
is  nothing  but  superstition  and  foUie.  Otherwise  you  male  be  sure 
Christ  would  not  have  hidden  it  from  his  church.     For  this  cause  the 

145.  Jewes/  were  so  skilfull  in  the  names  of  God.  But  there  is  none  other 
name  in  heaven  or  earth,  in  which  we  might  be  saved,  but  Jesus  : 
neither  is  that  meant  by  his  bare  name,  but  by  his  vertue  and  good- 
nes  towards  us.  These  Cabalists  doo  further  brag,  that  they  are  able 
hereby,  not  onelie  to  find  out  and  know  the  unspeakeable  mysteries  of 
God  ;  but  also  the  secrets  which  are  above  scripture  ;  whereby  also 
they  take  upon  them  to  prophesie,  and  to  worke  miracles  :  yea  hereby 
they  can  make  what  they  list  to  be  scripture  ;  as  Valeria  Proba  did 
picke  certeine  verses  out  of  Virgil  alluding  them  to  Christ.  And 
therefore  these  their  revolutions  are  nothing  but  allegoricall  games, 
which  idle  men  busied  in  letters,  points,  and  numbers  (which  the 
Hebrew  toong  easilie  suffereth)  devise,  to  delude  and  cousen  the 
simple  and  ignorant.  And  this  they  call  Alphabetarie  or  Arythman- 
ticall  divinitie,  which  Christ  shewed  to  his  apostles  onelie,  and  which 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  u  i6i 

Paule  saith  he  speaketh  but  among  perfect  men  ;  and  being  high 
mysteries   are  not  to   be  committed   unto    writing,   and    so    made 
popular.     There  is  no  man  that  readeth  anie  thing  of  /  this  Cabalis-    200. 
ticall  art,  but  must  needs  think  upon  the  popes  cunning  practises  in 
this  behalfe,  who  hath  /;/  scrinio  pectoris,  not  onelie  the  exposition  of  /«  condl. 
all  lawes,  both  divine  and  humane,  but  also  authoritie  to  adde  there- 
unto, or  to  drawe  backe  therefrom  at  his  pleasure  :  and  this  may  he 
lavvfuUie  doo  even  with  the  scriptures,  either  by  addition  or  substrac- 
tion,  after  his  owne  pontificall  liking.   As  for  example  :  he  hath  added 
the  Apocrypha  (whereunto  he  might  as  well  have  joined  S.  Atigtistines    [Cof  Trent  1550] 
works,  or  the  course  of  the  civill  lawe,  &c  :)     Againe,  he  hath  dimin- 
ished from  the  decalog  or  ten  conimandements,  not  one  or  two  words, 
but  a  whole  precept,  namelie  the  second,  which  it  hath  pleased  him 
to  dash  out  with  his  pen  :  and  trulie  he  might  as  well  by  the  same 
authoritie  have  rased  out  of  the  testament  S.  Markes  gospell. 

The    twelfe    Chapter. 

When,  how,  and  in  what  sort  sacrifices  were  first  ordained,  and 
how  they  were  propha7ied,  and  how  the  pope  corriipieth  the 
sacraments  of  Christ. 

liT  the  first  God  manifested  to  our  father  Adatn,  by  the    Gen.  2. 17. 
prohibition  of  the  apple,  that  he  would  have  man  live 
under    a    lawe,     in     obedience    and    submission  ;    and 
not  to  wander    like   a   beast    without   order   or   discip- 
line.    And  after  man  had  transgressed,  and  deserved  thereby  Gods    Gen.  3.  6. 
heavie  displeasure  ;  yet  his  mercie  prevailed  ;  and  taking  compassion    Gen.  3.  15. 
upon  man,  he  promised  the   Messias,   who  should   be   borne  of  a 
woman,  and  breake  the  serpents  head  :  declaring  by  evident  testi- 
monies, that  his  pleasure  was  that  man  should  be  restored  to  favour 
and  grace,  through   Christ  :  and  binding  the  minds  of  men  to  this 
promise,  and  to  be  fixed  upon  their  Messias,  established  figures  and 
ceremonies  wherewith  to  nourish  their  faith,  and  confirmed  the  same 
with  miracles,  prohibiting  and  excluding  all  mans  devises  in  that 
behalfe.     And  upon  his  promise  renewed,  he  injoined  (I  say)  and    ^^^"-  '-•  3- 
erected  a  new  forme  of  worship,  whereby/  he  would  have  his  promises    146. 
constantlie  beheld,  faithfullie  beleeved,  and  reverentlie  regarded.     He 
or  deined  six  sorts  of  divine  sacrifices  ;  three  propitiatorie,  not  as    201. 
meriting  remission  of  sinnes,  but  as  figures  of  Christs  propitiation  : 
the  other  three  were  of  thanksgiving.     These  sacrifices  were  full  of 
ceremonies,  they  were  powdered  with  consecrated  salt,  and  kindled 



II.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

A  gird  at 
the  pope 
for  his  saw- 
cinesse  in 
Gods  mat- 

with  fier,  which  was  preserved  in  the  tabernacle  of  the  Lord  :  which 
fier  (some  thinke)  was  sent  downe  from  heaven.  GOD  himselfe 
commanded  these  rites  and  ceremonies  to  our  forefathers,  Noah, 
Abraham,  Isaac,  Jacob,  &c  :  promising  therein  both  the  ampHfica- 
tion  of  their  families,  and  also  their  Messias.  But  in  tract  of  time 
(I  saie)  wantonnesse,  negligence,  and  contempt,  through  the  instiga- 
tion of  the  divell,  abolished  this  institution  of  GOD  :  so  as  in  the 
end,  God  himselfe  was  forgotten  among  them,  and  they  became 
pagans  &  heathens,  devising  their  owne  waies,  untill  everie  countrie 
had  devised  and  erected  both  new  sacrifices,  and  also  new  gods  par- 
ticular unto  themselves.  Whose  example  the  pope  foUoweth,  in 
prophaning  of  Christs  sacraments,  disguising  them  with  his  devises 
and  superstitious  ceremonies  ;  contriving  and  comprehending  therein 
the  follie  of  all  nations  :  the  which  bicause  little  children  doo  now 
perceive  and  scorne,  I  will  passe  over  ;  and  returne  to  the  Gentiles, 
whome  I  cannot  excuse  of  cousenage,  superstition,  nor  yet  of  vanitie 
in  this  behalfe.  For  if  God  suffered  false  prophets  among  the 
children  of  Israeli,  being  Gods  peculiar  people,  and  hypocrits  in  the 
church  of  Christ  ;  no  marvell  if  there  were  such  people  amongst  the 
heathen,  which  neither  professed  nor  knew  him. 

The  xiii.  Chapter. 

riin.  lib.  na- 
il.'ra  I.  Iiisi. 
10.  cap.  6. 

0/  the  objects  wherenpon   the  aui^arors  used  to  prognosticate,  with 
certeine  cautions  and  notes. 

FIE  Gentiles,  which  treat  of  this  matter,  repeat  an 
innumerable  multitude  of  objects,  whereupon  they  prog- 
nosticate good  or  bad  lucke.  And  a  great  matter  is 
made  of  neezing,  wherein  the  number  of  neezings  &  the 
time  therof  is  greatlie  noted  ;  the  tingling  in  the  finger,  the  elbowe, 
the  toe,  the  knee,  &c  :  are  singular  notes  also  to  be  observed  in  this 
art  ;  though  speciallie  heerin  are  marked  the  flieng  of  fovvles,  and 
meeting  of  beasts  ;  with  this  generall  caution,  that  the  object  or 
matter  whereon  men  divine,  must  be  sudden  and  unlooked  for  :  which 
regard,  children  and  some  old  fooles  have  to  the  gathering  primrose, 
true  loves,  and  foure  leaved  grasse  ;  Item  the  person  unto  whome 
such  an  object  offereth  it  selfe  unawares  ;  Item- the  intention  of  the 
divinor,  whereby  the  object  which  is  met,  is  referred  to  augurie  ;  Item 
the  houre  in  which  the  object  is  without  foreknowledge  upon  the 
sudden  met  withall  ;  and  so  foorth. 

Plinic  reporteth  that  griphes  flie  alwaies  to  the  place  of  slaughter, 

of  IVitchcraft. 

Cli.qi.   14. 


two  or  three  daies  before  the  battell  is  fought  ;  which  was  seene  and 
tried  at  the  battell  of  Troie  :  and  in  respect  thereof,  the  griph  was 
allowed  to/  be  the  cheefe  bird  of  augurie.  But  among  the  innumer- 
able number  of  the  portentous  beasts,  fowles,  serpents,  and  other 
creatures,  the  tode  is  the  most  excellent  object,  whose  ouglie  deformitie 
signifieth  sweete  and  amiable  fortune  :  in  respect  whereof  some  super- 
stitious witches  preserve  todes  for  their  familiars.  And  some  one  of 
good  credit  (whome  I  could  name)  having  conventcd  the  witches 
themselves,  hath  starved  diverse  of  their  divels,  which  they  kept  in 
boxes  in  the  likenesse  of  todes. 

Pheiarch  CJiironccits  saith,  that  the  place  and  site  of  the  signes 
that  we  receive  by  augurie,  are  speciallie  to  be  noted  :  for  if  we 
receive  them  on  the  left  side,  good  lucke  ;  if  on  the  right  side,  ill 
lucke  insueth  :  bicause  terrene  and  mortall  things  are  opposite  &  con- 
trarie  to  divine  and  heavenlie  things  ;  for  that  which  the  gods 
deliver  with  the  right  hand,  falleth  to  our  left  side  ;  and  so  contrari- 


An'st.  in  au- 

dulelh  l)y 
Iiis  k-avc, 
i'l.r  all  his 

The   xiiii.    Chapter. 

The  division  of  aUi^Krie,  persons  adinittable  into  the  colleges 
of  augtirie,  of  their  superstition. 

I  HE  latter  divinors  in  these  mysteries,  have  divided  their 
soothsaiengs  into  twelve  superstitions  :  as  Augustiniis 
NipJins  termeth  them.  The  first  is  prosperitie  ;  the 
second,  ill  lucke,  as  when  one  goeth/  out  of  his  house,  and 
seeth  an  unluckie  beast  heng  on  the  right  side  of  his  waie  ;  the  third 
is  destinie  ;  the  fourth  is  fortune  ;  the  fift  is  ill  hap,  as  when  an  in- 
fortunate  beast  feedeth  on  the  right  side  of  your  waie  ;  the  sixt  is 
utilitie  ;  the  seventh  is  hurt  ;  the  eight  is  called  a  cautell,  as  when  a 
beast  followeth  one,  and  staieth  at  any  side,  not  passing  beyond  him, 
which  is  a  signe  of  good  lucke  ;  the  ninth  is  infelicitie,  and  that  is 
contrarie  to  the  eight,  as  when  the  beast  passeth  before  one  ;  the 
tenth  is  perfection  ;  the  eleventh  is  imperfection  ;  the  twelfe  is  con- 
clusiin.*     Thus  farre  he. 

Among  the  Romans  none  could  be  received  into  the  college  of 
augurors  that  had  a  bile,  or  had  beene  bitten  with  a  dog,  &c  :  and  at 
the  times  of  their  exercise,  even  at  noone  daies,  they  lighted  candels. 
From  whence  the  papists  conveie  unto  their  church,  those  points  of 
infidelitie.  Finallie,  their  observations  were  so  infinite  and  ridiculous, 
that  there  flew  not  a  sparkle  out  of  the  fier,  but  it  betokened  some- 

All!:!,.  Niphus 
de  aicguriisy 
lih.  I. 

\y  read, — sion] 

Whn  were 
not  admit- 
table  into 
the  college 
of  augurors 
among  the 


II.  Dooke. 

The  discoverie 

O  vaine 
follic  and 
foolish  va- 
nitic  ! 

[•  read,  witch—] 

['n-«(/,— kie] 
[»  read,  his]  20  4 
Aries  in  t- 

tract,  de  su- 
perst.  contra 
Apfian.  de 
bello  civili. 
[■'  read,— ^c/a.] 

call  toies. 

The    XV.    Chapter. 

Of  the  common  peoples  fond  and  stiperstitiotis  colkctioiis  and 

MONGST  us  there  be  manic  women,  and  effeminat  men 
(marie  papists  alwaies,  as  by  their  superstition  may 
appeere)  that  make  great  divinations  upon  the  shedding 
of  salt,  wine,  &c  :  and  for  the  observation  of  daies,  and 
houres  use  as  great  *withcraft  as  in  anie  thing.  For  if  one/  chance  to 
take  a  fall  from  a  horsse,  either  in  a  slipperie  or  stumbling  waie,  he  will 
note  the  dale  and  houre,  and  count  that  time  unluckch*  for  a  journie. 
Otherwise,  he  that  receiveth  a  mischance,  wil  consider  whether  he 
met  not  a  cat,  or  a  hare,  when  he  went  first  out  of  hfr*  doores  in  the 
morning  ;  or  stumbled  not  at  the  threshhold  at  his  going  out  ;  or  put 
not  on  his  shirt  the  wrong  side  outwards  ;  or  his  left  shoo  on  his 
right  foote,  which  Attgiistiis  Casar  reputed  for  the  woorst  lucke  that 
mi.uht  befall.  But  above  all  other  nations  (as  Martintis  de  Aries 
wit/nesseth)  the  Spaniards  are  most  superstitious  herein  ;  &  of 
Spaine,  the  people  of  the  province  of  Lnsitania  is  the  most  fond. 
For  one  will  sale  ;  I  had  a  dreame  to  night,  or  a  crowe  croked  upon 
my  house,  or  an  owle  flew  by  me  and  screeched  (which  augurie 
Lncius  Silla  tooke  of  his  death)  or  a  cocke  crew  contrarie  to  his 
houre.  Another  saith  ;  The  moone  is  at  the  prime  ;  another,  that  the 
sun  rose  in  a  cloud  and  looked  pale,  or  a  starre  shot  and  shined  in 
the  aire,  or  a  strange  cat  came  into  the  house,  or  a  hen  fell  from  the 
top  of  the  house. 

Many  will  go  to  bed  againe,  if  they  neeze  before  their  shooes  be  on 
their  feet  ;  some  will  hold  fast  their  left  thombe  in  their  right  hand 
when  they  hickot ;  or  else  will  hold  their  chinne  with  their  right  hand 
whiles  a  gospell  is  soong.  It  is  thought  verie  ill  lucke  of  some,  that 
a  child,  or  anie  other  living  creature,  should  passe  betweene  two 
friends  as  they  walke  togither;  for  they  say  it  portendeth  a  division 
of  freendship.  Among  the  papists  themselves,  if  any  hunters,  as  they 
were  a  hunting,  chanced  to  meet  a  frier  or  a  preest ;  they  thought  it 
so  ill  lucke,  as  they  would  couple  up  their  hounds,  and  go  home, 
being  in  despaire  of  any  further  sport  that  daie.  Marrie  if  they  had 
used  venerie  with  abegger,  they  should  win  all  the  monie  they  plaied 
for  that  daie  at  dice.  The  like  follie  is  to  be  imputed  unto  them,  that 
observe  (as  true  or  probable)  old  verses,  wherein  can  be  no  reasonable 
cause  of  such  effects  ;  which  are  brought  to  passe  onlie  by  Gods 
power,  and  at  his  pleasure.     Of  this  sort  be  these  that  follow  : 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  1 6. 


Vincenti  fesio  si  sol  radiet  vtemor  esto, 

Remember  on  S.  Vincents  daie, 

If  that  the  sunne  his  beames  displaie. 

Clara  dies  Pauli  bona  tempora  denotat  anni^ 
If  Paule  th'' apostles  daie  be  cleare, 
It  dooth  foreshew  a  liickie  yeare. 

Si  sol  splendescat  Maria  purifcante, 

Major  erit  glacies  post  festwn  quciiii  fuit  ante,  II 

If  Maries  purifieng  daie. 

Be  cleare  and  bright  with  sttnnie  raie, 

Then  frost  and  cold  shalbe  much  more. 

After  the  feast  tJian  was  before. 
Serb  rtibens  ccelum  eras  indicat  esse  seremcm, 
Si  fnane  rubescit,  ventus  vel  phivia  crescit. 

The  skie  being  red  at  evening, 
Forcshewes  a  faire  and  cleare  morning; 
But  if  the  mof-ning  riseth  red, 
Of  wind  or  raine  we  shalbe  sped. 

Some  sticke  a  needle  or  a  buckle  into  a  certeine  tree,  neere  to  the 
cathedrall  church  of  S.  Christopher,  or  of  some  other  saint  ;  hoping 
thereby  to  be  dehvered  that  yeare  from  the  headach.  Item  maids 
forsooth  hang  some  of  their  haire  before  the  image  of  S.  Urbane, 
bicause  they  would  have  the  rest  of  their  haire  grow  long  and  be 
yellow.  Item,  women  with  child  runne  to  church,  and  tie  their  girdles 
or  shoo  latchets  about  a  bell,  and  strike  upon  the  same  thrise,  think- 
ing that  the  sound  thereof  hasteth  their  good  deliverie.  But  sithence 
these  things  beginne  to  touch  the  vanities  and  superstitions  of  incan- 
tations, I  will  referre  you  thither,  where  you  shall  see  of  that  stuffe 
abundance  ;  beginning  at  the  word  Habar. 

Englished  by 



By  Ah.  Fle- 

203.     149. 

By  Ab.  Fle- 

By  A  b.  Fle- 

Seeke  more 
hereof  in 
the  word 

The   xvi.    Chapter. 

How  old  writers  varie  about  the  matter,  the  maner  and  the  meaftes, 
whereby  things  augurifcall  are  mooved. 

[HEOPHRASTUS  and  Themistius  affirme,  that  whatso- 
ever happeneth  unto  man  suddenlie  and  by  chance, 
commeth  from  the  providence  of  God.  So  as  Themistius 
gathereth,  that  men  in  that  respect/  prophesie,  when  they  206. 
speake  what  commeth  in  their  braine,  upon  the  sudden  ;  though  not 
knowing  or  understanding  what  they  saie.    And  that  seeing  God  hath 

1 66 

II    Booke. 

The  discoverie 

Avcvroes.  12.  ^  Care  for  us,  it  agreeth  with  reason  (as  TheopJu^astus  saith)  tliat  he 

vidiithysu.  shew  US  by  some  meane  whatsoever  shall  happen.     For  with  Pytha- 

goras he  concludeth,  that  all  foreshewcs  and  auguries  are  the  voices 
and  words  of  God,  by  the  which  he  foretelleth  man  the  good  or  evill 
that  shall  beetide. 

Trisniegistits  affirmeth,  that  all  augurificall  things  are  mooved  by 
divels  ;  Porpliyrie  saith  by  gods,  or  rather  good  angels  :  according  to 
the  opinion  of  Plotimis  and  laiiib/ichus.  Some  other  affirme  they 
are  mooved  by  the  moone  wandering  through  the  twelve  signes  of 
the  Zodiake  :  bicause  the  moone  hath  dominion  in  all  sudden 
matters.  The  Aegyptian  astronomers  hold,  that  the  moone  order- 
eth  not  those  portentous  matters,  but  Stella  errans,  a  wandering 
starre,  &c./ 

150.  The    xvii.    Chapter. 

Hotu  ridiculous  an  art  attgurie  is,  how  Cato  mocked  it,  Arista  ties 
reasoti  against  it,  fond  collections  of  augurors,  who  allowed,  and 
who  disallowed  it. 

iERELIE  all  these  observations  being  neither  grounded 

on  Gods  word,  nor  physicall  or  philosophical!  reason,  are 

vanities,   superstitions,   lies,  and   meere  witchcraft ;    as 

whereby  the  world  hath    long  time   beene,  and  is  still 

abused  and  cousened.     It  is  written  ;  Non  est  vestrum  scire  tempora 

6^  momenta,  &r^c :  It  is  not  for  you  to  knowe  the  times  and  seasons, 

which  the  father  hath  put  in  his  owne  power.     The  most  godlie  men 

and   the   wisest    philosophers    have  given  no   credit   hereunto.      S. 

Augustifie  saith  ;  Qui  his  divinationibtis  credit,  sciat  sefideni  christi- 

anavi  &^  baptismum  pravaricassc,  &^  paganum  Deiq;  ini7nicJtm  esse. 

One  told  Cato,  that  a  rat  had  carried  awaie  and  eaten  his  hose,  which 

the  partie  said  was  a  woonderfull  signe.    Naie  (said  Cato)  I  thinke  not 

so ;  but  if  the  hose  had  eaten  the  rat,  that  had  beene  a  wonderfull 

20"/.    token  indeed.    When/  Nonius  told  Cicero  that  they  should  have  good 

successe  in  battell,  bicause  seven  eagles  were   taken   in   Ponipeies 

campe,  he  answered  thus  ;  No  doubt  it  will  be  even  so,  if  that  we 

chance  to  fight  with  pies.   In  the  like  case  also  he  answered  Labienzis, 

who    prophesied    like    successe   by    such    divinations,    saieng,   that 

through  the  hope  of  such  toies,  Pompcic  lost  all  his  pavillions  not  long 


What  wiseman  would  thinke,  that  God  would  commit  his  counsell 
to  a  dawe,  an  owle,  a  swine,  or  a  tode  ;  or  that  he  would  hide  his 
secret  purposes  in  the  doong  and  bowels  of  beasts  ?  Aristotle  thus 
reasoneth  ;  Augurie  or  divinations  are  neither  the  causes  nor  effects 

The  fond 
art  of  augu- 
rie convin- 

Acts.  I,  7. 

Arist.  de 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  ib.  167 

of  things  to  come  ;  Ergo,  they  doo  not  thereby  foretell  things  trulie, 
but  by  chance.  As  if  I  dreame  that  my  freend  will  come  to  my 
house,  and  he  commeth  indeed  :  yet  neither  dreame  nor  imagination 
is  more  the  cause  of  my  freends  comming,  than  the  chattering  of 
a  pie. 

When  Haiiibnl  overthrew  Marcus  Marcellus,  the  beast  sacrificed 
wanted   a  peece  of  his  hart  ;  therefore   forsooth  Afarius,  when   he 
sacrificed  at  Utica,  and  the  beast  lacked  his  liver,  he  must  needs  have 
the  like  successe.     These  are  their  collections,  and  as  vaine,  as  if 
they  said  that  the  building  of  Tenderden  steeple  was  the  cause  of 
Coodwine  sands,  or  the  decaie  of  Sa7idivicJi  haven.     6".  Augustine  August,  lib. 
saith,  that  these  observations  are  most  superstitious.     But  we  read  in    j.'^af.'L  "' 
the  fourth  psalme,  a  sentence  which  might  dissuade  anie  christian    Psai  4,  '• 
from  this  follie  and  impietie  ;  O  ye  sonnes  of  men,  how  long  will  you 
turne  my  gloria  into  shame,  loving  vanitie,  and  seeking  lies.''     The 
like  is  read  in  manie  other  places  of  scripture. 

Of  such  as  allow  this  follie,  I  can  commend  Plinie  best,  who  saith,   FUn.  lib.  na- 
that  the  operation  of  these  auguries  is  as  we  take  them.     For  if  we    28. 'i:<z/>.  2.  ' 
take  them  in  good  part,  they  are  signes  of  good  lucke  ;  if  we  take    '\ib\il\\'l.]]l 
them  in  ill  part,  ill  lucke/  followeth  ;  if  we  neglect  them,  and  wey    151. 
them  not,  they  doo  neither  good  nor  harme.     Thomas  of  AquiJie 
reasoneth  in  this  wise  ;  The  starres,  whose  course  is  certeine,  have 
greater  affinitie  and  communitie  with  mans  actions,  than  auguries  ; 
and  yet  our  dooings  are  neither  directed  nor  proceed  from  the  starres. 
Which  thing  also  Ptolome  witnesseth,  saieng  ;  Sapiens  dominabitur 
asU'is^  A  Wiseman  overruleth  the  starres./ 

The    18.    Chapter.  208 

Fond  disti7ictiGns  of  the  heatlieii  writers,  concerning  augurie. 

|HE  heathen  made  a  distinction  betweene  divine,  naturall, 
and  casuall  auguries.  Divine  auguries  were  such,  as 
men  were  made  beleeve  were  done  miraculouslie,  as 
when  dogs  spake  ;  as  at  the  expulsion  of  Tarquinius  out  q  Epidius. 
of  his  kingdome  ;  or  when  trees  spake,  as  before  the  death  of  Ccesar  ;  Homer.  lU- 
or  when  horsses  spake,  as  did  a  horsse,  whose  name  was  Zaiithus. 
Manie  learned  christians  confesse,  that  such  things  as  may  indeed 
have  divine  cause,  may  be  called  divine  auguries  ;  or  rather  fore- 
warnings  of  God,  and  tokens  either  of  his  blessings  or  discontentation  : 
as  the  starre  was  a  token  of  a  safe  passage  to  the  magicians  that 
sought  Christ  ;  so  was  the  cockcrowing  an  augurie  to  Peter  for  his 
conversion.  And  manie  such  other  divinations  or  auguries  (if  it  be 
lawfull  so  to  tcrme  them)  are  in  the  scriptures  to  be  found. 

ad.  19. 

1 68 

11.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

The    19.    Chapter. 


Of  iiaiiirall  and  castiall  miguric^  the  one  allowed,  and  the  other 

ATURALL  augurie  is  a  physicall  or  philosophical!  obser- 
vation ;  bicause  humane  and  naturall  reason  may  be 
yeelded  for  such  events  :  as  if  one  heare  the  cocke  crow 
aj  manie  times  together,  a  man  may  ghesse  that  raine  will 
follovve  shortlie  ;  as  by  the  crieng  of  rooks,  and  by  their  extraordi- 
narie  using  of  their  wings  in  their  flight,  bicause  through  a  naturall 
instinct,  provoked  by  the  impression  of  the  heavenlie  bodies,  they 
are  mooved  to  know  the/  times,  according  to  the  disposition  of  the 
weather,  as  it  is  necessarie  for  their  natures.  And  therefore  Jeremie 
saith  ;  Milviis  in  ccelo  cogtiovit  tenipus  sinon.  The  physician  may 
argue  a  strength  towards  in  his  patient,  when  he  heareth  him  neeze 
twise,  which  is  a  naturall  cause  to  judge  by,  and  conjecture  upon. 
But  sure  it  is  meere  casuall,  and  also  verie  foolish  and  incredible,  that 
by  two  neezings,  a  man  should  be  sure  of  good  lucke  or  successe  in 
his  businesse  ;  or  by  meeting  of  a  tode,  a  man  should  escape  a 
danger,  or  atchieve  an  enterprise,  &c./ 


The   XX.   Chapter. 

The  vani- 
tie  of  casu- 
all augurie. 

A  confutation  of  castiall  aitgurie  which  is  nieere  witchcraft,  and  upon 
what  uncertaintie  those  diviiiations  are  grounded. 

JHAT  imagination  worketh  in  man  or  woman,  many 
leaves  would  not  comprehend  ;  for  as  the  qualities 
thereof  are  strange,  and  almost  incredible,  so  would  the 
discourse  thereof  be  long  and  tedious,  wherof  I  had 
occasion  to  speake  elsewhere.  But  the  power  of  our  imagination 
extendeth  not  to  beasts,  nor  reacheth  to  birds,  and  therefore  perteineth 
not  hereunto.  Neither  can  the  chance  for  the  right  or  left  side  be 
good  or  bad  lucke  in  it  selfe.  Why  should  any  occurrent  or  augurie 
be  good  ?  Bicause  it  commeth  out  of  that  part  of  the  heavens,  where 
the  good  or  beneficiall  stars  are  placed  1  By  that  reason,  all  things 
should  be  good  and  happie  that  live  on  that  side  ;  but  we  see  the 
contrarie  experience,  and  as  commonlie  as  that. 

The  like  absurditie  and  error  is  in  them  that  credit  those  divina- 
tions ;  bicause  the  starres,  over  the  ninth  house  have  dominion  at  the 
time  of  augurie.  If  it  should  betoken  good  lucke,  joy  or  gladnesse,  to 
heare  a  noise  in  the  house,  when  the  moone  is  in  Aries :  and  contrari- 

of   II  Ifchci'aft. 

Ch^p.  2\. 


wise,  if  it  be  a  signe  of  ill  lucke,  sorrowe,  or  greefe  for  a  beast  to 

come  into  the  house,  the  moone  being  in  the  same  signe  :  here  might 

be  found  a  fowle  error  and   contrarietie./     And  forsomuch  as  both    210. 

may  happen  at  once,  the  rule  must  needs  be  false  and  ridiculous. 

And  if  there  were  any  certeine  rules  or  notes  to  be  gathered  in  these 

divinations  ;  the  abuse  therein  is  such,  as  the  word  of  God  must  needs 

be  verefied  therein  ;  to  wit,  I  will  destroie  the  tokens  of  soothsaiers,   isai.  44, 25. 

and  make  them  that  conjecture,  fooles. 

The    xxi.    Chapter, 

That  figure-casters  are  witches,  the  uncerteintie  of  their  art,  and  of 
their  contradictions,  Cornelius  Agrippas  sentence  against  judiciall 

HESE  casters  of  figures  may  bee  numbred  among  the 
cousening  witches,  whose  practise  is  above  their  reach, 
their  purpose  to  gaine,  their  knowledge  stolne  from  poets, 
their  art  uncerteine  &  full  of  vanitie,  more  plainly  derided 
in  the  scriptures,  than  any  other  follie.  And  thereupon  many  other 
trifling  vanities  are  rooted  and  grounded  ;  as  physiognomic,  palmes- 
trie,  interpreting  of  dreames,  monsters,  auguries,  &c  ;  the  professors 
whereof  confesse  this  to  be  the  necessarie  key  to  open  the  knowledge  of 
all  their  secrets.  For  these  fellowes  erect  a  figure  of  the  heavens,  bj 
the  exposition  whereof  (togither  with  the  conjectures  of  similitudes 
and  signes)  they  seeke  to  find  out  the  meaning  of  the  significators, 
attributing  to  them  the  ends  of  all  things,  contrarie  to  truth,  reason, 
and  divinitie  :  their  rules  being  so  inconstant,  that  few  writers  agree 
in/  the  verie  principles  therof.  For  the  Rabbins,  the  old  and  new 
writers,  and  the  verie  best  philosophers  dissent  in  the  cheefe  grounds 
thereof,  differing  in  the  proprietie  of  the  houses,  whereout  they  wring 
the  foretelling  of  things  to  come,  contending  even  about  the  number 
of  spheres,  being  not  yet  resolved  how  to  erect  the  beginnings  and 
endes  of  the  houses  :  for  Ptolomie  maketh  them  after  one  sort,  Cani- 
patius  after  another,  &c. 

And  as  Alpetragus  thinketh,  that  there  be  in  the  heavens/ 
diverse  movings  as  yet  to  men  unknowne,  so  doo  others  afiirme  (not 
without  probabilitie)  that  there  male  be  starres  and  bodies,  to  whome 
these  movings  male  accord,  which  cannot  be  seene,  either  through 
their  exceeding  highnes,  or  that  hitherto  are  not  tried  with  anie  obser- 
vation of  the  art.  The  true  motion  of  Mars  is  not  yet  perceived, 
neither  is  it  possible  to  find  out  the  true  entring  of  the  sunne  into 
the  equinoctiall  points.     It  is  not  denied,  that  the  astronomers  them- 


The  vaine 
and  trifling 
trickes  of 
figure -ta- 


Johan.  Mon- 
tiregius  in 
cpistola  ad 

1  70 

u.  Booke. 

The  discoveric 

&>  Guliel- 
mus  de  san- 
cto  Clodoald. 
Rabbi  Levi. 
C.  A  grip,  in 
lib.  de  vanit. 

selves  have  received  their  light,  and  their  verie  art  from  poets,  with- 
out whose  fables  the  twelve  signes  and  the  northerlie  and  southerlie 
figiu'cs  had  never  ascended  into  heaven.  And  yet  (as  C.  Agrippa 
saith)  astrologers  doo  live,  cousen  men,  and  gaine  by  these  fables  ; 
whiles  the  poets,  which  are  the  inventors  of  them,  doo  live  in 

The  verie  skilfuUest  mathematicians  confesse,  that  it  is  unpossible 
to  find  out  anie  certeine  thing  concerning  the  knowledge  of  judge- 
ments, as  well  for  the  innumerable  causes  which  worke  togither  with 
the  heavens,  being  all  togither,  and  one  with  the  other  to  be  con- 
sidered :  as  also  bicause  influencies  doo  not  constraine  but  incline. 
For  manie  ordinarie  and  extraordinarie  occasions  doo  interrupt  them  ; 
as  education,  custome,  place,  honestie,  birth,  bloud,  sickness'^,  health, 
strength,  weakenes,  meate,  drinke,  libertie  of  mind,  learning,  &c.  And 
they  that  have  written  the  rules  of  judgement,  and  agree  neerest 
therein,  being  of  equall  authoritie  and  learning,  publish  so  contrarie 
opinions  upon  one  thing,  that  it  is  unpossible  for  an  astrologian  to 
pronounce  a  certeintie  upon  so  variable  opinions  ;  &  otherwise,  upon 
so  uncerteine  reports  no  man  is  able  to  judge  herein.  So  as 
(according  to  Ptolomie)  the  foreknowledge  of  things  to  come  by  the 
starres,  dependeth  as  well  upon  the  affections  of  the  mind,  as  upon 
the  observation  of  the  planets,  proceeding  rather  from  chance  than  art, 
as  whereby  they  deceive  others,  and  are  deceived  themselves  also./ 

gers prog- 
ons are  like 
the  answers 
of  oracles. 


The    xxii    Chapter. 

The  subtiltie  of  astrologers  to  maintei7te  the  credit  of  their  art,  why 
they  remaine  in  credit,  certeifte  impieties  conteined  in  astrologers 

|F  you  marke  the  cunning  ones,  you  shall  see  them  speake 
darkelie  of  things  to  come,  devising  by  artificiall  subtiltie, 
doubtfull  prognostications,  easilie  to  be  applied  to  everie 
thing,  time,  prince,  and  nation  :  and  if  anie  thing  come  to 
passe  according  to  their  divinations,  they  fortifie  their  old  prognosti- 
cations with  new  reasons.  Nevertheles,  in  the  multitude/  and  varietie 
of  starres,  yea  even  in  the  verie  middest  of  them,  they  find  out  some 
places  in  a  good  aspect,  and  some  in  an  ill  ;  and  take  occasion  here- 
upon to  sale  what  they  list,  promising  unto  some  men  honor,  long  life, 
wealth,  victorie,  children,  marriage,  freends,  offices  ;  &  finallie  everlast- 
ing felicitie.  But  if  with  anie  they  be  discontent,  they  saie  the  starres 
be  not  favourable  to  them,  and  threaten  them  with  hanging,  drowning, 
beggerie,  sickenes,  misfortune,  -Sic.     And  if  one  of  these  prognostica- 

of  IVitcJicraft. 

Chap.   21. 



tions  fall  out  right,  then  they  triumph  above  measure.  If  the 
prognosticators  be  found  to  forge  and  lie  alwaies  (without  such 
fortune  as  the  blind  man  had  in  killing  the  crow)  they  will  excuse  the 
matter,  saieng,  that  Sapiens  domiitatur  astris,  wheras  (according  to 
Ai^rippas  words)  neither  the  wiseman  ruleth  the  starres,  nor  the 
starres  the  wiseman,  but  God  ruleth  them  both.  Corn.  Tacitus  saith, 
that  they  are  a  people  disloiall  to  princes,  deceiving  them  that 
beleeve  them.  And  Varro  saith,  that  the  vanitie  of  all  superstitions 
floweth  out  of  the  bosome  of  astrologie.  And  if  our  life  &  fortune 
depend  not  on  the  starres,  then  it  is  to  be  granted,  that  the  astrologers 
seeke  where  nothing  is  to  be  found.  But  we  are  so  fond,  mistrustful! 
&  credulous,  that  we  feare  more  the  fables  of  Robin  good  fellow  ;  as- 
trologers, &  witches,  &;  beleeve  more  the  things  that  are  not,  than  the 
things  that  are.  And  the  more  unpossible  a  thing  is,  the  more  we  stand 
in  feare  thereof;  and  the  lesse  likelie  to  be  true,  the  more/  we  beleeve  it. 
And  if  we  were  not  such,  I  thinke  with  Cornelius  Agrippa,  that  these 
divinors,  astrologers,  conjurors,  and  cousenors  would  die  for  hunger. 

And  our  foolish  light  beleefe,  forgetting  things  past,  neglecting 
things  present,  and  verie  hastie  to  know  things  to  come,  doth  so 
comfort  and  mainteine  these  cousenors  ;  that  whereas  in  other  men, 
for  making  one  lie,  the  faith  of  him  that  speaketh  is  so  much  mis- 
trusted, that  all  the  residue  being  true  is  not  regarded.  Contrariwise, 
in  these  cousenages  among  our  divinors,  one  truth  spoken  by  hap 
giveth  such  credit  to  all  their  lies,  that  ever  after  we  beleeve  whatso- 
ever they  saie  ;  how  incredible,  impossible  or  false  soever  it  be.  Sir 
Thotnas  Moore  saith,  they  know  not  who  are  in  their  owne  chambers, 
neither  who  maketh  themselves  cuckoldes  that  take  upon  them  all  this  judidail 

1  11  1  r  ■    1  T-.  1  1-  T        astrologers. 

cunnnig,  knowledge,  and  great  foresight.  But  to  enlarge  their  credit, 
or  rather  to  manifest  their  impudencie,  they  saie  the  gift  of  prophesie, 
the  force  of  religion,  the  secrets  of  conscience,  the  power  of  divels, 
the  vertue  of  miracles,  the  efficacie  of  praiers,  the  state  of  the  life  to 
come,  &c  :  doth  onlie  depend  upon  the  starres,  and  is  given  and  knowne 
by  them  alone.  For  they  saie,  that  when  the  signe  of  Gemini  is 
ascended,  and  Saturne  and  Mercuric  be  ioined  in  Aquarie,  in  the   Astroiogi- 

■'  call  blas- 

nmth  house  of  the  heavens,  there  is  a  prophet  borne  :  and  therefore  phemies. 
that  Christ  had  so  manie  vertues,  bicause  he  had  in  that  place  Saturne 
and  Gemini.  Yea  these  Astrologers  doo  not  sticke  to  saie,  that  the 
starres  distribute  all  sortes  of  religions:  wherein  y«/z7(?r  is  the  especiall 
patrone,  who  being  joined  with  Saturne,  maketh  the  religion  of  the 
Jcwes;  with  Mercz{rie,  of  the  Christians;  with  the  Moone,  of  Anti- 
christianitie.  Yea  they  affirme  that  the  faith  of  everie  man  male  be 
knowne  to  them  as  well  as  to  God.  And  that  Christ  himselfe  did  use 
the  election  of  houres  in  his  miracles;  so  as  the  Jewes  could  not  hurt 

S.  Thomas 
frumpe  at 


II.  Booke. 

The  disc  over  ie 


Joh   II.  8. 

214.    155. 

The  follie 
of  our  ge- 
or  nativiti- 

Senec.  lib.  de 
quasi,  na- 
tural. 4. 

Pirhmair  in 
arte  a f  ode- 

him  whilest  he  went  io  Jentsa/t'/ii.,  and  therefore  that  *the  said  to  his 
disciples  that  forbad  him  to  go;  Are  there  not  twelve  houres  in  the 
daie  ?/, 

The    xxiii.    Chapter. 

IV/io  have  power  to  drive  awaie  divels  with  their  o>ielie  presence, 
who  shall  receive  of  God  whatsoever  they  aske  in  praier,  who  shall 
obteine  everlasting  life  by  nieanes  of  constellations.,  as  nativiiie- 
casters  affirme. 

HEY  sale  also,  that  he  which  hath  Alars  happilie  placed 
in  the  ninth  house  of  the  heavens,  shall  have  power  to 
drive  awaie  divels  with  his  onelie  presence  from  them 
that  be  possessed.  And  he  that  shall  praie  to  God,  when 
he  findeth  the  Moone  and  y?////^r  joined  with  the  dragons  head  in  the 
middest  of  the  heavens,  shall  obteine  whatsoever  he  asketh:  and  that 
fupiter  and  Saturne  doo  give  blessednes  of  the  life  to  come.  But  if 
anie  in  his  nativitie  shall  have  Sattirne  happilie  placed  in  Leone,  his 
soule  shall  have  everlasting  life.  And  hereunto  subscribe  Peter  de 
Appona,  Roger  Bacon,  Guido  Bonatus,  Arnold  de  villa  nova,  and  the 
Cardinall  of  Alia.  Furthermore,  the  providence  of  God  is  denied, 
and  the  miracles  of  Christ  are  diminished,  when  these  powers  of  the 
heavens  and  their  influencies  are  in  such  sort  advanced.  Moses, 
Esaie,  fob  and  feremie,  seeme  to  dislike  and  reject  it:  and  at  Rome 
in  times  past  it  was  banished,  and  by  fnstinian  condemmed  under 
paine  of  death.  Finallie,  Seneca  derideth  these  soothsaieng  witches 
in  this  sort;  Amongst  the  Cleones  (saith  he)  there  was  a  custome,  that 
the  -^fiXa^oc/yvXaKei  (which  were  gazers  in  the  aier,  watching  when  a 
storme  of  haile  should  fall)  when  they  sawe  by  anie  cloud  that  the 
shower  was  imminent  and  at  hand;  the  use  was  (I  sale)  bicause  of  the 
hurt  which  it  might  doo  to  their  vines,  &.c:  diligentlie  to  warne  the 
people  thereof;  who  used  not  to  provide  clokes  or  anie  such 
defense  against  it,  but  provided  sacrifices;  the  rich,  cockes  and 
white  lambes  ;  the  poore  would  spoile  themselves  by  cutting  their 
thombes  ;  as  though  (saith  he)  that  little  bloud  could  ascend  up 
to  the  cloudes,  and  doo  anie  good  there  for  their  releefe  in  this/ 

And  here  by  the  waie,  I  will  impart  unto  you  a  Venetian  supersti- 
tion, of  great  antiquitie,  and  at  this  daie  (for  ought  I  can  read  to  the 
contrarie)  in  use.  It  is  written,  that  everie  yeere  ordinarilie  upon 
ascension  daie,  the  Duke  of  Venice,  accompanied  with  the  States, 
goeth  with  great  solemnitie  unto  the  sea,  and  after  ctrteine  ceremonies 
ended,  casteth  thereinto  a  gold  ring  of  great  value  and  estimation  for 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  j?.  173 

a  pacificatorie  oblation  :  wherewithal!  their  predecessors  supposed 
that  the  wrath  of  the  sea  was  asswaged.  By  this  action,  as  a  late 
writer  saith,  they  doo  Desponsare  sibi  inare,  that  is,  espouse  the  sea   Joannes  Gar- 

ropius  m   Ve- 

unto  themselves,  &c.  „,/.  ^^^  Hy- 

Let  us  therefore,  according  to  the  prophets  advise,  aske  raine       f^'^^;^ 
of  the  Lord  in  the  houres  of  the  latter  time,  and  he  shall  verse  2 

send  white  cloudes,  and  give  us  raine  &c  :  for  surelie, 
the  idols  (as  the  same  prophet  saith)  have  spoken 
vanitie,  the  soothsaiers  have  seene  a  lie,  and 
the   dreamers    have    told    a  vaine   thing. 
They  comfort  in  vaine,  and  therefore 
they  went  awaie  like  sheepe,  &c. 
If  anie  sheepebiter  or  witch- 
monger  will  follow  them, 
they  shall   go   alone 
for   me.// 

10. 1. 


i.v  Booke. 

TJie  discove7'ie 

3i6.    156. 

Prover.  i8. 
Chron.  30. 
Psal.  10. 
Psal.  51. 
Psal.  139 
Jerem.  32. 
Isai.  6. 
Isai.  50. 
Exod.  7.  8.  9. 
Prov.  16. 

^  The  twelfe  Booke. 

The    first    Chapter. 

The  Hebrue  word  Habar  expounded,  where  also  the  supposed  secret 
force  of  char  vies  and  itichaiitmeiits  is  shewed,  and  the  effuacie  of 
words  is  diverse  waies  declared. 

Psal.  58. 

Psal.  58.  4.  5. 

Virgil,  in 


By  Ab.FU-217. 


HIS  Hebrue  word  Habar,  being  in  Greeke  Epathi/i,  and 
in  Latine  Incantat'e,  is  in  English,  To  inchant,  or  (if  you 
had  rather  have  it  so)  to  bewitch.  In  these  inchant- 
ments,  certeine  wordes,  verses,  or  charmes,  &c  :  are 
secretlie  uttered,  wherein  there  is  thought  to  be  miraculous  efficacie. 
There  is  great  varietie  hereof  :  but  whether  it  be  by  charmes,  voices, 
images,  characters,  stones,  plants,  metals,  herbes,  &c  :  there  must 
herewithall  a  speciall  forme  of  words  be  alwaies  used,  either  divine, 
diabolicall,  insensible,  or  papisticall,  whereupon  all  the  vertue  of  the 
worke  is  supposed  to  depend.  This  word  is  speciallie  used  in  the  58. 
psalme,  which  place  though  it  be  taken  up  for  mine  adversaries 
strongest  argument  against  me  ;  yet  me  thmkes  it  maketh  so  with 
me,  as  they  can  never  be  able  to  answer  it.  For  there  it  plainelie 
appeareth,  that  the  adder  heareth  not  the  voice  of  the  charmer, 
charme  he  never  so  cunninglie  :  contrarie  to  the  poets  fabling, 

Frigidus  in  pratis  cantando  riimpitur  anguis.\ 

The  coldish  snake  in  tnedowes  greeiie. 
With  charmes  is  burst  in  peeces  cleene. 

But  hereof  more  shall  be  said  hereafter  in  due  place. 

I  grant  that  words  sometimes  have  singular  vertue  and  efficacie, 
either  in  persuasion  or  disuasion,  as  also  diverse  other  waies  ;  so  as 
thereby  some  are  converted  from  the  waie  of  perdition,  to  the 
estate  of  salvation  :  and  so  contrariwise,  according  to  the 
saieng  of  Solomon ;   Death  and  life  are  in  the  instru- 
ment of  the  toong  :  but  even  therein  God  worketh 
all  in   all,   as   well    in  framing  the    heart    of 
the    one,    as    in    directing   the    toong   of 
the     other  :     as     appeareth     in 
manie  places   of  the  holie 

of  If  'itchcraft. 



The    second    Chapter. 

What  is  forbidden  in  scriptiires  concerning  witchcraft,  of  the  opera- 
tion of  words,  the  superstition  of  the  Cabalists  and  papists,  who 
createth  substances,  to  imitate  God  in  some  cases  is  presumption, 
words  of  sanctification. 

HAT  which  is  forbidden  in  the  scriptures  touching  in- 
ch antment  or  witch  craft,  is  not  the  wonderfull  working 
with  words.  For  where/  words  have  had  miraculous 
operation,  there  hath  beene  alwaies  the  special!  provi- 
dence, power  and  grace  of  God  uttered  to  the  strengthening  of  the 
faith  of  Gods  people,  and  to  the  furtherance  of  the  gospell  :  as  when 
the  apostle  with  a  word  slue  Ananias  and  Saphira.  But  the  propha- 
nation  of  Gods  name,  the  seducing,  abusing,  and  cousening  of  the 
people,  and  mans  presumption  is  hereby  prohibited,  as  whereby  manie 
take  upon  them  after  the  recitall  of  such  names,  as  God  in  the 
scripture  seemeth  to  appropriate  to  himselfe,  to  foreshew  things  to 
come,  to  worke  miracles,  to  detect  fellonies,  &c  :  as  the  Cabalists  in 
times  past  tooke  upon  them,  by  the  ten  names  of  God,  and  his  angels, 
expressed  /  in  the  scriptures,  to  worke  woonders  :  and  as  the  papists 
at  this  daie  by  the  like  names,  by  crosses,  by  gospels  hanged  about 
their  necks,  by  masses,  by  exorcismes,  by  holie  water,  and  a  thousand 
consecrated  or  rather  execrated  things,  promise  unto  themselves  and 
others,  both  health  of  bodie  and  soule. 

But  as  herein  we  are  not  to  imitate  the  papists,  so  in  such  things, 
as  are  the  peculiar  actions  of  God,  we  ought  not  to  take  upon  us  to 
counterfet,  or  resemble  him,  which  with  his  word  created  all  things. 
For  we,  neither  all  the  conjurors,  Cabalists,  papists,  soothsaiers, 
inchanters,  witches,  nor  charmers  in  the  world,  neither  anie  other 
humane  or  yet  diabolicall  cunning  can  adde  anie  such  strength  to 
Gods  workmanship,  as  to  make  anie  thing  anew,  or  else  to  exchange 
one  thing  into  another.  New  qualities  may  be  added  by  humane  art, 
but  no  new  substance  can  be  made  or  created  by  man.  And  seeing 
that  art  faileth  herein,  doubtles  neither  the  illusions  of  divels,  nor 
the  cunning  cA  witches,  can  bring  anie  such  thing  truelie  to  passe. 
For  by  the  sound  of  the  words  nothing  commeth,  nothing  goeth,  other- 
wise than  God  in  nature  hath  ordeined  to  be  doone  by  ordinarie 
speech,  or  else  by  his  speciall  ordinance.  Indeed  words  of  sanctifica- 
tion are  necessarie  and  commendable,  according  to  S.  Paules  rule  ; 
Let  your  meat  be  sanctified  with  the  word  of  God,  and  by  praier.  But 
sanctification  dooth  not  here  signifie  either  change  of  substance  of  the 




Words  of 
tion, and 
they  con- 


I J    Booke. 

The  discoverie 

meate,  or  the  adding  of  anie  new  strength  thereunto  ;  but  it  is  sanc- 
tified, in  that  it  is  received  with  thanksgiving  and  praier  ;  that  our 
bodies  may  be  refreshed,  and  our  soule  thereby  made  the  apter  to 
glorifie  God. 

An  ample 
of  women 
called  wit- 

The    third    Chapter. 

What  effect  and  offense  witches  charmes  bring,  how  unapt  witches 
are^  and  how  unlikelie  to  worke  those  things  which  they  are 
thought  to  doo,  what  would  followe  if  those  things  were  true  which 
are  laid  to  their  charge. 

HE  words  and  other  the  illusions  of  witches,  charmers, 
and  conjurors,  though  they  be  not  such  in  opera- 
tion and   efifect,   as   they   are   commonlie   taken  to  be  : 

21  g  |R<MSg5SSig|  yet  they  are  offensive  to  the  majestie/  and  name  of 
God,  obscuring  the  truth  of  divinitie,  &  also  of  philosophie.  For 
if  God  onlie  give  life  &  being  to   all   creatures,  who    can  put   any 

158.  such  ver/tue  or  livelie  feeling  into  a  body  of  gold,  silver,  bread,  or 
wax,  as  is  imagined  ?  If  either  preests,  divels,  or  witches  could  so 
doo,  the  divine  power  shuld  be  checked  &  outfaced  by  magicall 
cunning,  &  Gods  creatures  made  servile  to  a  witches  pleasure.  What 
is  not  to  be  brought  to  passe  by  these  incantations,  if  that  be  true 
which  is  attributed  to  witches?  &  yet  they  are  women  that  never  went 
to  schoole  in  their  lives,  nor  had  any  teachers  :  and  therefore  without 
art  or  learning ;  poore,  and  therefore  not  able  to  make  any  provision 
of  metal  or  stones,  &c  :  whereby  to  bring  to  passe  strange  matters,  by 
naturall  magicke ;  old  and  stiffe,  and  therefore  not  nimble  handed  to 
deceive  your  eie  with  legierdemaine;  heavie,  and  commonlie  lame, 
and  therefore  unapt  to  flie  in  the  aire,  or  to  danse  with  the  fairies ; 
sad,  melancholike,  sullen,  and  miserable,  and  therefore  it  should  be 
unto  them  {Iiivita  Minerva)  to  banket  or  danse  with  Minerva ;  or 
yet  with  Herodias,  as  the  common  opinion  of  all  writers  heerein  is. 
On  the  other  side,  we  see  they  are  so  malicious  and  spitefull,  that  if  they 
by  themselves,  or  by  their  divels,  could  trouble  the  elements,  we  should 
never  have  faire  weather.  If  they  could  kill  men,  children,  or  cattell, 
they  would  spare  none ;  but  would  destroy  and  kill  whole  countries 
and  housholds.  If  they  could  transfer  corne  (as  is  affirmed)  from 
their  neighbors  field  into  their  owne,  none  of  them  would  be  poore, 
none  other  should  be  rich.  If  they  could  transforme  themselves  and 
others  (as  it  is  most  constantlie  affirmed)  oh  what  a  number  of  apes 
and  owles  should  there  be  of  us !  If  Incubus  could  beget  Merlins 
among  us,  we  should  have  a  joUie  manie  of  cold  prophets./ 

of  Witchn^aft.  chi,..  4.  177 

The   fourth   Chapter.  220. 

Why  God  forbad  the  practise  of  witchcraft,  the  absttrditie  of  the 
lawe  of  the  twelve  tables,  wherejtpon  their  estimation  in  miracu- 
lous actions  is  grounded,  of  their  woonderotts  works. 

HOUGH  it  be  apparent,  tjiat  the  Holie-ghost  forbiddeth    a  common 
this  art,  bicause  of  the  abuse  of  the  name  of  God,  and  the   ^^^  "f^' 

'  _  '  versall  er- 

cousenage  comprehended  therein  :  yet  I  confesse,  the  cus-    ror. 

tomes  and  lawes  ahnost  of  all  nations  doo  declare,  that  all 
these  miraculous  works,  before  by  me  cited,  and  many  other  things 
more  woonderfull,  were  attributed  to  the  power  of  witches.  The  which 
lawes,  with  the  executions  and  judicials  thereupon,  and  the  witches 
confessions,  have  beguiled  almost  the  whole  world.  What  absurdities 
concerning  witchcraft,  are  written  in  the  law  of  the  twelve  tables, 
which  was  the  highest  and  most  ancient  law  of  the  Romans }  Where- 
upon the  strongest  argument  of  witches  omnipotent  power  is 
framed  ;  as  that  the  wisedome  of  such  lawgivers  could  not  be  abused. 
Whereof  (me  thinks)  might  be  made  a  more  strong  argument  on  our 
side;  to  wit.  If  the  cheefe  and  principall  lawes  of  the  world  be  in  this 
case  ridiculous,  vaine,  false,  incredible,  yea  and  contrarie  to  Gods 
lawe ;  the  residue  of  the  lawes  and  arguments  to  that  effect,  are  to 
be  suspected.  If  that  argument  should  hold,  it  might  proove  all 
the  popish  lawes  against  protestants,  &  the  hea/thenish  princes  lawes  159. 
against  christians,  to  be  good  and  in  force :  for  it  is  like  they  would 
not  have  made  them,  except  they  had  beene  good.  Were  it  not 
(thinke  you)  a  strange  proclamation,  that  no  man  (upon  paine  of 
death)  should  pull  the  moone  out  of  heaven?     And  yet  verie  many  of  ^-  Bodnms. 

,  1  1        •     ,  11-  ,  DaniEus. 

the  most  learned  witchmongers  make  their  arguments  upon  weaker   Hyperius. 
grounds;  as  namelie  in  this    forme    and    maner;  We  find  in  poets,   ^"'""fnuw 
that  witches  wrought  such  and  such  miracles ;  Ergo  they  can  accom-   ^^'^^-  ^^aicf. 
plish  and  doo  this  or  that  wonder.     The  words  of  the  lawe  are  these ;/   *  spiueeus. 
Qui  friigcs  incantasset  pa^nas  dato,  Nei^e  alicnam  segetem  pellexeris    221. 
excafitando,  neq;  incantando,  Ne  agrum  dcfriiganto :  the  sense 
wherof  in   English  is  this ;  Let  him  be  executed  that 
bewitcheth  corne,  Transferre  not  other  mens 
corne  into  thy  ground  by  inchantment, 
Take  heede  thou  inchant  not  at  all 
neither   make   thy   neighbors 
field  barren  :  he  that  dooth 
these  things  shall 
die,  S;c. 

A  A 


12.  Bdoke. 

The  discoverie 

A  notable 
of  C.  F.  C. 
for  a  witch. 

Jilal.  malt/, 
far.  2.  qua.  i. 
cap.  5. 

[*  moushoall] 


The    fift    Chapter. 

An  instance  of  one  arreigned  upon  the  laive  of  tJte  iivch'e  tables, 
whereby  the  said  la%ve  is  proved  ridiculous.,  of  two  witches  that 
could  doo  woonders. 

LTHOUGH  among  us,  we  thinke  them  bewitched  that 
waxsuddenlie  poore,  and  not  them  that  growe  hastilie  rich  ; 
yet  at  Rofne  yon  shall  understand,  that  (as  /^//w/Vreporteth) 
upon  these  articles  one  C.  Fut'ius  Cressus  was  convented 
before  Spurius  Albinus ;  for  that  he  being  but  a  little  while  free,  and 
delivered  from  bondage,  occupieng  onelie  tillage ;  grew  rich  on  the 
sudden,  as  having  good  crops :  so  as  it  was  suspected  that  he  transferred 
his  neighbors  corne  into  his  fields.  None  intercession,  no  delaie, 
none  excuse,  no  deniall  would  serve,  neither  in  jest  nor  derision,  nor 
yet  through  sober  or  honest  meanes  :  but  he  was  assigned  a  peremp- 
torie  dale,  to  answer  for  life.  And  therefore  fearing  the  sentence  of 
condemnation,  which  was  to  be  given  there,  by  the  voice  and  verdict 
of  three  men  (as  we  heere  are  tried  by  twelve)  made  his  appearance 
at  the  dale  assigned,  and  brought  with  him  his  ploughs  and  harrowes, 
spades  and  shovels,  and  other  instruments  of  husbandrie,  his  oxen, 
horsses,  and  working  bullocks,  his  servants,  and  also  his  daughter, 
which  was  a  sturdie  wench  and  a  good  huswife,  and  also  (as  Piso 
reporteth)  well  trimmed  up  in  apparell,  and  said  to  the  whole  bench 
in  this  wise  ;  Lo  heere  my  lords  I  make  mine  appearance,  according 
to  my  promise  and  your  pleasures,  presenting  unto  you  my  charmes 
and  witchcrafts,  which  have  so  inriched  me.  As  for  the  labour,  sweat, 
wat/ching,  care,  and  diligence,  which  I  have  used  in  this  behalfe,  I 
cannot  shew  you  them  at  this  time.  And  by  this  meanes  he  was  dis- 
missed by  the  consent  of  that  court,  who  otherwise  (as  it  was  thought) 
should  hardly  have  escaped  the  sentence  of  condemnation,  and 
punishment  of  death. 

It  is  constantlie  aftirmed  in  M.  Mai.  that  Stafus  used  alwaies  to 
hide  himselfe  in  a  *monshoall,  and  had  a  disciple  called  Hoppo.,  who 
made  Stadlin  a  maister  witch,  and  could  all  when  they  list  invisiblie 
transferre  the  third  part  of  their  neighbours  doong,  hay,  corne,  &c :  into 
theire  owne  ground,  make/  haile,  tempests,  and  flouds,  with  thunder 
and  lightning;  and  kill  children,  cattell,  &c :  reveale  things  hidden, 
and  many  other  tricks,  when  and  where  they  list.  But  these  two 
shifted  not  so  well  with  the  inquisitors,  as  the  other  with  the  Romanc 
and  heathen  judges.     Howbcit,  Stafus  was  too  hard   for  them   all : 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  6. 


for  none  of  all  the  lawiers  nor  inquisitors  could  bring  him  to 
appeere  before  them,  if  it  be  true  that  witchmongers  write  in  these 

The    sixt    Chapter. 

Lawes  provided  for  the  pii7iishment  of  such  witches  as  worke 
tniracles,  whereof  some  are  mentioned^  and  of  certeinc  popish 
lawes  published  a^s^ainst  them. 

HERE  are  other  lawes  of  other  nations  made  to  this  in- 
credible effect :  as  Lex  Salicartun  provideth  punishment 
for  them  that  flie  in  the  aire  from  place  to  place,  and 
meete  at  their  nightlie  assemblies,  and  brave  bankets,  car- 
rieng  with  them  plate,  and  such  stuffe,  &c :  even  as  we  should  make 
a  lawe  to  hang  him  that  should  take  a  church  in  his  hand  at  Dover, 
and  throvve  it  to  Callice.  And  bicause  in  this  case  also  popish  lawes 
shall  be  scene  to  be  as  foolish  and  lewd  as  any  other  whatsoever,  and 
speciallie  as  tyrannous  as  that  which  is  most  cruell :  you  shall  heare 
what  trim  new  lawes  the  church  oi  Rome  hath  latelie  devised.  These 
are  therefore  the  words  of  pope  Innocent  the  eight  to  the  inquisitors/ 
oi  Almanie,  and  oi  pope  /uli2is  the  second,  sent  to  the  inquisitors  of 
Bergomen.  It  is  come  to  our  eares,  that  manie  lewd  persons,  of  both 
kinds,  as  well  male  as  female,  using  the  companie  of  the  divels 
Incubus  and  Succubus,  with  incantations,  charmes,  conjurations,  &c : 
doo  destroie,  &.c :  the  births  of  women  with  child,  the  yoong  of  all 
cattell,  the  corne  of  the  feeld,  the  grapes  of  the  vines,  the  frute  of  the 
trees  :  Item,  men,  women,  and  all  kind  of  cattell  and  beasts  of  the 
feeld  :  and  with  their  said  inchantments,  &c  :  doo  utterlie  extinguish, 
suffocate,  and  spoile  all  vineyards,  ortchards,  medowes,  pastures, 
grasse,  greene  corne,  and  ripe  corne,  and  all  other  podware  :  yea  men 
and  women  themselves  are  by  their  imprecations  so  afflicted  with 
externall  and  inward  paines  and  diseases,  that  men  cannot  beeget, 
nor  women  bring  foorth  anie  children,  nor  yet  accomplish  the  dutie  of 
wedlocke,  denieng  the  faith  which  they  in  baptisme  professed,  to  the 
destruction  of  their  owne  soules,  &c.  Our  pleasure  therefore  is, 
that  all  impediments  that  male  hinder  the  inquisitors  office,  be  utterlie 
removed  from  among  the  people,  least  this  blot  of  heresie  proceed  to 
poison  and  defile  them  that  be  yet  innocent.  And  therefore  we  doo 
ordeine,  by  vertue  of  the  apostolicall  authoritie,  that  our  inquisitors 
of  high  Almanie,  maie  execute  the  office  of  inquisition  by  all  tortures 
and  afflictions,  in  all  places,  and  upon  all  persons,  what  and  where- 

of  impossi- 


A  wise  lawe 
of  pope  In- 
nocent and 
Julie,  were 
it  not  that 
they  wan- 
ted wit 
when  they 
made  it. 


12.  Booke. 

T//e  discoverie 

soever,  as  well  in  everie  place  and  diocesse,  as  upon  anie  person  ; 
and  that  as  freelie,  as  though  they  were  named,  expressed,  or  cited  in 
this  our  commission. 



Virg.  eclog.  8. 
[*  miitavit] 

Virg.  eilog.  8. 

The    seventh    Chapter. 

Poetical  authorities  coininonlie  alleaged  by  witchmongers,  for  the 
proof e  of  witches  j>iiraculot(s  actions,  and  for  confirmation  of  their 
sitpcrnatKrall  power. 

|ERE  have  I  place  and  oportunitie,  to  discover  the  whole 
art  of  witchcraft  ;  even  all  their  charmes,  periapts, 
characters,  amulets,  praiers,  blessings,  curssings,  hurtings, 
helpings,  knaveries,  cousenages,  &c.  But  first  I  will 
shew  what  authorities  are  produced  to  defend  and  mainteine  the 
same,  and  that  in  serious  sort,'  by  Bodin,  Spinaus,  Hemingius, 
Vairus,  Dancetts,  Hyperijis  :  M.  Mai.  and  the  rest. 

Carmina  vel  ccelo  posstint  deducere  lunam, 
Carminibtis  Circe  socios  miit  avit  *  Ulyssis, 
Frigidus  in  pratis  caniando  ruinpitiir  attguis  : 

Inchaniinents  pliicke  out  of  the  skie, 
The  nioone,  though  she  be  plaste  on  hie  : 
Dame  Circes  with  hir  charmes  so  fine, 
Ulysses  mates  did  ttcrne  to  swine  : 
The  snake  with  charmes  is  burst  in  twaine, 
hi  medowes,  where  she  dooth  remaine. 

Againe  out  of  the  same  poet  they  cite  further  matter. 

Has  herbas,  atqj  hcec  Panto  mild  lecta  venena. 
Ipsa  dedit  Mceris  :  nascutttur  plurima  Ponto. 
His  ego  scepc  lupain  fieri,  (&-»  se  condere  sylvis, 
Mcerim  scepe  animas  imis  exire  sepulchris, 
Atqj  satas  alio  vidi  traducere  messes. 

These  herbs  did  Meris  give  to  me, 
And  poisons  plicckt  at  Pont  us. 
For  there  they  growe  and  multiplie, 
And  doo  not  so  amongst  us. 
With  these  she  made  hir  selfe  become, 
A  wolfe,  and  hid  hir  in  the  wood. 
She  fetcht  up  soules  out  of  their  toome, 
Remoovijig  come  frotn  luhere  it  stood. 

of  WitcJicraft. 

FurtJicrmore  out  of  Ovid  tliey  allcdi^e  these  folowiiig. 

Node  volant,  puerosq;  pettint  nutricis  egentes, 
Et  vitiant  amis  corpora  capta  stiis  : 

Carper e  dicuntitr  lactentia  viscera  rostrisj 
Et  plenwnpotir'  sanguine  gutur  habent : 

To  cliildren  they  doo  flie  by  night. 

And  catch  them  while  their  nursses  sleepe, 

And  spoile  theit  little  bodies  qieite, 

And  home  they  beare  them  in  their  beake. 

Againc  out  of  Virgill  in  forme  following. 

Hinc  mihi  Massy Ics  gentis  monstrata  sacerdos, 
Hesperidum  templi  custos,  epuldsqj  draconi 
Qttce  dabat,  &^  sacros  servabat  in  arbore  ramos, 
Sparge ns  humida  mella,  soporiferi'imq;  papaver. 
Hcec  se  carminibus  promittit  solvere  mentes, 
Quas  velit,  ast  aliis  dur  as'-'  immittere  curas, 
Sistere  aquamfluvits,  &^  vert  ere  sidera  retro, 
Nocturnosq;  ciet  manes,  nnigire  videbis 
Sub  pedibus  terrain,  &^  descendere  montibus  ornos . 

From  thetice  a  virgifte  preest  is  come, 

from  out  Massyla  land. 
Sometimes  the  temple  there  she  kept, 

and  from  hir  heavenlie  hand 
The  dragon  meate  did  take :  she  kept 

also  the  frute  divine. 
With  herbes  and  liquors  sweete  that  still 

to  sleepe  did  men  incline. 
The  minds  of  men  {she  saitJi)  from  love 

with  charmes  she  can  utibind. 
In  who?n  she  list :  but  others  can 

she  cast  to  cares  unkind. 
The  running  streames  doo  stand,  and  from 

their  course  the  starres  doo  wreath. 
And  soules  she  conjtire  can  :  thou  shall 

see  sister  underneath 
The  ground  with  roring  gape,  and  trees 
and  tnountaines  turne  upright,  &r^c. 
Moreover  out  of  Ovid  they  al ledge  as  followeth. 
Ciim  volui  ripis  ipsis  jnirantibus  amftes 
Infontes'^  rediere  suos,  coiiciissaqj  sisto, 

Chap.  7. 


Ovid.  fast.  6. 



Virg.  Ai'ne.  4. 

[*  duras] 

Tho.  Phaiers 
translation  of 
the  former 
words  of 

Ovid,  mda- 
nior.  7. 

\r  In  fontes\ 

1 82  IS.  Booke.  The  discover ie 

226.  Stantia  concutio^  cantii  frcta  mcbila  pello, 

A^iibildq;  tnduco^  ventos  abigoq;  vocoqj, 
Viper eas  rumpo  verbis  6^  carinhte  fauces,l 

163.  Vtvdqiie  sax'a,  sua  conviclsdque  robora  terra, 

Et  sylvas  inovco,  jubeoque  tremescere  monies, 
Et  mu^i^Jre  solum,  matie'sque  exire  sepuhiiris, 
Te'que  luna  traho,  ^c : 

The  rivers  I  can  make  7-etire, 

Into  the  fountaijies  whence  they  Jlo, 

( Whereat  the  banks  themselves  admire) 

I  can  make  standing  waters  go, 

With  charnies  I  drive  both  sea  and  clowd, 

I  make  it  calme  and  blowe  alowd. 

The  vipers  jawes,  the  rockie  stone, 

With  words  and  charmes  I  breake  iii  twaine 

The  force  of  earth  congeald  in  one, 

I  moove  and  shake  both  zuoods  and plaitie ; 

I  make  the  soules  of  men  arise, 

I  ptill  the  moone  out  of  the  skies. 

Also  out  of  the  same  poet. 

Ovid,  de  Virbdquc  ter  dixit  placidos  facientia  somnos, 

"■  Quce  mare  turbatum,  qua  fltatiina  concita  sis  tan  t . 

And  thrise  she  spake  the  words  that  causd 
Sweete  sleepe  and  quiet  rest, 

She  staid  the  raging  of  the  sea, 
And  jnightie  flotids  supp7'est. 

Ovid,  de  Et  viiserum  tenues  in  jecur  uroet  acus,  ■ 

Medea,  -^  "^  ' 

epis  0  a.  4.  ^j^^  sticketh  also  necdels  fine 

In  livers,  whereby  incn  doo  pine. 
3 .  A  mor.  A Iso  out  of  Other  poets. 

Eilog.  6. 

Carjnine  Icesa  Ceres,  sterilem  vanescit  in  herbam, 

Deficitint  Icesi  carmine  fontis  aquce, 
Illicibus  glandes,  cantatdque  vitibus  uva\ 
22y.  Decidit,  6^  nullo  poma  movente  fluiait  : 

With  charnies  the  come  is  spoiled  so, 
As  that  it  vades  to  barren  gras. 
With  charmes  the  springs  are  dried  loive, 
That  none  can  see  ivhere  water  was. 

of  Witchcraft. 



The  grapes  fro»i  vines,  tJie  mast  from  okes, 
And  beats  downefrute  with  charniiftg  strokes,  j 

(2u(£  sidera  excantata  7)oce  Thessala 

Lundmque  ccelo  diripit : 

She  plucks  downe  moo7ie  and  starres/ro/n  skie, 
With  chaunting  voice  of  Thessalie. 

Hanc  ego  de  ca'lo  ditcetitetn  sidera  vidi, 
Fluminis  ac  rapidi  carmijie  vertit  iter, 

HcEC  cantu  fi)iditqiie  solum,  nia}iesque  sepulchris 
Elicit,  (St*  tepido  devorat  ossa  rogo  : 

Ciitn  lubet  hcec  tristi  depellit  bimina  ca'lo. 
Cum  lubet  czstivo  cojivocat  orbe  nives  : 

She  plucks  each  star  out  of  his  throne. 
And  turneth  backe  the  raging  waves, 
With  charmes  she  makes  the  earth  to  cone. 
And  raiscth  soules  out  of  their  graces  : 
She  bur7ies  mens  bofies  as  with  afire, 
Aftd  pulleth  downe  the  lights  front  heaven. 
And  makes  it  snowe  at  hir  desire 
Even  in  the  midst  of  summer  season. 

Mens  hausti  nulla  sanie  polluta  veneni, 
Incantata  peril  : 

A  man  inchanted  runneth  mad. 

That  never  anie  poison  had. 

Cessavere  vices  remm,  dilatdgue  lojiga 
Hasit  fiocte  dies,  legi  non  paruit  cether, 
Torpuit  ^  prceceps  audita  carmine  jnundus  : 

The  course  of  nature  ceased  quite,  I 

The  aire  obeied  not  his  lawe, 

The  dale  delaid  by  lengtJi  of  night, 

Wliich  made  both  dale  and  night  to yaive ; 

And  all  was  through  thai  charming gearc. 

Which  causd  the  world  to  quake  for  feaj-e. 

Carmine  Thcssalidum  dura  in  pnecordiajhcxit, 
Non  fat  is  adductus  amor,  flajninisque  sever i 
Illicitis  arsere  ignes  : 

With  Thcssall  charmes,  and  not  by  fate 
Hot  love  is  forced  for  toflowe, 
Even  where  before  hath  beene  debate. 
They  cause  affection  for  to  growc. 


Horac.^  epod.  5 

Tihul.  de 
lib.  I.  EUg.  2. 

Lucan.  lib.  de 
bello  civili.  6. 

Idem.  Ibid. 


Idem.  Ibid. 

1 84 

12.  Booke. 

TJie  discoverie 

Idem.  Ibid. 


C.  Maui  litis 
Slice,  lib.  I. 


Gens  iiivisa  diis  uiaciilandi  callida  ccslij 
Qiios  gemiit  ierra,  tnali  qui  sidera  Diitndi 
fiirdqiie  Jixaruin  possiiiit  pervertere  rej'ioii  : 
Nam  nunc  stare  polos,  ^  fliimma  niittere  Jioruni, 
Aethera  sub  terras  adigiint,  viontesqtce  revelbuit : 

These  witches  haiefull  unto  Cod, 

A  nd  ctmnitig  to  defile  the  aire, 

Which  can  disorder  with  a  nod 

The  course  of  nature  everie  where, 

Doo  cause  the  wandring  starres  to  stale 

And  drive  the  winds  beelow  the  ground. 

They  send  the  streaines  another  wale, 

And  throwe  downe  hilles  where  they  abound. 

Unguis  dixere  volucrum, 

Consultare  fibras,  6^  rumpere  vocibus  angiies, 
Solicitare  umbras,  ipsunique  Acheronta  mover e, 
hi  noctemque  dies,  ifi  Itccem  vertere  nodes. 
Omnia  conando  docllls  solertla  vincii : 

They  talked  with  the  toongs  of  birds, 

Cojtsultlng  tvlth  the  salt  sea  coasts, 

They  burst  the  snakes  with  witching  words,] 

Solllciting  the  splrltuall  ghosts. 

They  turne  the  flight  Into  the  dale, 

And  also  drive  the  light  awale  : 

And  what  1st  that  cannot  be  made 

By  them  that  doo  applle  this  trade  f 

Ovid  Mcta- 
nioi'plj.  lib. 
fab.  2. 

The    eight    Chapter. 

Poetrle  and  poperle  compared  In  inchantimnts,  popish  wltchmongers 
have  more  advantage  herein  than  protestants. 

OU  see  in  these  verses,  the  poets  (whether  in  earnest  or 
in  jest  I  know  not)"  ascribe  unto  witches  &  to  their 
charmes,  more  than  is  to  be  found  in  humane  or  dia- 
bolicall  power.  I  doubt  not  but  the  most  part  of  the 
readers  hereof  will  admit  them  to  be  fabulous  ;  although  the  most 
learned  of  mine  adversaries  (for  lacke  of  scripture)  are  faine  to  pro- 
duce these  poetries  for  proofes,  and  for  lacke  of  judgement  I  am  sure 
doo  thinke,  that  Actceons  transformation  was  true.  And  why  not.'' 
As   well   as  the  metamorphosis   or  transubstantiation   of  Ulysses  his 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  9. 


companions  into  swine  :  which   S.  Augustine,  and    so    manie  great 
clarkes  credit  and  report. 

Neverthelesse,  popish  writers  (I  confesse)  have  advantage  herein  of 
our  protestants  :  for  (besides  these  poeticall  proofes)  they  have  (for 
advantage)  the  word  and  authoritie  of  the  pope  himselfe,  and  others 
of  that/  holie  crue  ;  whose  charmes,  conjurations,  blessings,  curssings, 
&c  :  I  meane  in  part  (for  a  tast)  to  set  downe  ;  giving  you  to  under- 
stand, that  poets  are  not  altogither  so  impudent  as  papists  herein, 
neither  seeme  they  so  ignorant,  prophane,  or  impious.  And  there- 
fore I  will  shew  you  how  lowd  also  they  lie,  and  what  they  on  the 
other  side  ascribe  to  their  charmes  and  conjurations  ;  and  togither 
will  set  downe  with  them  all  maner  of  witches  charmes,  as  conveni- 
entlie  as  I  maie./ 

Ovid.  Meta- 
mor/'li.  14. 
fab.  5,  6. 


The  au- 
thors tran- 
sition to  his 

The    ninth    Chapter. 

Popish  periapts,  amulets  and  charmes,  agnus  Dei,  a  wastcote  of 
proof e,  a  charme  for  the  falling  evill,  a  writing  broiight  to  S.  Leo 
from  heaven  by  an  angell,  the  verities  of  S.  Saviors  epistle,  a 
charme  against  theeves,  a  writitig  found  in  Christs  wounds,  of 
the  crosse,  ^c. 

HESE  vertues  under  these  verses  (written  by  pope  Urbane 
the  fift  to  the  emperour  of  the  Grcecians)  are  conteined  in 
a  periapt  or  tablet,  to  be  continuallie  worne  about  one, 
called  Agnus  Dei,  which  is  a  little  cake,  having  the 
picture  of  a  lambe  carrieng  of  a  flag  on  the  one  side  ;  and  Christs 
head  on  the  other  side,  and  is  hollow  :  so  as  the  gospell  of  S.  John, 
written  in  fine  paper,  is  placed  in  the  concavitie  thereof :  and  it  is 
thus  compounded  or  made,  even  as  they  themselves  report. 

Balsatnus  (Sr*  munda  cera,  cum  chrisinatis  unda 
CojtfciuTit  agnunt,  quod  munus  do  tibi  magnum, 
Fonte  velut  natum,  per  mystica  sanctificatum  : 
Fulgura  desursum  depellit,  &>  omne  malignum, 
Peccatuin  frangit,  ut  Christi  sanguis,  &>  angit, 
PrcBgnans  servatur,  simul  &^  partus  liberaiur, 
Dona  refert  dignis,  virtutem  destruit  ignis, 
Portatus  munde  de  fluctibus  eripit  undce  : 

Balme,  virgine  wax,  attd  holie  water, 

an  Agnus  Dei  make  : 
A  gift  than  which  none  can  be  grealer, 

1  send  thee  for  to  take. 

B  B 


Englished  by 
Looke  in 
the  Bee- 
hive of  the 

1 86 


The  disc  over  ie 

Lib.  4.  cap. 
fol.  243. 



From  foHiiteiHe  cleere  the  same  hath  issue, 

VI  secret  sanctijide  : 
Gainst  ligJitning  it  hath  soTcraigiie  7'ertiie, 

and  thunder  crackes  beside.] 
Ech  Jiainous  sinnc  it  7veares  and  wasteth, 

even  as  Christs  precious  blood. 
And  women,  whiles  their  travcll  lasteth, 

it  saves,  it  is  so  good. 
It  doth  bestow  great  gifts  and  graces,] 

on  such  as  well  deserve  : 
And  borne  about  in  noisome  places, 

frofn  perill  doth  preserve. 
The  force  of  fire,  whose  heat  destroieth, 

it  breaks  and  bringeth  downe  : 
And  he  or  she  that  this  enjoieth, 

no  tvater  shall  them  drowne. 

The  maner 
of  making 
a  waste - 
cote  of 

^1  A  charme  against  shot,  or  a  wastcote  of  proofe. 

BEfoie  the  comming  up  of  these  Agtms  Deis,  a  holie  garment 
called  a  wastcote  for  necessitie  was  much  used  of  our  forefathers, 
as  a  holy  relike,  &c  :  as  given  by  the  pope,  or  some  such  archcon- 
juror,  who  promised  thereby  all  manner  of  immunitie  to  the  wearer 
thereof ;  in  somuch  as  he  could  not  be  hurt  with  anie  shot  or  other 
violence.  And  otherwise,  that  woman  that  would  weare  it,  should 
have  quicke  deliverance  :  the  composition  thereof  was  in  this  order 

On  Christmas  daie  at  night,  a  threed  must  be  sponne  of  flax,  by  a 
little  virgine  girle,  in  the  name  of  the  divell  :  and  it  must  be  by  hir 
woven,  and  also  wrought  with  the  needle.  In  the  brest  or  forepart 
thereof  must  be  made  with  needle  worke  two  heads  ;  on  the  head  at 
the  right  side  must  be  a  hat,  and  a  long  beard  ;  the  left  head  must 
have  on  a  crowne,  and  it  must  be  so  horrible,  that  it  maie  resemble 
Belzebub,  and  on  each  side  of  the  wastcote  must  be  made  a  crosse. 



^  Against  the  falling  evill. 

Oreover,  this  insuing  is  another  counterfet   charme   of  theirs, 
whereby  the  falling  evill  is  presentlie  remedied. 

Caspar fert  tnyrrham,  thus  Melchior,  BaltJiasar  aurum, 
Hcec  tria  qui  secutn  portabit  nomina  regumj 
Solviiur  a  morbo  Christi  pictate  caduco. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  9.  187 

Gasper  with  his  niyrh  begamie 

these  presents  to  tin/old. 
Then  Melchior  brought  in  fnmkincense^ 

and  Balthasar  brought  in  gold. 
Now  he  that  of  these  holie  kings 

the  tianies  about  shall  beare, 
The  falling yll  by  grace  of  Christ 

shall  Jiever  need  tofeare. 

This  is  as  true  a  copie  of  the  holie  writing,  that  was  brought  downe 
from  heaven  by  an  angell  to  S.  Leo  pope  of  Rome ;  &  he  did  bid  /  him    168. 
take  it  to  king  Charles,  when  he  went  to  the  battell  at  Roncevall.    And   These  ef- 

.  fects  are 

the  angell  said,  that  what  man  or  woman  beareth  this  writing  about  them    too  good  to  be 
with  good  devotion,  and  saitheverie  da\&\.\\ret  Pater  iiosters^ihree  Aves,   sucV"  pat- 
and  one  Creede,  shall  not  that  daie  be  overcome  of  his  enimies,  either  '^^.^'^  P^epe 
bodilie  or  ghostlie  ;  neither  shalbe  robbed  or  slaine  of  theeves,  pesti- 
lence, thunder,  or  lightening ;  neither  shall  be  hurt  with  fier  or  water, 
nor  combred  with  spirits,  neither  shall  have  displeasure  of  lords  or 
ladies  :  he  shall  not  be  condemned  with  false  witnesse,  nor  taken  with 
fairies,  or  anie  maner  of  axes,  nor  yet  with  the  falling  evill.    Also,  if  a 
woman  be  in  travell,  laie  this  writing  upo  hir  bellie,  she  shall  have 
easie  deliverance,  and  the  child  right  shape  and  christendome,  and 
the  mother  purification  of  holy  church,  and  all  through  vertue  of  these 
holie  names  of  Jesus  Christ  following  : 

^fesus  »J<  Christus  ^  Messias  ^  Soter  ^  Emmanuel  ^  Sabbaoth 
►J*  Adonai  ^  Unigenitus  ^  Majestas  ^  Paracletus  ^  Salvator  noster 
4*  A^iros  iskiros  ►J*  Agios  ^  Adanatos  ^  Gasper  *^  Melchior  *^  &-• 
Balthasar  ^  Matthceus  ►J*  Marcus  ►J*  Lucas  ^fohannes. 

The  epistle  of  S.  Savior,  which  pope  Leo  sent  to  king  Charles, 
saieng,  that  whosoever  carrieth  the  same  about  him,  or  in  what  daie 
so  ever  he  shall  read  it,  or  shall  see  it,  he  shall  not  be  killed  with  anie 
iron  toole,  nor  be  burned  with  fier,  nor  be  drowned  with  water,  neither 
anie  evill  man  or  other  creature  male  hurt  him.  The  crosse  of  Christ 
is  a  woonderfuU  defense  >^  the  crosse  /  of  Christ  be  alwaies  with  2jj. 
me  "^  the  crosse  is  it  which  I  doo  alwaies  worship  »I<  the  crosse  of 
Christ  is  true  health  >^  the  crosse  of  Christ  dooth  lose  the  bands  of 
death  ^  the  crosse  of  Christ  is  the  truth  and  the  waie  ^  I  take  my 
journie  upon  the  crosse  of  the  Lord  >^  the  crosse  of  Christ  beateth 
downe  everie  evill  »^  the  crosse  of  Christ  giveth  all  good  things  *f"  the 
crosse  of  Christ  taketh  awaie  paines  everlasting  ►{<  the  crosse  of 
Christ  save  me  ►J*  O  crosse  of  Christ  be  upon  me,  before  me,  and 
behind  me  ^J"  bicause  the  ancient  enimie  cannot  abide  the  sight  of 

12.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

thee  4*  the  crosse  of  Christ  save  me,  keepe  me,  governe  me,  and  direct 
me  »^  Thomas  bearing  this  note  of  thy  divine  majestie  ^  Alpha  »^ 
Omega  ^  first  ^  and  last  ^  middest  ^  and  end  ^  beginning  ^  and 
first  begotten  ^J*  wisedome  ^  vertue  ^. 

[.p=per  or  par] 
[•*  a  m  2.  ed.] 


^  A  popish  periapt  or  charme,  which  must  never  be  said,  but 
carried  about  one,  against  theeves. 

IDoo  go,  and  I  doo  come  unto  you  with  the  love  of  God,  with 
the  humilitie  of  Christ,  with  the  holines  of  our  blessed  ladie,  with  the 
faith  oi  Abraham,  with  the  justice  oi  Isaac,  with  the  vertue  oi  David, 
with  the  might  of  Peter,  with  the  constancie  of  Paule,  with  the  word 
of  God,  with  the  authoritie  of  Gregorie,  with  the  praier  of  Clement, 
with  the  floud  oi  Jordan,  _p  _p  p  c  g  e  g  a  q  q  est  p  t  \  kabglkiax 
t  g  t  b  am*  g  2  4.  2  iqypxcgiqaggpo  q  q  r.  Oh  onelie  Father 
^  oh  onlie  lord  *^  And  Jesus  ^  passing  through  the  middest  of 
them  ^  went  "^  In  the  name  of/  the  Father  ^  and  of  the  Sonne  ^ 
and  of  the  Holie-ghost  ►f". 

[*  From  Fona  is 
in  Rom.  from 
titulus  in 

•  If  the  party 
faile  in  the 
he  may  go 
whistle  for 
a  pirdon. 

TI  Another  amulet. 

^Oseph  of  Arimathea  did  find  this  writing  upon  the  wounds  of  the 
^  side  of  Jesus  Christ,  written  with  Gods  finger,  when  the  bodie  was 
taken  away  fro  the  crosse.  Whosoever  shall  carrie  this  writing  about 
him,  shall  not  die  anie  evill  death,  if  he  beleeve  in  Christ,  and  in  all 
perplexities  he  shall  soone  be  delivered,  neither  let  him  feare  any 
danger  at  all.  Fons  ►{<  alpha  6^  omega  4*  figa  ^figalis  ^  Sabbaoth 
»J<  Eimnanuel  ►J*  Adonai  ►f*  <?  ►J*  Neray  ^  Elay  ^  I  he  ►{<  Rentone  ^ 
Neger  '^  Sahe  »^  Pangetofi  ^  Conimen  ^  a  ^  g  ^  I  *b  a  1^  Mat- 
tha:us  ^  Marcus  ^  Lucas  »J<  Johannes  ^  >f"  ►^  titulus  triumphalis  ►{< 
234.  Jesus  Nasajrejiics  rex  JudcEorum  ^  ecce  doininicce  crucis  signum  4< 
Jugite  partes  adversce,  vicit  leo  de  tribu  Judcs,  radix,  David,  aleluijah, 
Kyrie  eleeson,  Christe  eleeson,  pater  nostcr,  ave  Maria,  (Sr=  ne  nos, 
dr^  veniat  super  nos  salutare  tuum  :  Oretnus,  &^c.* 

I  find  in  a  Primer  intituled  The  houres  of  our  Ladie,  after  the  use  of 
the  church  of  Yorke,  printed  anno  15 16.  a  charme  with  this  titling  in 
red  letters  ;  To  all  them  that  afore  this  image  of  pitie  devoutlie  shall 
saie  *  five  Pater  nosters,  five  Aves,  and  one  Credo,  pitiouslie  behold- 
ing these  armes  of  Christs  passion,  are  granted  thirtie  two  thousand 
seven  hundred  fiftie  five  yeares  of  pardon.  It  is  to  be  thought  that 
this  pardon  was  granted  in  the  time  of  pope  Bonijace  the  ninth  ;  for 
Plaiina  saith  that  the  pardons  were  sold  so  cheape,  that  the  apostoli- 
call  authoritie  grew  into  contempt. 

of  Witchcraft .  »^iiap.  9  189 

^[  A  papisticall  charme. 

Signum  sanctce  criicis  defendat  me  ci  }>ialis  prcEscntlbus,  prceterttis, 
^  futuris^  mteriortbus  &^  exterioribtes  :  that  is,  The  signe  of  the  crosse 
defend  me  from  evils  present,  past,  and  to  come,  inward  and  out- 

^1   A  charme  found  in  the  canon  of  the  masse. 

Also  this  charme  is  found  in  the  canon  of  the  masse,  Hcec  sacro- 
sancta  commixtio  corporis  &^  sanguinis  domini  nostri  fesu  Christi 
fiat  mihi,  oninibiisque  stnnentibus^  salus  mentis  6r^  corporis,  &^  ad 
vitam  promerendam,  &^  capessenda/n,  prcFparatio  salutaris :  that  is. 
Let  this  holie  mixture  of  the  bodie  and  bloud  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
be  unto  me,  and  unto  all  receivers  thereof,  health  of  mind  and  bodie, 
and  to  the  deserving  and  receiving  of  life  an  healthful!  preparative. 

^   Other  papisticall  charmes. 

Aqua  benedicta,  sit  mihi  salus  &s^  vita  : 

Let  holie  water  be.  both  health  and  life  to  me.  By  Ab.  FU- 

Adqtte  nojnen  Martini  otnnis  hcereticus  fugiat  pallidus^ 
When  Martins  name  is  soong  or  said., 
Let  heretikes  flie  as  men  disjnaid.j 
But  the  papists  have  a  harder  charme  than  that  ;  to  wit,  Fier  and    ^jj. 
fagot,  Fier  and  fagot./ 

%  A  charme  of  the  holie  crosse.  170. 

Nulla  salus  est  in  domo, 
Nisi  cruce  inunit  homo 

Neque  sentit  gladium, 
Nee  amisit  filiuin, 

Quisquis  egit  talia. 

No  health  within  the  house  dooth  dwell, 
Except  a  man  doo  crosse  him  well., 

at  everie  doore  or  frame., 
He  never  feeleth  the  swords  point., 
Nor  of  his  sonne  shall  loose  a  Joint, 

that  dooth  performe  the  same. 

Furthermore  as  followeth. 

Ista  SUOS  fortiores  Sancta  crux 

temper facit,  o^  vtctores,  iah4ti/ero 


12.  Bookc 

The  discoverie 

O  blasphoc- 
miani  inc- 
narrabiUm ! 

Englished    2j6. 
by  Abraham 
Looke  in 
the  Bee- 
hive of  the 
church.  lib. 
4.  cap.  3. 
fol.  251,  252. 


Morbos  sanat  &-»  lani^tcores, 

Repriviit  dcetnonia. 
Dat  captivis  liberiateni, 
VitcB  cofifert  iiovitatem, 
Ad  antiqiiain  dia^nilafoii. 

Crux  reduxit  oninia. 
O  Crux  lignum  trimnphale, 
Muudi  vera  salus  vale, 
Inter  ligna  indium  tale, 

Fronde, fiore,  gerniine. 
Medicina  Christiaiia, 
Salva  sanos,  agros  saiia, 
Quod  noft  valet  vis  huniana, 

Fit  in  ttio  nomine,  dr^cj 

It  makes  Jiir  sotildiers  excellent, 

and  crow  net h  them  with  victorie. 
Restores  the  lame  and  impotettt, 

and  healeth  everie  maladie. 
The  divels  of  hell  it  co7iquereth, 

release th  from  imprison  men  t, 
Newnesse  of  life  it  offereth, 

it  hath  all  at  commandement. 
O  crosse  of  wood  incomparable, 

to  all  the  world  most  holsome  : 
A^o  wood  is  halfe  so  honoiirable,] 

in  branch,  in  bud,  or  blossome. 
O  medcine  which  Christ  did  ordaine, 

the  sound  save  everie  hower. 
The  sicke  and  sore  make  whole  againe, 

by  vertue  of  thy  power. 
And  that  which  mans  unablenesse, 

hath  never  coinprehended, 
Grant  by  thy  name  of  holinesse, 

it  may  befullie  ended,  ^c. 

IT  A  chartne  taken  out  of  the  Primer. 

This  charme  following  is  taken  out  of  the  Primer  aforesaid. 
Omnipotens  *f<  Dominus  ^  Christus  *i>  Messias  *^  with  34.  names  more, 
&  as  many  crosses,  &  then  proceeds  in  this  wise  ;  Ista  nomina  me 
protegant  ab  omni  adversitate,  plaga,   &=   infirmitate  corporis   (fr* 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  lo.  191 

aiiimcs,  pleiic  llberent,  &^  asshfent  in  atixiliuni  ista  no)niiia  regievi, 
Casper,  dr'c :  Qr^  12  apostoli  {videlicet)  Petrus,  &=€  .•  fir*  4  evangelistce 
{videlicet)  Matthceies,  &^c:  iiiihi  assistent  in  omnibus  necessitatibus 
fneis,  ac  me  defendant  &-=  liberent  ab  omnibus  periculis  S^  corporis  Ss-' 
an  in  ice,  Si"  omnibus  i>ialis  prceteritis,  prcesentibus,  &^  fttttiris,  &^c.\ 

The  tenth  Chapter.  237. 

Ho7u  to  make  holie  water,  and  the  vertues  therof.  S.  Rufins 
charme,  of  the  iveari7tg  afid  bearing  of  the  name  of  fesus,  that 
the  sacrament  of  confession  and  the  eucharist  is  of  as  much 
efficacie  as  other  charmes,  &-"  magnified  by  L.  Vairus. 

|F  I  did  well,  I  should  shew  you  the  confection  of  all  their 
stuffe,  and  how  they  prepare  it;  but  it  would  be  too  long. 
And  therefore  you  shall  onlie  have  in  this  place  a  few 
notes  for  the  composition  of  certeine  receipts,  which  in 
stead  of  an  Apothecarie  if  you  deliver  to  any  morrowmasse  preest, 
he  will  make  them  as  well  as  the  pope  himselfe.  Marie  now  they 
wax  everie  parlement  deerer  and  deerer  ;  although  therewithal!,  they 
utter  many  stale  drugs  of  their  owne. 

If    you    looke    in     the    popish    pontificall,    you    shall    see    how   in  eccUsia; 
they    make    their  holie    water ;    to    wit,    in  this    sort  :     I    conjure 
thee   thou   creature    of  water,   in   the   name   of  the   father,    and   of 
the  Sonne,  &  of  the  Holie-ghost,  that  thou  drive  the  divell  out  of 
everie  corner  and  hole   of  this  church,  and  altar ;  so  as  he  remaine 
not  within  our  precincts  that  are  just  and  righteous.     And  water  thus 
used  (as  Durandiis  saith)  hath  power  of  his  owne  nature  to  drive   in  rationali 
away  divels.     If  you  will  learne  to  make  any  more  of  this  popish   'lffi]^i°rum. 
stuffe,  you  may  go  to  the  verie  masse  booke,  and  find  manie  good 
receipts  :    marrie  if   you    search    Du?-andus,    &c  ;    you    shall    find 

I  know  that  all  these  charmes,  and  all  these  palterie  confections 
(though/  they  were  farre  more  impious  and  foolish)  will  be  mainteined    172. 
and  defended  by  massemongers,  even  as  the  residue  will  be  by  witch- 
mongers  :    and  therefore   I  will  in  this  place  insert  a   charme,  the 
authoritie   wherof  is    equall  with   the   rest,    desiring   to   have   their   Pom.ser- 
opinions  herein.    I  find  in  a  booke  called  Pomcct^ium  sermonum  quad-   '«""•  '^-■ 
ragesimalium,  that  S.  F}-ancis  seeing  Rufnusj  provoked  of  the  divell   2j8. 
to  thinke  himselfe  damned,  charged  Rufinus  to  saie  this  charme,  when 
he  next  met  with  the  divell  ;  Apej'i  os,  &^  ibi  iinponam  stircus,  which  is 


12.  Booke, 

T/ie  discoverie 

L.  Vairtis.  lib. 
de  fascin.  3. 
cap.  10. 
Idem,  ibid. 

as  much  to  saie  in  English  as,  Open  thy  mouth  and  I  will  put  in  a 
plumme  :  a  verie  ruffinlie  charme. 

Leonard  Vairus  writcth.,  De  veris,  pits,  ac  Sanctis  amuletis  fascinum 
atqj  omnia  venejicia  destrnentibiis  ;  wherein  he  speciallie  com- 
mendeth  the  name  of  Jesus  to  be  worne.  But  the  sacrament  of  con- 
fession he  extoUeth  above  all  things,  saieng,  that  whereas  Christ  with 
his  power  did  but  throwe  divels  out  of  mens  bodies,  the  preest 
driveth  the  divell  out  of  mans  soule  by  confession.  For  (saith  he) 
these  words  of  the  preest,  when  he  saith,  Ego  te  absolvo,  are  as 
effectuall  to  drive  awaie  the  princes  of  darknes,  through  the  mightie 
power  of  that  saieng,  as  was  the  voice  of  God  to  drive  awaie  the 
darknes  of  the  world,  when  at  the  beginning  he  said,  Fiat  lux.  He 
commendeth  also,  as  holesome  things  to  drive  awaie  divels,  the  sacra- 
ment of  the  eucharist,  and  solitarines,  and  silence.  Finallie  he  saith, 
that  if  there  be  added  hereunto  an  Agnus  Dei,  and  the  same  be  worne 
about  ones  necke  by  one  void  of  sinne,  nothing  is  wanting  that  is 
good  and  holesome  for  this  purpose.  But  he  concludeth,  that  you 
must  weare  and  make  dints  in  your  forhead,  with  crossing  your  selfe 
when  you  put  on  your  shooes,  and  at  everie  other  action,  &c  :  and 
that  is  also  a  present  remedie  to  drive  awaie  divels,  for  they  cannot 
abide  it. 

The    eleventh    Chapter. 

Of  the  noble  balnie  used  by  Moses.,  apishlie  counterfeited  ifi  the 
church  of  Rome. 

I  HE  noble  balnie  that  i^/^J^i' made,  having  indeed  manie 
excellent  vertues,  besides  the  pleasant  and  comfortable 
savour  thereof ;  wherewithall  Moses  in  his  pohtike  lawes 
enjoined  kings,  queenes,  and  princes  to  be  annointed  in 
their  true  and  lawfull  elections  and  coronations,  untill  the  everlasting 
2jg.  king  had  put  on/  man  upon  him,  is  apishlie  counterfeited  in  the 
Romish  church,  with  diverse  terrible  conjurations,  three  breathings, 
crossewise,  (able  to  make  a  quezie  stomach  spue)  nine  mumblings, 
and  three  curtsies,  saieng  thereunto,  Ave  sa7tctum  oleum,  ter  ave 
saiictum  balsamum.  And  so  the  divell  is  thrust  out,  and  the  Holie- 
ghost  let  into  his  place.  But  as  for  Moses  his  balme,  it  is  not  now  to 
be  found  either  in  Rome  or  elsewhere  that  I  can  learne.  And  accord- 
ing to  this  papisticall  order,  witches,  and  other  superstitious  people 
follow  on,  with  charmes  and  conjurations  made  in  forme  ;  which 
manie  bad  physicians  also  practise,  when  their  learning  faileth,  as 
maie  appeare  by  example  in  the  sequele./ 

of  WitcJicraft. 

Chap.  12. 


The    twelfe    Chapter.  173. 

The  opinio7t  of  Ferraritts  toicching  charines,  periapts^  appensions, 
at/iideis,  &^c.  Of  Homericall  viedici/ies,  of  consiani  opifiton,  and 
the  effects  thereof 

RGERIUS  FERRARIUS,  a  physician  in  these  daies  of  Arg.Fer.lib 
great  account,  doth  sale,  that  for  somuch  as  by  no  diet 


nor  physicke  anie  disease  can  be  so  taken  awaie  or  ex- 
tinguished,   but   that   certeine   dregs    and    rehkes    will 
therefore  physicians  use  physicall  alligations,  appensions, 

niethodo.  2. 
cap.  II. 
De  Homerica 


periapts,  amulets,  charmes,  characters,  &c,  which  he  suppo'seth  male 
doo  good  ;  but  harme  he  is  sure  they  can  doo  none  :  urging  that  it  is 
necessarie  and  expedient  for  a  physician  to  leave  nothing  undone  that 
may  be  devised  for  his  patients  recoverie  ;  and  that  by  such  meanes 
manie  great  cures  are  done.  He  citeth  a  great  number  of  experiments 
out  of  Alexander  Tralliaiites,  Aetiiis,  Octatnaims,  Marcellus,  PJiilo- 
dotus,  Archigines,  Philostratus,  Flhiie,  and  Dioscorides  ;  and  would 
make  men  beleeve  that  Galen  (who  in  truth  despised  and  derided  all 
those  vanities)  recanted  in  his  latter  daies  his  former  opinion,  and  all 
his  invectives  tending  against  these  magicall  cures  :  writing  also  a 
booke  intituled  De  Homerica  medicatione,  which  no  man  could  ever 
see,  but  one  Alexander  Trallianus,  who  saith  he  saw  it  :/  and  further  240 
affirmeth,  that  it  is  an  honest  mans  part  to  cure  the  sicke,  by  hooke 
or  by  crooke,  or  by  anie  meanes  whatsoever.  Yea  he  saith  that  Galen 
(who  indeed  wrote  and  taught  that  Incantamenta  sunt  inuliercularuni 
figinenta,  and  be  the  onlie  clokes  of  bad  physicians)  affirmeth,  that 
there  is  vertue  and  great  force  in  incantations.  As  for  example  (saith 
Trallian)  Galen  being  now  reconciled  to  this  opinion,  holdeth  and 
writeth,  that  the  bones  which  sticke  in  ones  throte,  are  avoided  and 
cast  out  with  the  violence  of  charmes  and  inchanting  words  ;  yea  and 
that  thereby  the  stone,  the  choUicke,  the  falling  sicknes,  and  all  fevers, 
gowts,  fluxes,  fistulas,  issues  of  bloud,  and  finallie  whatsoever  cure 
(even  beyond  the  skill  of  himselfe  or  anie  other  foolish  physician)  is 
cured  and  perfectlie  healed  by  words  of  inchantment.  Marie  M. 
Ferrarius  (although  he  allowed  and  practised  this  kind  of  physicke) 
yet  he  protesteth  that  he  thinketh  it  none  otherwise  effectuall,  than 
by  the  waie  of  constant  opinion  :  so  as  he  affirmeth  that  neither  the 
character,  nor  the  charme,  nor  the  witch,  nor  the  devill  accomplish 
the  cure  ;  as  (saith  he)  the  experiment  of  the  toothach  will  manifestlie 
declare,  wherein  the  cure  is  wrought  by  the  confidence  or  diffidence 


This  would 
be  exami- 
ned, to  see 
if  Galen  be 
not  slande- 


\2.  Books. 

77/ c  disc  over  ie 

Englished  hy 




as  well  of  the   patient,    as    of  the    agent  ;    according   to  the  poets 
saieng : 

Nos  habitat  7ion  tartara,  sed  nee  sidera  cceli, 
Spiritus  in  tiobis  qui  viget  ilia  facit. 

Not  hellish  furies  dwell  in  us, 
Nor  starres  with  itifluence  heavenlie ; 
The  spirit  that  lives  and  rules  in  its. 
Doth  every  thing  ingeniouslie,i 

This  (saith  he)  commeth  to  the  unlearned,  through  the  opinion 
which  they  conceive  of  the  characters  and  holie  words  :  but  the 
learned  that  know  the  force  of  the  mind  and  imagination,  worke 
miracles  by  meanes  thereof;  so  as  the  unlearned  must  have  externall 
helps,  to  doo  that  which  the  learned  can  doo  with  a  word  onelie.  He 
saith  that  this  is  called  Homerica  viedicatio,  bicause  Hotiter  dis- 
covered the  bloud  of  the  word  suppressed,  and  the  infections  healed 
by  or  in  mysteries. 


The   xili.    Chapter. 

0/  the  effects  of  amulets,  the  drift  of  Afgerius  Ferrarius  in  the 
covnnendation  of  eharmes,  Q^c :  foure  sorts  of  Homericall  medi- 
cines,  &=  the  choice  thereof;  of  ifuagination. 

S  touching  mine  opinion  of  these  amulets,  characters,  and 
such  other  babies,  I  have  sufficientlie  uttered  it  elsewhere: 
and  I  will  bewraie  the  vanitie  of  these  superstitious 
trifles  more  largelie  hereafter.  And  therefore  at  this 
time  I  onelie  saie,  that  those  amulets,  which  are  to  be  hanged  or 
carried  about  one,  if  they  consist  of  hearbs,  rootes,  stones,  or  some 
other  metall,  they  maie  have  diverse  medicinable  operations  ;  and 
by  the  vertue  given  to  them  by  God  in  their  creation,  maie  worke 
strange  effects  and  cures  :  and  to  impute  this  vertue  to  anie  other 
matter  is  witchcraft.  And  whereas  A.  Ferrarius  commendeth  cer- 
teine  amulets,  that  have  no  shew  of  physicall  operation  ;  as  a  naile 
taken  from  a  crosse,  holie  water,  and  the  verie  signe  of  the  crosse, 
with  such  like  popish  stuffe  :  I  thinke  he  laboureth  thereby  rather  to 
draw  men  to  poperie,  than  to  teach  or  persuade  them  in  the  truth  of 
physicke  or  philosophie.  And  I  thinke  thus  the  rather,  for  that  he 
himselfe  seeth  the  fraud  hereof ;  confessing  that  where  these  magicall 
physicians  applie  three  seeds  of  three  leaved  grasse  to  a  tertian  ague, 
and  foure  to  a  quartane,  that  the  number  is  not  materiall. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Cliaii.   14. 


But  of  these  Homericall  medicines  he  saith  there  are  foure  sorts, 
whereof  amulets,  characters,  &  charmes  are  three  :  howbeit  he  com- 
mendeth  and  preferreth  the  fourth  above  the  rest  ;  and  that  he  saith 
consisteth  in  illusions,  which  he  more  properlie  calleth  stratagems. 
Of  which  sort  of  conclusions  he  alledgeth  for  example,  how  PJiilodotus 
did  put  a  cap  of  lead  upon  ones  head,  who  imagined  he  was  headlesse, 
whereby  the  partie  was  delivered  from  his  disease  or  conceipt.  Item 
another  cured  a  woman  that  imagined,  that  a  serpent  or  snake  did 
continuallie  gnaw  and/  teare  hir  entrailes  ;  and  that  was  done  onelie 
by  giving  hir  a  vomit,  and  by  foisting  into  the  matter  vomited  a  little 
serpent  or  snake,  like  unto  that  which  she  imagined  was  in  hir  bellie. 

Item,  another  imagined  that  he  alwaies  burned  in  the  fier,  under 
whose  bed  a  fier  was  privilie  conveied,  which  being  raked  out  before 
his  face,  his  fancie  was  satisfied,  and  his  heate  allaied.  Hereunto 
perteineth,  that  the  hickot  is  cured  with  sudden  feare  or  strange 
newes  :  yea  by  that  meanes  agues  and  manie  other  strange  and 
extreame  diseases  have  beene  healed.  And  some  that  have  lien  so 
sicke  and  sore  of  the  gowt,  that  they  could  not  remove  a  joint, 
through  sudden  feare  of  fier,  or  ruine/  of  houses,  have  forgotten  their 
infirmities  and  greefes,  and  have  runne  awaie.  But  in  my  tract 
upon  melancholic,  and  the  effects  of  imagination,  and  in  the  discourse 
of  naturall  magicke,  you  shall  see  these  matters  largelie  touched. 

Foure  sorts 
of  Homeri- 
call medi- 
cines, and 
which  is 
the  prin- 


The  force 
of  fixed 
fansie,  opi- 
nion, or 
strong  con- 


The    xiiii.    Chapter. 

Choice  of  Charmes  against  the  falling  evill,  the  biting  of  a  mad 
dog,  the  stinging  of  a  scorpion,  the  toothach,  for  a  woman  in 
travell,for  the  Kings  evill,  to  get  a  thorne  out  of  any  member, 
or  a  bone  out  of  ones  throte,  charmes  to  be  said  fasting,  or  at  the 
gathering  of  hearbs,  for  sore  eies,  to  open  locks,  against  spirits, 
for  the  bots  in  a  horsse,  and  spcciallie  for  the  Duke  of  Albas 
horsse,for  sowre  wines,  ^c. 

HERE  be  innumerable  charmes  of  conjurers,  bad  physi- 
cians, lewd  surgians,  melancholike  witches,  and  couseners, 
for  all  diseases  and  greefes  ;  speciallie  for  such  as  bad 
physicians  and  surgions  knowe  not  how  to  cure,  and  in 
truth  are  good  stufife  to  shadow  their  ignorance,  whereof  I  will 
repeate  some. 

For  the  falling  evill. 

nPAke   the  sicke    man   by  the  hand,    and    whisper   these    wordes 
-^      softlie  in  his  care,   I   conjure  thee  by  the  sunne  and  moone. 

1 96  >2  Booke.  TJie  discoverie 

24J.  and  by  the  gospell  of  this  daie  dehvered  by  God  to  Hubert,  Giles, 
Corneliiis,  2it\A  John,  that  thou  rise  and  fall  no  more.  ^>  Otherwise  : 
Drinke  in  the  night  at  a  spring  water  out  of  a  skull  of  one  that  hath 
beene  slaine.  -;;•-  Otherwise  :  Eate  a  pig  killed  with  a  knife  that  slew 
a  man.     4^  Otherwise  as  foUoweth. 

Ananizapta  ferit  mortem,  dtim  ladere  guar  it. 
Est  mala  mors  capta,  dum  dicitur  Ananizapta, 
Ananizapta  Dei  nunc  miserere  mei. 

Englished  by 
A!  raham 
Flcm  ing. 

i  Ananizapta  smite th  death,  ^ 

^      ivJiiles  haj-me  intendeth  he,  f 

K  This  word  Ananizapta  say,  ," 

J      a7id  deatli  shall  captive  be,  V 

\  Ananizapta  6  of  God,  j 
have  mercie  now  on  me. 

\  A  trains t  the  biting  of  a  Diad  dog. 

\i^°de'damcti        TDUt  a  silver  ring  on  the  finger,  within  the  which  these  words  are 
3-  cap.  5.  JL        graven  ►{<  Habay  ►{<  habar  ►f"  hebar  ^  &  saie  to  the  person 

bitten  with  a  mad  dog,  I  am  thy  saviour,  loose  not  thy  life  :  and  then 
pricke  him  in  the  nose  thrise,  that  at  each  time  he  bleed.  .?>  Other- 
wise :  Take  pilles  made  of  the  skull  of  one  that  is  hanged.  -:>  Other- 
wise :  Write  upon  a  peece  of  bread,  Irioni,  khiriora,  esser,  khuder, 
176.  feres  ;  and  let  it  be  eaten  by  the/  partie  bitten.  -:>-  Otherwise  :  O  rex 
gloricE  Jesu  Christe,  veni  cuni  pace  :  In  nomine  patris  max,  in  nomine 
filii  max,  in  nomine  spirittts  sancti prax :  Gasper,  Melchior,  Balthasar 
►Ji  prax  ►^  max  ^  Detes  I  max  *i* 

But  in  troth  this  is  verie  dangerous  ;  insomuch  as  if  it  be  not 
speedilie  and  cunninglie  prevented,  either  death  or  frensie  insueth, 
through  infection  of  the  humor  left  in  the  wound  bitten  by  a  mad 
dog  :  which  bicause  bad  surgions  cannot  cure,  they  have  therfore 
used  foolish  cousening  charmes.  But  Dodonaus  in  his  herball  saith, 
that  the  hearbe  Alysson  cureth  it  :  which  experiment,  I  doubt  not, 
will  proove  more  true  than  all  the  charms  in  the  world.  But  where 
he  saith,  that  the  same  hanged  at  a  mans  gate  or  entrie,  preserveth 
him  and  his  cattell  from  inchantment,  or  bewitching,  he  is  overtaken 
with  foUie.,/ 

244.  %  Against  the  biting  of  a  scorpion. 


Aie  to  an  asse   secretlie,  and  as  it  were  whispering  in  his  eare  ; 
I  am  bitten  with  a  Scorpion. 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  14.  197 


If  Against  tJie  toothach. 
Carifie   the\gums  in    the    greefe,    with   the  tooth    of   one    that 

That  1 

hath  beene  slaine.     -'t-  Oiherviise  :  Galbes  galbaf,  galdes  galdat. 
■if  Otherwise  :  A  ab  hur  hus,  &c.     •:>■  Otherwise  :  At  saccaring  of 
masse  hold  your  teeth  togither,  and  say  *  Os  non  cotiimhmetis  ex  eo.    You  Thafi 
-it-  Otherwise  :  stnn/es  falcesq:  dentata,  dentiiaii  doloroji  iersanate ;   "«' b^ake 

'  A  ./  Z-'  3  1-  1    or  diminish 

O  horssecombs  and  sickles  that  have  so  many  teeth,  come  heale  me   a  bone  of 
now  of  my  toothach.  ""' 

•[]  A  chariiie  to  release  a  zvomati  in  traiiell. 

THrowe  over  the   top  of  the  house,  where   a   woman    in   travell 
Heth,  a  stone,  or  any  other  thing  that  hath  killed  three  living 
creatures  ;  namelie,  a  man,  a  wild  bore,  and  a  she  beare. 

^  To  heale  the  Kings  or  Queenes  evilly  or  any  other  sorenesse  in 
the  throte. 

REmedies  to  cure  the  Kings  or  Queenes  evill,  is  first  to  touch 
the  place  with  the  hand  of  one  that  died  an  untimelie  death. 
-;;s-  Otherwise  :  Let  a  virgine  fasting  laie  hir  hand  on  the  sore,  and 
sale  ;  Apollo  denieth  that  the  heate  of  the  plague  can  increase, 
where  a  naked  virgine  quencheth  it  :  and  spot  three  times  upon  it. 

5f  A  charnie  rend  in  the  Romish  church,  iipon  saint  Blazes  dale, 
that  will  fetch  a  thorne  out  of  anie  place  of  ones  bodie,  a  bone 
07it  of  the  throte.,  Qr^c  :  Led.  3. 

FOr  the  fetching  of  a  thorne  out  of  any  place  of  ones  bodie,  or 
a  bone  out  of  the  throte,  you  shall  read  a  charnie  in  the  Romish 
church  upon  S.  Blazes  dale  ;  to  wit.  Call  upon  God,  and  remember 
S.  Blaze.  This  S.  Blaze  could  also  heale  all  wild  beasts  that  were 
sicke  or  lame,  with  laieng  on  of  his  hands  :  as  appeareth  in  the 
lesson  red  on  his  dale,  where  you  shall  see  the  matter  at  large./  / 

^  A  charnie  for  the  hcadach.  2^j.     177 

'  I  "le  a  halter  about  your  head,  wherewith  one  hath  beene  hanged. 

^  A  char  me  to  be  said  each  morning  by  a  7vitch  fasting,  or  at  least 
before  she  go  abroad. 

THE   fier  bites,  the  fier  bites,  the  fier  bites  ;  Hogs  turd  over  it, 
hogs  turd  over  it,  hogs  turd  over  it ;  The  father  with  thee,  the 


12.  Booke. 

TJie  discoverie 

•  Though 
neither  the 
hearbe  nor 
the  witch 
never  camo 

Sonne  with  me,  the  hoHe-ghost  betweene  us  both  to  be  :  ter.  Then 
spit  over  one  shoulder,  and  then  over  the  other,  and  then  three  times 
right  forward. 

^  Another  charme  that  witches  use  at  the  gathering  of  their 
medicinable  Jiearbs. 

Haile  be  thou  holie  hearbe 

groiving  on  the  grottnd 
All  in  the  mount  ''^Calvarie 

first  wert  thou  fou7id^ 
Thou  art  good  for  tnanie  a  sore, 

A  nd  healest  matiie  a  woutid, 
In  the  name  of  sweete  fesus 

J  take  thee  from  the  ground. 

^  An  old  womatis  cJiarme,  whereivith  she  did  much  good  in  the 
countrie,  and  grew  famous  thereby. 

AN  old  woman  that  healed  all  diseases  of  cattell  (for  the  which 
she  never  tooke  any  reward  but  a  penie  and  a  loafe)  being 
seriouslie  examined  by  what  words  she  brought  these  things  to  passe, 
confessed  that  after  she  had  touched  the  sicke  creature,  she  alwaies 
departed  immediatelie  ;  saieng  : 

My  loafe  in  my  lap, 

my  penie  in  my  pursse ; 
Thou  are  ne'uer  the  better, 

and  I  am  never  the  ^aursse.j 

Note  the 
force  of 
opinion,  or 
fixed  fancy. 

^^6.  Another  like  charme. 

A  Gentlewoman  having  sore  eies,  made  hir  monc  to  one,  that 
promised  hir  helpe,  if  she  would  follow  his  advise  :  which 
was  onelie  to  weare  about  hir  necke  a  scroll  sealed  up,  whereinto 
she  might  not  looke.  And  she  conceiving  hope  of  cure  thereby, 
received  it  under  the  condition,  and  left  hir  weeping  and  teares,  where- 
with she  was  woont  to  bewaile  the  miserable  darkenesse,  which  she 
doubted  to  indure  :  whereby  in  short  time  hir  eies  were  well  amended. 
But  alas  !  she  lost  soone  after  that  pretious  Jewell,  and  thereby 
returned  to  hir  woonted  weeping,  and  by  consequence  to  hir  sore 
eies.  Howbeit,  hir  jewell  or  scroll  being  found  againe,  was  looked 
into  by  hir  deere  friends,  and  this  onelie  posie  was  conteined 
therein  ; 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   14 


The  div  ell  pull  ojct  both  thine  eies, 
Afid  *etish  in  the  holes  likewise. 


may  see  what   constant  opinion    can  doo, 

*  Spell  the 
word  back- 
ward, and 
you  shall 

of  Plato;  If  a  mans  fansie  or  mind  give  him    soonesee 
assurance  that  a  hurtfull  thing  shall  doo  him  good,  it  may  doo  so,   liecharme 

Rtq  or  appensi- 

Whereby   partlie   you 
according  to  the  saienf 


A  char  me  to  open  locks. 

S  the  hearbes  called  Aethiopides  will  open  all  locks  (if  all  be   Theevish 
true  that  inchanters  sale)  with  the  help    of   certeine  words :    '^  =^''"'^^- 

so  be  there  charmes  also  and  periapts,  which  without  any  hearbs 
can  doo  as  much  :  as  for  example.  Take  a  peece  of  wax  crossed  in 
baptisme,  and  doo  but  print  certeine  floures  therein,  and  tie  them  in 
the  hinder  skirt  of  your  shirt  ;  and  when  you  would  undoo  the  locke, 
blow  thrise  therin,  saieng  ;  Arato  hoc  partiko  hoc  vtaratarykiit.  I 
open  this  doore  in  thy  name  that  I  am  forced  to  breake,  as  thou 
brakest  hell  gates,  In  nomine patris,  &^  Jilii.,  &^  spirittis  sancii,  Amen. 

^  A  charme  to  drive  awaie  spirits  that  haittit  anie  house.  This  is  cal- 

led and 
HAng  in  everie  of  the  foure  corners  of  your  house  this  sentence   counted 
written    upon    virgine   parchment  ;    *  Omnis  spiritus   laudet  ceLian^^ 
Dominum  :  '^  Mosen  habent  S^  irophetas :  <=  Exurmt  Deus  et  dissi-l   charme. 

^      ^  '^  '     »Psal.  I'^o. 

b  Luk.  16. 
c  Psa.  64. 

Pentur  inimici  ejus. 

^  A  prettie  charme  or  conchisiott  for  one  possessed. 

THe  possessed  bodie  must  go  upon  his  or  hir  knees  to  the  church, 
how  farre  so  ever  it  be  off  from  their  lodging  ;  and  so  must 
creepe  without  going  out  of  the  waie,  being  the  common  high  waie,  in 
that  sort,  how  fowle  and  durtie  soever  the  same  be  ;  or  whatsoever  lie 
in  the  waie,  not  shunning  anie  thing  whatsoever,  untill  he  come  to  the 
church,  where  he  must  heare*  masse  devoutlie,  and  then  followeth 

51  Another  for  the  same  purpose. 

'"pHere  must  be  commended  to  some  poore  begger  the  saieng 
A  of  five  Pater  nosters,  and  five  Aves  ;  the  first  to  be  said  in  the 
name  of  the  partie  possessed,  or  bewitched  :  for  that  Christ  was  led 
into  the  garden  ;  secondlie,  for  that  Christ  did  sweat  both  water  and 
bloud  ;  thirdlie,  for  that  Christ  was  condemned  ;  fourthlie,  for  that  he 
was  crucified  guiltlesse  ;  and  fiftlie,  for  that  he  suffered  to  take  awaie 

•  Memo- 
that  hea- 
ring of 
masse  be 
in  no  case 



12.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

our  sinnes.  Then  must  the  sicke  bodie  heare  masse  eight  dales  to- 
gether, standing  in  the  place  where  the  gospell  is  said,  and  must 
mingle  holie  water  with  his  meate  and  his  drinke,  and  holie  salt  also 
must  be  a  portion  of  the  mixture. 

Anglicus  ex 
Gilberto,  iic. 

^  Another  to  the  same  effect. 

THe  sicke  man  must  fast  three  daies,  and  then  he  with  his  parents 
must  come  to  church,  upon  an  embering  fridaie,  and  must  heare 
the  masse  for  that  daie  appointed,  and  so  likewise  the  saturdaie  and 
sundaie  following.  And  the  preest  must  read  upon  the  sicke  mans 
head,  that  gospell  which  is  read  in  September,  and  in  grape  harvest, 
after  the  feast  of  holie  crosse  In  diebus  quatuor  temporuni,  in  ember 
daies  :  then  let  him  write  it  and  carrie  it  aboute  his  necke,  and  he 
shall  be  cured./ 


Barnard,  de 
bustis  in  Ro- 
sa r.  serm. 
serm.  15. 

%  Another  charme  or  witch-craft  for  the  sajne, 

THis  office  or  conjuration  following  was  first  authorised  and 
printed  at  Rome,  and  afterwards  at  Avenzon,  Anno.  1515.  And 
least  that  the  divell  should  lie  hid  in  some  secret  part  of  the/ bodie, 
everie  part  thereof  is  named  ;  Obsccro  te  festi  Chrisfe,  &^c:  that  is  : 
I  beseech  thee  O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  that  thou  pull  out  of  everie 
member  of  this  man  all  infirmities,  from  his  head,  from  his  haire, 
from  his  braine,  from  his  forhead,  from  his  eies,  from  his  nose,  from 
his  eares,  from  his  mouth,  from  his  toong,  from  his  teeth,  from  his 
jawes,  from  his  throte,  from  his  necke,  from  his  backe,  from  his  brest, 
from  his  paps,  from  his  heart,  from  his  stomach,  from  his  sides,  from 
his  flesh,  from  his  bloud,  from  his  bones,  from  his  legs,  from  his  feete, 
from  his  fingers,  from  the  soles  of  his  feete,  from  his  marrowe,  from 
his  sinewes,  from  his  skin,  and  from  everie  joint  of  his  members,  &c. 

Doubtles  Jesus  Christ  could  have  no  starting  hole,  but  was  hereby 
everie  waie  prevented  and  pursued ;  so  as  he  was  forced  to  doo  the 
cure :  for  it  appeareth  hereby,  that  it  had  beene  insufficient  for  him 
to  have  said ;  Depart  out  of  this  man  thou  uncleane  spirit,  and  that 
when  he  so  said  he  did  not  performe  it.  I  doo  not  thinke  that  there 
will  be  found  among  all  the  heathens  superstitious  fables,  or  among 
the  witches,  conjurors,  couseners,  poets,  knaves,  fooles,  &c :  that  ever 
wrote,  so  impudent  and  impious  a  lie  or  charme  as  is  read  in  Barnar- 
di7ie  de  bustis ;  where,  to  cure  a  sicke  man,  Christs  bodie,  to  wit:  a 
wafer  cake,  was  outwardlie  applied  to  his  side,  and  entred  into  his 
heart,  in  the  sight  of  all  the  standers  by.  Now,  if  grave  authors 
report  such  lies,  what  credit  in  these  cases  shall  we  attribute  unto  the 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   14. 


old  wives  tales,  that  Sprenger,  Insiitor,  Bodhie,  and  others  write  ? 
Even  as  much  as  to  Ovids  Metamorphosis,  Aesops  fables,  Moores 
Utopia,  and  diverse  other  fansies;  which  have  as  much  truth  in  them, 
as  a  blind  man  hath  sight  in  his  eie. 

^  A  cha7-})ie  for  the  bots  in  a  horsse. 

YOu  must  both  saie  and  doo  thus  upon  the  diseased  horsse  three 
dales  together,  before  the  sunne  rising:  In  no))iine  pa^tris  &^ 
fi^lii  Ss^  spirittis^^sancti;  Exorcizo  te  verinem per  Deuiii  pa\^trem, 
&^  fi*^liuiii  &^  spiritiiDi^sanctuni:  that  is,  In  the  name  of  God  the 
Father,  the  Sonne,  &  the  Holy-ghost,  I  conjure  thee  O  worme  by  God 
the  Father,  the  Sonne,  &  the  Holy-ghost ;  that  thou  neither  eat  nor 
drinke  the  flesh  bloud  or  bones  of  this  horsse  ;  and  that  thou 
hereby  maist  be  made  as  patient  as  fob,  and  as  good  as  S.  fohii\ 
Baptist,  when  he  baptised  Christ  in  fo7-dan.  In  nomine  pa^iris  &= 
fi>^lii  &^  spiritus^sancti.  And  then  saie  three  Pater  nosters,  and 
three  Aves,  in  the  right  eare  of  the  horsse,  to  the  glorie  of  the  holie 
trinitie.     Do^})iiiuis fili\iis  spiri-^tiis  AIari>^a. 

There  are  also  divers  bookes  imprinted,  as  it  should  appeare 
with  the  authoritie  of  the  church  of  Rome,  wherein  are  conteined 
manie  medicinall  praiers,  not  onelie  against  all  diseases  ofhorsses, 
but  also  for  everie  impediment  and  fault  in  a  horsse :  in  so  much  as 
if  a  shoo  fall  off  in  the  middest  of  his  journie,  there  is  a  praier  to 
warrant  your  horsses/  hoofe,  so  as  it  shall  not  breake,  how  far  so  ever 
he  be  from  the  Smithes  forge. 

Item,  the  Duke  of  Alba  his  horsse  was  consecrated,  or  canonized, 
in  the  lowe  countries,  at  the  solemne  masse  ;  wherein  the  popes  bull, 
and  also  his  charme  was  published  (which  I  will  hereafter  recite)  he 
in  the  meane  time  sitting  as  Vice-roy  with  his  consecrated  standard 
in  his  hand,  till  masse  was  done. 



The  smiths 
will  canne 
them  small 
thankes  for 
this  praier. 


^  A  charme  against  vineager. 

Hat  wine  wax  not  eager,  write  on  the  vessell,*  Gitstate  Ss-'  videte,   [*Ps  33  gVuig.] 
qjiofiiam  snavis  est  Dominus.  blas°'h '^-'^ 



12.  Booke. 

TJie  discoverie 

The    XV,    Chapter. 

The  inchaiitifig  of  serpetiis  atid  sfiakes,  objections  aunsivered  con- 
cerning the  same  j  fond  7'easons  ivhie  charmes  take  effect  therin^ 
Mahoniets  pigeon,  miracles  wrotight  by  an  Asse  at  Memphis  in 
Aegypf,  popish  charjnes  against  serpents,  of  miracle  workers,  the 
taiiu'i?!g  of  snakes,  Bodins  lie  of  snakes. 

[ONCERNING  the   charming   of  serpents   and   snakes, 

mine  adversaries  (as  I  have  said)  thinke  they  have  great 

advantage   by   the  words  of  David  in    the   fiftie   eight 

psalme  ;  and   by    Jeretnie,    chapter    eight,    expounding 

the  one  prophet  by    Virgil,  the  other  by   Ovid.     For  the  words  of 

Psai.  58.  David  are  these  ;  Their  poison  is  Hke  the  poison  of  a  serpent,  and 

2^0.   hke  a  deafe  adder,  that  stoppeth  his/  eare,  and  heareth  not  the  voice 

of  the  charmer,  charme  he  never  so  cunningHe.     The  words  of  Virgil 

are  these,  Frigidus  in  pratis  cantando  rumpitur  anguis.  As  he  might 

saie,  David  thou  hest  ;  for  the  cold  natured  snake  is  by  the  charmes 

of  the  inchanters  broken  all  to  peeces  in  the  field  where  he  lieth. 

Then  commeth  Ovid,  and  he  taketh  his  countriemans  part,  saieng  in 

the  name  and  person  of  a  witch  ;   Vipereas  rumpo  verbis  &^  carmine 

fauces  ;  that  is,  I  with  my  words  and  charmes  can  breake  in  sunder 

the  vipers  jawes.     Marrie  feremie  on  the  other  side  encountereth 

this  poeticall  witch,  and  he  not  onelie  defendeth,  but  expoundeth  his 

fellowe  prophets  words,  and  that  not  in  his  owne  name,  but  in  the 

name  of  almightie  God  ;  saieng,  I  will  send  serpents  and  cockatrices 

among  you,  which  cannot  be  charmed. 

Now  let  anie  indifferent  man  (christian  or  heathen)  judge,  whether 
the  words  and  minds  of  the  prophets  doo  not  directlie  oppugne  these 
poets  words  (I  will  not  saie  minds  :)  for  that  I  am  sure  they  did  therein 
but  jest  and  trifle,  according  to  the  common  fabling  of  lieng  poets. 
And  certeinlie,  I  can  encounter  them  two  with  other  two  poets  ; 
namelie  Propertius  and  Horace,  the  one  merrilie  deriding,  the  other 
seriouslie  impugning  their  fantasticall  poetries,  concerning  the  power 
and  omnipotencie  of  witches.  For  where  Virgil,  Ovid,  &^c  :  write 
that  witches  with  their  charmes  fetch  downe  the  moone  and  starres 
from  heaven,  etc.  ;  Propertitis  mocketh  them  in  these  words  fol- 
lowing :  / 
181 .  At  vos  deducta:  quibus  est fallacia  Lunce, 

Et  labor  ift  magicis  sacra  piare  focis. 
En  agedum  domince  fnetttem  convertite  nostrce, 
Et  facite  ilia  meo  palleat  ore  magis. 

Virg.  eclog.  8. 

Oz'id.  tneta- 
mcr.  7. 

Jerern.  8.  17. 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  15. 


Ttnic  ego  crediderivi  vobis  &^  sidera  ^r'  amnes 
Posse  Circe  is  due  ere  carniinibus  : 

But  you  that  hane  the  sub  till  slight, 
Of/etching  doivne  the  rnoone  front  skies; 
And  with  inchanting  fier  bright, 
A  t tempt  to  purge  your  sacrifies: 
Lo  now,  go  to,  turne  {if  you  can) 
Our  niada))is  mind  and  sturdie  hart,l 
And  make  hir  face  more  pale  and  wan, 
Than  mine :  which  if  by  magicke  art 
You  doo,  then  will  I  soone  beleeve, 
That  by  your  witching  charmes  you  can 
From  skies  aloft  the  starres  remeeve. 
And  rivers  tttrne  from  whence  they  ran. 

And  that  you  may  see  more  certeinlie,  that  these  poets  did  but  jest 
and  deride  the  credulous  and  timerous  sort  of  people,  I  thought 
good  to  shew  you  what  Ovid  saith  against  himselfe,  and  such  as  have 
written  so  incrediblie  and  ridiculouslie  of  witches  omnipotencie  : 

A^ec  medice  magicis  finduntur  cantibus  angties. 
Nee  redit  in  font es  tinda  supina  suos  : 

Snakes  in  the  middle  are  not  rive?i 

with  charmes  of  witches  cu fining, 
Nor  waters  to  their  fountaines  driven 

by  force  of  backivard  rumiing. 

Englished  by 




Englished  by 
Flem  ing. 

As  for  Horace  his  verses  I  omit  them,  bicause  I  have  cited  them  in 
another  place.  And  concerning  this  matter  Cardanus  saith,  that  at  Card.  lib.  15. 
everie  eclipse  they  were  woont  to  thinke,  that  witches  pulled  downe  /ap'so. 
the  sunne  and  moone  from  heaven.  And  doubtles,  hence  came  the 
opinion  of  that  matter,  which  spred  so  farre,  and  continued  so  long  in 
the  common  peoples  mouthes,  that  in  the  end  learned  men  grew  to 
beleeve  it,  and  to  affirme  it  in  writing. 

But  here  it  will  be  objected,  that  bicause  it  is  said  (in  the  places  by  Anobjecti- 
me  alledged)  that  snakes  or  vipers  cannot  be  charmed  ;  Ergo  other  °^^^ 
things  may  :  To  answer  this  argument,  I  would  aske  the  witchmonger 
this  question,  to  wit ;  Whether  it  be  expedient,  that  to  satisfie  his 
follie,  the  Holie-ghost  must  of  necessitie  make  mention  of  everie 
particular  thing  that  he  imagineth  may  be  bewitched  ?  I  would  also 
aske  of  him,  what  privilege  a  snake  hath  more  than  other  creatures, 
that  he  onelie  may  not,  and  all  other  creatures  may  be  bewitched  ? 

on  answe- 

204  li.Booke.  The  discoverie 

182.  I  hope  they  will  not  sale,  that  either/  their  faith  or  infidelitie  is  the 
cause  thereof;  neither  doo  I  admit  the  answer  of  such  divines  as  saie, 
2j2.  that  he  cannot  be  bewitched  :/  for  that  he  seduced  Eve  ;  by  meanes 
whereof  God  himselfe  curssed  him  ;  and  thereby  he  is  so  privileged, 
as  that  no  witches  charme  can  take  hold  of  him.  But  more  shall  be 
said  hereof  in  the  sequele. 
Dan.  in  dia-  Danaiis  saith,  that  witches  charmes  take  soonest  hold  upon  snakes 

and  adders  ;  bicause  of  their  conference  and  familiaritie  with  the 
divell,  whereby  the  rather  mankind  through  them  was  seduced.  Let 
us  seeke  then  an  answer  for  ttiis  cavill  ;  although  in  truth  it  needeth 
not  :  for  the  phrase  of  speach  is  absolute,  &  importes  not  a  speciall 
qualitie  proper  to  the  nature  of  a  viper  anie  more,  than  when  I  saie  ; 
A  connie  cannot  flie:  you  should  gather  &  conclude  thereupon,  that 
I  ment  that  all  other  beasts  could  flie.  But  you  shall  understand,  that 
the  cause  why  these  vipers  can  rather  withstand  the  voice  &  practise 
of  inchanters  and  sorcerers,  than  other  creatures,  is:  for  that  they 
being  in  bodie  and  nature  venomous,  cannot  so  soone  or  properlie 
receive  their  destruction  by  venome,  wherby  the  witches  in  other 
creatures  bring  their  mischeefous  practises  more  easilie  to  passe, 
according  to  Vir^ils  saieng 

Virg.  gto.  4.  CorrupUque  lacus,  infecit  pabtila  tabo, 

AbfJimm  *^  -^^^^  ^^^  "^fi^^  '^^^^^  poisoji  Strong 

Fleming.  Both  ponds  and  pastures  all  along. 

And  thereupon  the  prophet  alludeth  unto  their  corrupt  and  in- 
flexible nature,  with  that  comparison:  and  not  (as  Treijielius  is  faine 
to  shift  it)  with  stopping  one  eare  with  his  taile,  and  laieng  the  other 
close  to  the  ground  ;  bicause  he  would  not  heare  the  charmers  voice. 
For  the  snake  hath  neither  such  reason  ;  nor  the  words  such  effect: 
otherwise  the  snake  must  know  our  thoughts.  It  is  also  to  be  con- 
sidered, how  untame  by  nature  these  vipers  (for  the  most  part)  are  ; 
in  so  much  as  they  be  not  by  mans  industrie  or  cunning  to  be  made 
familiar,  or  traind  to  doo  anie  thing,  whereby  admiration  maie  be 
Feates  his  procured:  as  Bomelio  Feates  his  dog  could  doo  ;  or  MaJioniets  pigeon, 

Mahomets  which  would  resort  unto  him,  being  in  the  middest  of  his  campe,  and 

pigeon.  picke  a  pease  out  of  his  eare  ;  in  such  sort  that  manie  of  the  people 

thought  that  the  Holie-ghost  came  and  told  him  a  tale  in  his  eare: 
the  same  pigeon  also  brought  him  a  scroll,  wherein  was  written.  Rex 
esto,  and  laid  the  same  in  his  necke.  And  bicause  I  have  spoken  of 
^53-  ^'^^  doci/litie  of  a  dog  and  a  pigeon,  though  I  could  cite  an  infinite 
number  of  like  tales,  I  will  be  bold  to  trouble  you  but  with  one 

of  IVitchcraft. 

Cliap,  15. 



At  Memphis  in  ^^;cr|''//,  among  other  juggling  knacks,  which  were    A  stone 
there  usuallie  shewed,  there  was  one  that  tooke  such  paines  with  an    thegreaf 
asse,  that  he  had  taught  him  all  these  qualities  following.     And  for   t'o^iiiue  of 

'  '^  ^  °  an  asse. 

gaine  he  caused  a  stage  to  be  made,  and  an  assemblie  of  people  to 
meete  ;  which  being  done,  in  the  maner  of  a  plaie,  he  came  in  with 
his  asse,  and  said  ;  The  Sidtatie  hath  great  need  of  asses  to  helpe  to 
carrie  stones  and  other  stuffe,  towards  his  great  building  which  he 
hath  in  hand.  The  asse  im/mediallie  fell  downe  to  the  ground,  and 
by  all  signes  shewed  himselfe  to  be  sicke,  and  at  length  to  give  up 
the  ghost  :  so  as  the  juggler  begged  of  the  assemblie  monie  towards 
his  losse.  And  having  gotten  all  that  he  could,  he  said  ;  Now  my 
maisters,  you  shall  see  mine  asse  is  yet  alive,  and  dooth  but  counter- 
fet  ;  bicause  he  would  have  some  monie  to  buie  him  provender, 
knowing  that  I  was  poore,  and  in  some  need  of  releefe.  Hereupon  he 
would  needs  laie  a  wager,  that  his  asse  was  alive,  who  to  everie  mans 
seeming  was  starke  dead.  And  when  one  had  laid  monie  with  him 
thereabout,  he  commanded  the  asse  to  rise,  but  he  laie  still  as  though 
he  were  dead  :  then  did  he  beate  him  with  a  cudgell,  but  that  would 
not  serve  the  turne,  untill  he  addressed  this  speech  to  the  asse,  saieng 
(as  before)  in  open  audience  ;  The  Sultane  hath  commanded,  that 
all  the  people  shall  ride  out  to  morrow,  and  see  the  triumph,  and 
that  the  faire  ladies  will  then  ride  upon  the  fairest  asses,  and  will  give 
notable  provender  unto  them,  and  everie  asse  shall  drinke  of  the 
sweete  water  of  lYilus  :  and  then  lo  the  asse  did  presentlie  start  up, 
and  advance  himselfe  exceedinglie.  Lo  (quoth  his  maister)  now  I 
have  wonne  :  but  in  troth  the  Maior  hath  borrowed  mine  asse,  for 
the  use  of  the  old  ilfavoured  witch  his  wife  :  and  thereupon  immediat- 
lie  he  hoong  downe  his  eares,  and  halted  downe  right,  as  though  he 
had  beene  starke  lame.  Then  said  his  maister  ;  I  perceive  you  love 
yoong  prettie  wenches  :  at  which  words  he  looked  up,  as  it  were  with 
joifull  cheere.  And  then  his  maister  did  bid  him  go  choose  one  that 
should  ride  upon  him  ;  and  he  ran  to  a  verie  handsome  woman,  and 
touched  hir  with  his  head  :  &c.  A  snake  will  never  be  brought  to 
such  familiaritie,  &c.  Bodin  saith,  that  this  was  a  man  in  the  like- 
nesse  of  an  asse  :  but  I  male/  rather  thinke  that  he  is  an  asse  in 
the  likenesse  of  a  man.  Well,  to  returne  to  our  serpents,  I  will  tell 
you  a  storie  concerning  the  charming  of  them,  and  the  event  of 
the  same. 

In  the  citie  of  Salisborogli  there  was  an  inchanter,  that  before  all 
the  people  tooke  upon  him  to  conjure  all  the  serpents  and  snakes 
within  one  mile  compasse  into  a  great  pit  or  dike,  and  there  to  kill    John.  Bodin 
them.     When  all  the  serpents  were  gathered  togither,  as   he  stood 
upon  the  brinke  of  the  pit,  there   came  at  the  last  a  great   and  a 

J.  Bod.  lih.  de 
da'm.  2,  cap.  6. 


Mai.  male/, 
fart  2.  qu.  2. 
cap    9. 


13.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

or  conj  ura- 
tiOs  against    184. 

L.  Vair.  lib. 
de  fascinat. 
I.  cap.  4. 


Usurpers  of 
kinred  with 
Paule  and 
S  Katha- 

horrible  serpent,  which  would  not  be  gotten  downe  with  all  the  force 
of  his  incantations  :  so  as  (all  the  rest  being  dead)  he  flew  upon  the 
inchanter,  and  clasped  him  in  the  middest,  and  drew  him  downe  into 
the  said  dike,  and  there  killed  him.  You  must  thinke  that  this  was 
a  divell  in  a  serpents  likenesse,  which  for  the  love  he  bare  to  the 
poore  snakes,  killed  the  sorcerer  ;  to  teach  all  other  witches  to  be- 
ware of  the  like  wicked  practise.  And  surelie,  if  this  be  not  true, 
there  be  a  great  number  of  lies  conteined  in  M.  Mai.  and  iny.  Bodin. 
And  if  this  be  well  weighed,  and  conceived,  it  beateth  downe  to  the 
ground  all  those  witchmongers  arguments,  that  contend  to  wring 
witching  miracles  out  of  this  place.  For  they  disagree  notablie,  some 
denieng  and  some  affirming  that  serpents  male  be  bewitched. 
Neverthelesse,  bicause  in  everie  point  you  shall  see  how  poperie 
agreeth  with  paganisme,  I  will  recite  certeine  charmes  against  vipers, 
allowed  for  the  most  part  in  and  by  the  church  of  Rojue :  as 

I  conjure  thee  O  serpent  in  this  houre,  by  the  five  holie  woonds 
of  our/  Lord,  that  thou  remove  not  out  of  this  place,  but  here  stale, 
as  certeineUe  as  God  was  borne  of  a  pure  virgine.  -$-  Otherwise  : 
I  conjure  thee  serpent  Iti  noj/tine  patris,  &^  Jilii,  dr'  spiritus  sancti  : 
I  command  thee  serpent  by  our  ladie  S.  Marie.,  that  thou  obeie 
me,  as  wax  obeieth  the  fier,  and  as  fier  obeieth  water  ;  that  thou 
neither  hurt  me,  nor  anie  other  christian,  as  certeinelie  as  God 
was  borne  of  an  immaculate  virgine,  in  which  respect  I  take  thee 
up.  In  nomine  patris  &^  filii,  &^  spiritus  sancti :  Ely  lash  eiter,  ely 
lash  eiter,  ely  lash  eiter.  ■0-  Otherwise  :  O  vermine,  thou  must  come 
as  God  came  unto  the  Jewes.  4^  Otherwise  :  L.  Vairus  saith, 
that  Serpens  quernis  frondibus  contacta,  that  a  serpent  touched  with 
oke  leaves  dieth,  and  staieth  even  in  the  beginning  of  his  going,  if 
a  feather  of  the  bird  Jbis  be  cast  or  throwne  upon  him  :  and  that/ 
a  viper  smitten  or  hot  with  a  reed  is  astonied,  and  touched  with  a 
beechen  branch  is  presentlie  numme  and  stiffe. 

Here  is  to  be  remembred,  that  manie  use  to  boast  that  they  are  of 
S.  Patties  race  and  kinred,  shewing  upon  their  bodies  the  prints  of 
serpents :  which  (as  the  papists  affirme)  was  incident  to  all  them  of 
S.  Paules  stocke,  Marie  they  sale  herewithall,  that  all  his  kinsfolks 
can  handle  serpents,  or  anie  poison  without  danger.  Others  likewise 
have  (as  they  brag)  a  Katharine  wheele  upon  their  bodies,  and  they 
sale  they  are  kin  to  S.  Katharine,  and  that  they  can  carrie  burning 
coles  in  their  bare  hands,  and  dip  their  said  hands  in  hot  skalding 
liquor,  and  also  go  into  hot  ovens.  Whereof  though  the  last  be  but  a 
bare  jest,  and  to  be  doone  by  anie  that  will  prove  (as  a  bad  fellow  in 
London  had  used  to  doo,  making  no  tariance  at  all  therein :)  yet  there 

of  Witchcraft.  (hap.  15  207 

is  a  shew  made  of  the  other,  as  though  it  were  certeine  and  undoubted  ; 
by  annointing  the  hands  with  the  juice  of  mallowes,  mercuiie,  urine, 
&c:  which  for  a  Httle  time  are  defensatives  against  these  scalding 
liquors,  and  scortching  fiers. 

But  they  that  take  upon  them  to  worke  these  mysteries  and 
miracles,  doo  indeed  (after  rehearsall  of  these  and  such  like  words 
and  charmes)  take  up  even  in  their  bare  hands,  those  snakes  and 
vipers,  and  sometimes  put  them  about  their  necks,  without  receiving 
anie  hurt  thereby,  to  the  terror  and  astonishment  of  the  beholders, 
which  naturallie  both  feare  and  abhorre  all  serpents.  But  these  char- 
mers (upon  my  word)  dare  not  trust  to  their  charmes,  but  use  such 
an  inchantment,  as  everie  man  male  lawfuUie  use,  and  in  the  lawful! 
use  thereof  maie  bring  to  passe  that  they  shalbe  in  securitie,  and  take 
no  harme,  how  much  soever  they  handle  them  :  marie  with  a  woollen 
rag  they  pull  out  their  teeth  before  hand,  as  some  men  sale  ;  but  as 
truth  is,  they  wearie  them,  and  that  is  of  certeintie.  And  surelie  this  is 
a  kind  of  witchcraft,  which   1   terme  private  confederacie.      Bodin   J-Bodin.iib. 

.  .  .  1    '^^  deem .  I . 

saith,  that  all  the    snakes    m   one    countne   were  by  charmes  and    cap.  3. 
verses    driven    into    another  region  :    perhaps  he  meaneth  h-eland, 
where  S.  Patrike  is  said  to  have  doone  it  with  his  holinesse,  &c. 

James  Sprenger,  and  Henrie  histitor  afifirme,  that  serpents  and 

snakes,  and  their  skins  exceed  all  other  creatures  for  witchcraft  :  in 

so  much  as  witches  doo  use  to  burie  them  under  mens/  threshholds,   2,56. 

either  of  the  house  or  stalles,  whereby  barrennes  is  procured  both  to 

woman   and  beast  :  yea  and  that  the  verie  earth  and  ashes  of  them 

continue  to  have  force  of  fascination.    In  respect  whereof  they  wish  all 

men  now  and  then  to  dig/  awaie  the  earth  under  their  threshholds,  and    185. 

to  sprinkle  holie  water  in  the  place,  &  also  tohang  boughes  (hallowed 

on  midsummer  dale)   at  the  stall   doore   where  the 

cattell  stand  :  &  produce  examples  thereupon, 

of  witches  lies,  or  else  their  owne,  which 

I  omit  ;  bicause  I  see  my  booke 

groweth  to  be  greater 

than  I  meant  it 




12.  Booke. 

The  discover ie 

L.  Vairus  lib. 
fascin.  i.  ca.  5. 
Onitio  Tus- 
can vesialis. 

Of  the 
word  (Bud) 
and  the 
Gieeke  let- 
ters n  &  A- 


The    xvi.    Chapter. 

Char7nes  to  carrie  water  in  a  sive,  to  kfiow  ivJiat  is  spoke7i  of  us  behind 
our  backs,  for  bleare  eies,  to  7/iake  seeds  to  growe  well,  of  images 
made  of  wax,  to  be  rid  of  a  witch,  to  hang  hir  up,  notable 
authorities  against  liMxxen  images,  a  storie  bewraieng  the  knaverie 
of  waxen  images. 

EONARDUS  VAIRUS  saith,  that  there  was  a  praier 
extant,  whereby  might  be  carried  in  a  sive,  water,  or 
other  liquor  :  I  thinke  it  was  Clam  claie  ;  which  a  crow 
taught  a  maid,  that  was  promised  a  cake  of  so  great 
quantitie,  as  might  be  kneded  of  so  much  floure  as  she  could  wet 
with  the  water  that  she  brought  in  a  sive,  and  by  that  meanes  she 
clamd  it  with  claie,  &  brought  in  so  much  water,  as  whereby  she 
had  a  great  cake,  and  so  beguiled  hir  sisters,  &c.  And  this  tale 
I  heard  among  my  grandams  maides,  whereby  I  can  decipher  this 
witchcraft.  Item,  by  the  tingling  of  the  eare,  men  heretofore  could  tell 
what  was  spoken  of  them.  If  anie  see  a  scorpion,  and  saie  this  word 
{Bud)  he  shall  not  be  stoong  or  bitten  therewith.  These  two  Greeke 
letters  n  and  A  written  in  a  paper,  and  hoong  about  ones  necke,  pre- 
serve the  partie  from  bleereiednesse.  Cummin  orhempseed  sowne  with 
curssing  and  opprobrious  words  grow  the  faster  and  the  better.  Berosus 
Aniafius  maketh  witchcraft  of  great  antiquitie  :  for  he  saith,  that/ 
Cham  touching  his  fathers  naked  member  uttered  a  charme,  wherby 
his  father  became  emasculated  or  deprived  of  the  powers  generative. 

1|  A  chartne  teaching  how  to  hurt  whom  you  list  with  images  of 
wax,  &^c. 

MAke  an  image  in  his  name,  whom  you  would  hurt  or  kill,  of  new 
virgine  wax  ;  under  the  right  arme  poke  whereof  place  a  swal- 
lowes  hart,  and  the  liver  under  the  left  ;  then  hang  about  the  necke 
thereof  a  new  thred  in  a  new  needle  pricked  into  the  member  which  you 
would  have  hurt,  with  the  rehearsall  of  certeine  words,  which  for  the 
avoiding  of  foolish  superstition  and  credulitie  in  this  behalfe  is  to  be 
omitted.  And  if  they  were  inserted,  I  dare  undertake  they  would  doo 
no  harme,  were  it  not  to  make  fooles,  and  catch  gudgins.  ^^  Other- 
wise :  Sometimes  these  images  are  made  of  brasse,  and  then  the 
hand  is  placed  where  the  foote  should  be,  and  the  foote  where  the 
hand,  and  the  face  downeward.  -%■  Otherwise  :  For  a  greater  mischeefe, 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.   1 6. 


the  like  image  is  made  in  the  forme  of  a  man  or  woman,  upon  whose 
head  is  written  the  certeine  name  of  the  partie  :  and  on  his  or  hir 
ribs  these  -words,  A iltf,  casyl,  zaze,  hitj  mel  meltai :  then  the  same 
must  be  buried.  •^]^  Otherwise  :  In  the  dominion  of  Mars,  two  images 
must  be  prepared,  one  of  wax,  the  other  of  the  earth  of  a  dead  man ; 
each  image  must  have  in  his  hand  a  sword  wherwith  a  man  hath 
beene  slaine,  &  he  that  must  be  slaine  may  have  his  head  thrust 
through  with  a  foine.  In  both  must  be  written  certeine  peculiar 
characters,  and  then  must  they  be  hid  in  a  certeine  place.  -:>•  Other- 
wise :  To  obteine  a  womans  love,  an  image  must  be  made  in  the 
houre  of  Venus,  of  virgine  wax,  in  the  name  of  the  beloved,  wher- 
upon  a  character  is  written,  &  is  warmed  at  a  fier,  and  in  dooing 
therof  the  name  of  some  angell  must  be  mentioned.  To  be  utterlie 
rid  of  the  witch,  and  to  hang  hir  up  by  the  haire,  you  must  prepare 
an  image  of  the  earth  of  a  dead  man  to  be  baptised  in  another  mans 
name,  whereon  the  name,  with  a  character,  must  be  written  :  then 
must  it  be  perfumed  with  a  rotten  bone,  and  then  these  psalmes  read 
backward:  Doinine  Domiiuts  nosie?;  Dominies  illuininaiio  niea,  Do/nine 
exaudi  orationein  meant,  Deiis  laudem  7neatn  ne  tacueris  :  and  then 
burie  it,  first  in  one  place,  and/  afterwards  in  another.  Howbeit,  it  is 
written  in  the  21  article  of  the  determination  of  Paris,  that  to  affirme 
that  images  of  brasse,  lead,  gold,  of  white  or  red  wax,  or  of  any 
other  stufife  (conjured,  baptised,  consecrated,  or  rather  execrated 
through  these  magicall  arts  at  certeine  days)  have  woonderfuU  vertues, 
or  such  as  are  avowed  in  their  bookes  or  assertions,  is  error  in  faith, 
naturall  philosophic,  and  true  astronomic  :  yea  it  is  concluded  in  the 
22  article  of  that  councell,  that  it  is  as  great  an  error  to  beleeve 
those  things,  as  to  doo  them. 

But  concerning  these  images,  it  is  certeine  that  they  are  much 
feared  among  the  people,  and  much  used  among  cousening  witches, 
as  partlie  appeereth  in  this  discourse  of  mine  else-where,  &  as  partlie 
you  may  see  by  the  contents  of  this  storie  following.  Not  long 
sithence,  a  yoong  maiden  (dwelling  at  new  Romnie  heere  in  Kent) 
being  the  daughter  of  one  M.  L.  Sttippenie  (late  Jurat  of  the  same 
towne  but  dead  before  the  execution  hereof)  and  afterwards  the 
wife  of  Thomas  Eps,  who  is  at  this  instant  Maior  oi Romjiie)  was  visited 
with  sicknesse,  whose  mother  and  father  in  lawe  being  abused  with 
credulitie  concerning  witches  supernaturall  power,  repaired  to  a 
famous  witch  called  mother  Baker,  dwelling  not  far  from  thence  at  a 
place  called  Stonstreet,  who  (according  to  witches  cousening  custome) 
asked  whether  they  mistrusted  not  some  bad  neighbour,  to  whom 
they  answered  that  indeed  they  doubted  a  woman  neere  unto  them 
(and  yet  the  same  woman  was,  of  the  honester  «&  wiser  sort  of  hir 

E  E 


The  practi- 
ser  of  these 
must  have 
skill  in  the 
motions,  or 
else  he  miy 
go  shoo  the 


A  proved 
storie  con- 
cerning the 


12.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 



neighbors,  reputed  a  good  creature.)  Nevertheles  the  witch  told 
them  that  there  was  great  cause  of  their  suspicion  :  for  the  same  (said 
she)  is  the  verie  partie  that  wrought  the  maidens  destruction,  by 
making  a  hart  of  wax,  and  pricking  the  same  with  pins  and  needels  ; 
affirming  also  that  the  same  neighbor  of  hirs  had  bestowed  the 
same  in  some  secret  corner  of  the  house.  This  being  beleeved,  the 
house  w^as  searched  by  credible  persons,  but  nothing  could  be  found. 
The  witch  or  wise  woman  being  certified  hereof,  continued  hir 
assertion,  and  would  needs  go  to  the  house  where  she  hir  selfe  (as  she 
affirmed)  would  certeinlie  find  it.  When  she  came  thither,  she 
used  hir  cunning  (as  it  chanced)  to  hir  owne  confusion,  or  at  least  wise 
to  hir  detection  :  for  heerein  she  did,  as  some  of  the  wiser  sort  mis- 
trusted that  she  woulde  doo,  laieng  downe  privilie  such  an/  image  (as 
she  had  before  described)  in  a  corner,  which  by  others  had  beene 
most  diligentlie  searched  &  looked  into,  &  by  that  means  hir  cousen- 
age  was  notablie  bewraied.  And  I  would  wish  that  all  witchmongers 
might  paie  for  their  lewd  repaire  to  inchantors,  and  consultation  with 
witches,  and  such  as  have  familiar  spirits,  as  some  of  these  did,  and 
that  by  the  order  of  the  high  commissioners,  which  partlie  for  respect 
of  neighborhood,  .and  partlie  for  other  considerations,  I  leave  un- 
spoken of. 

This  ch-irm 
seemeth  to 
iillude  to 
Clirist  cru- 
ciiied  be- 
tweene  the 
two  theevs. 

Englished  by 



Psal.  44. 

The    xvii.    Chapter. 

Snndrie  sorts  of  chaj-mes  tcTidi7tg  to  dh'erse  purposes,  and  first^ 
certeine  charines  to  make  taciturnitie  in  torttcres. 

M PARI  BUS  meritis  tria 
pendent  corpora  rami's, 
Dismas  &=  Gestas, 

in  medio  est  divina  potestas, 
Dismas  damnatiir, 

Gestas  ad  astra  levatur  : 

Three  bodies  on  a  bough  doo  hang, 

for  merits  of  inequalitie, 
Distnas  and  Gestas,  in  the  midst 

the  power  of  the  divinitie. 
Dismas  is  damned,  bnt  Gestas  lif- 
ted 7(p  above  the  starres  on  hie. 

Also  this  :  Eructnvit  cor  meum  verbum  boniim  7'eritatem  nnnquani 
dicam  regi.  4^  Otherwise  :  As  the  milke  of  our  ladie  was  lussious  to 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ ;  so  let  this  torture  or  rope  be  pleasant  to  mine 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  17. 

21  I 

amies  and  members.  4}r  0\\\&\\^\?>&:  Jesus  auteiii  transiois per  medium    Luk.  4. 
illorum  ibat.  -J,?-  Otherwise  :  You  shall  not  break  a  bone  of  him./  •^°''""  '^' 

^  Counter  cJiarmes  against  these  and  all  other  7aitchcra/ts,  in  the         260. 
saieng  also  whereof  witches  are  vexed,  &^c. 

TI?Ructavit  cor   meunt   verbum    bomim.  dicam  cuncta  ofiera    iiiea   P^^'-  44- 

JZLr  1  •  -r-.  •  r    7  r-  Scripture 

regi.  •$■  Otherwise  :  Domine  labia  tnea  aperies,  &'  os  meum  piopc-riie 
annunciabit  veritatem.  -j;?-  Otherwise  :  Contere  brachia  iniqui  rei,  &^  ^'''^  "^^ " 
lingua  maligna  subvertetur. 

^  A  char  me  for  the  choine  cough. 

TAke  three   sips  of  a  chalice,  when   the  preest  hath  said  masse, 
and  swallow  it  downe  with  good  devotion,  &c./ 

^f  For  corporall  or  spirituall  rest. 

Jn  fiomi?ie  patris,  up  and  downe, 

Et  filii  &^  spiritus  sancti  upon  my  crowne, 

Crux  CJiristi  upon  my  brest, 

Sweete  ladie  send  me  eternall  rest  !*-' 


[*  Ital.  &  Rom.] 

^  Charmes  to  find  out  a  theefe. 

THe  meanes  how  to  find  out  a  theefe,  is  thus  :  Turne  your  face  to 
the  east,  and  make  a  crosse  upon  christall  with  oile  olive,  and 
under  the  crosse  write  these  two  words  \_Saint  Helen\^  Then  a  child 
that  is  innocent,  and  a  chast  virgine  borne  in  true  wedlocke,  and  not 
base  begotten,  of  the  age  of  ten  yeares,  must  take  the  christall  in  his 
hand,  and  behind  his  backe,  kneeling  on  thy  knees,  thou  must 
devoutlie  and  reverentlie  saie  over  this  praier  thrise  :  I  beseech  thee 
my  ladie  S.  Heleti,  mother  of  king  Constantine,  which  diddest  find 
the  crosse  whereupon  Christ  died  :  by  that  thy  holie  devotion,  and 
invention  of  the  crosse,  and  by  the  same  crosse,  and  by  the  joy 
which  thou  conceivedst  at  the  finding  thereof  and  by  the  love  which 
thou  barest  to  thy  sonne  Constantine,  and  by  the  great  goodnes 
which  thou  dooest  alwaies  use,  that  thou  shew  me  in  this  christall, 
whatsoever  I  aske  or  desire  to  knowe  ;  Amen.  And  when  the  child 
seeth  the  angell  in  the  christall,  demand  what  you  will,  and  the  angell 
will  make  answer  thereunto.  Memorandum,*  that  this  be  doone  just 
at  the  sunne/  rising,  when  the  wether  is  faire  and  cleere. 

Cardanus  derideth  these  and  such  like  fables,  and  setteth  downe 
his  judgement  therein  accordinglie,  in  the  sixteenth  booke  De  rerum 

O  most 
full  vertue 
hidden  in 
the  letters 
of  S.  He- 
lens holie 
name  ! 

[»  So  in  text.] 


Card.  lib.  i6. 
de  var.  rcr. 
cap.  93- 

212  I-'.  Booke.  The  discover ie 

var.     These  conjurors  and  couseners  forsooth  will  shew  you  in  a 

glasse  the  theefe  that  hath  stolne  anie  thing  from  you,  and  this  is 

their  order.     They  take  a  glasse  viall  full  of  holie  water,  and  set  it 

upon  a  linnen  cloth,  which  hath  beene  purified,  not  onelie  by  washing, 

but  by  sacrifice,  &c.     On  the  mouth  of  the  viall  or  urinall,  two  olive 

leaves  must  be  laid  acrosse,  with  a  litle  conjuration  said  over  it,  by  a 

child;  to  wit  thus  :  Angele  bone,  angele  canduie,per iuam  sanctitatem, 

mcdniq;  virginiiatem,  ostettde  inihi  furem  :  with  three  Pater  nosters, 

•For  if  the  three  Aves,  and  betwixt  either  of  them  a  *crosse  made  with  the  naile 

forgotten  of  the  thumbc  upon  the  mouth  of  the  viall  ;  and  then  shall  be  scene 

all  IS  not  angrels   ascending   and   descending   as    it    were  motes   in  the  sunne 

V  oorth  a  '^  °  ° 

pudding.  beames.     The  theefe  all  this  while  shall  suffer  great  torments,  and 

his  face  shall  be  scene  plainlie,  even  as  plainlie  I  beleeve  as  the  man 
in  the  moone.  For  in  truth,  there  are  toies  artificiallie  conveied  into 
the  glasse,  which  will  make  the  water  bubble,  and  devises  to  make 
images  appeare  in  the  bubbles  :  as  also  there  be  artificiall  glasses, 
which  will  shew  unto  you  that  shall  looke  thereinto,  manie  images 
of  diverse  formes,  and  some  so  small  and  curious,  as  they  shall  in 
favour  resemble  whom  so  ever  you  thinke  upon.  Looke  in  John 
Bap.  Neap,  for  the  confection  of  such  glasses.  The  subtilties  hereof 
are  so  detected,  and  the  mysteries  of  the  glasses  so  common  now, 
189-  and  their  /  cousenage  so  well  knowne,  &c  :  that  I  need  not  stand 
upon  the  particular  confutation  hereof.  Cardanus  in  the  place 
before  cited  reporteth,  how  he  tried  with  children  these  and  diverse 
circumstances  the  whole  illusion,  and  found  it  to  be  plaine  knaverie 
and  cousenage. 

^  Another  waie  to  find  out  a  theefe  that  hath  stolne  anie  thing 
fro7n  you. 


O  to  the  sea  side,  and  gather  as  manie  pebles  as  you  suspect 
persons  for  that  matter ;  carrie  them  home,  and  throwe  them  into 
the  fier,  and  burie  them  under  the  threshhold,  where  the  parties  are  like 
to  come  over.  There  let  them  lie  three  dales,  and  then  before  sunne 
262.  rising  take  them  awaie.  Then  set  a  porrenger/  full  of  water  in  a 
circle,  wherein  must  be  made  crosses  everie  waie,  as  manie  as  can 
stand  in  it ;  upon  the  which  must  be  written  :  Christ  overcommeth, 
Christ  reigneth,  Christ  commandeth.  The  porrenger  also  must  be 
signed  with  a  crosse,  and  a  forme  of  conjuration  must  be  pronounced. 
Then  each  stone  must  be  throwne  into  the  water,  in  the  name  of  the 
suspected.  And  when  you  put  in  the  stone  of  him  that  is  guiltie, 
the  stone  will  make  the  water  boile,  as  though  glowing  iron  were  put 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  17. 


thereinto.     Which  is  a  meere  knacke  of  legier  de  maine,  and  to  be 
accomplished  diverse  waies. 

^  To  put  Old  the  theeves  eie. 

REad  the  seven  *  psalmes  with  the  Letanie,  and  then  must  be  [« penitential] 
said  a  horrible  praier  to  Christ,  and  God  the  father,  with  a  cursse 
against  the  theefe.  Then  in  the  middest  of  the  step  of  your  foote,  on 
the  ground  where  you  stand,  make  a  circle  like  an  eie,  and  write 
thereabout  certeine  barbarous  names,  and  drive  with  a  coopers  ham- 
mar,  or  addes  into  the  middest  thereof  a  brasen  naile  consecrated, 
saieng  -.Justus  es  Donu'fie,&^  justaj'udida  tua.  Then  the  theefe  shall 
be  bewraied  by  his  crieng  out. 

These  be 
meere  toies 
to  raocke 

them  no 
dable de- 

^  Another  waie  to  find  out  a  theefe. 

STicke  a  paire  of  sheeres  in  the  rind  of  a  sive,  and  let  two 
persons  set  the  top  of  each  of  their  forefingers  upon  the  upper 
part  of  the  sheeres,  holding  it  with  the  sive  up  from  the  ground  apes,  and 
steddilie,  and  aske  Peter  and  Paule  whether  A.  B.  or  C.  hath  stolne 
the  thing  lost,  and  at  the  nomination  of  the  guiltie  person,  the  sive 
will  turne  round.  This  is  a  great  practise  in  all  countries,  and  in- 
deed a  verie  bable.  For  with  the  beating  of  the  pulse  some  cause  of 
that  motion  ariseth,  some  other  cause  by  slight  of  the  fingers,  some 
other  by  the  wind  gathered  in  the  sive  to  be  staid,  &c  :  at  the 
pleasure  of  the  holders.  Some  cause  may  be  the  imagination,  which 
upon  conceipt  at  the  naming  of  the  partie  altereth  the  common  course 
of  the  pulse.  As  may  well  be  conceived  by  a  ring  held  steddilie  by  a 
thred  betwixt  the  finger  and  the  thombe,  over  or  rather  in  a  goblet  or 
glasse  ;  which  within  short  space  will  strike  against  the  side  therof  so 
manie  strokes  as  the  holder  thinketh  it/  a  clocke,  and  then  will  staie  : 
the  which  who  so  prooveth  shall  find  true. 


^  A  charme  to  find  out  or  spoile  a  theefe. 

OF  this  matter,  concerning  the  apprehension  of  theeves  by  words, 
I  will  cite  one  charme,  called  S.  Adelberts  cursse,  being  both 
for/  length  of  words  sufficient  to  wearie  the  reader,  and  for  substan- 
tiall  stuffe  comprehending  all  that  apperteineth  unto  blasphemous 
speech  or  curssing,  allowed  in  the  church  oi  Rome,SiS  an  excommuni- 
cation and  inchantment. 


2  14  i.\Buoke.  Xhe  discoverie 


^1  Saint  Adelberts  cursse  or  charine  against  theeves. 

^Y  the  authoritie  of  the  omnipotent  Father,  the  Sonne,  and  the 
HoHe-ghost,and  by  the  holie  virgine  Marie  mother  of  our  Lord 
Jesu  Christ,  and  the  hoHe  angels  and  archangels,  and  S.  Michaell, 
and  S.  John  Baptist,  and  in  the  behalfe  of  S.  Peter  the  apostle,  and 
the  residue  of  the  apostles,  and  of  S.  Steeven,  and  of  all  the 
martyrs,  of  S.  Sylvester,  and  of  S.  Adelbert,  and  all  the  con- 
fessors, and  S.  Alegand,  and  all  the  holie  virgins,  and  of  all  the 
saints  in  heaven  and  earth,  unto  whom  there  is  given  power  to 
bind  and  loose :  we  doo  excommunicate,  damne,  cursse,  and  bind 
with  the  knots  and  bands  of  excommunication,  and  we  doo  segregate 
from  the  bounds  and  lists  of  our  holie  mother  the  church,  all  those 
theeves,  sacrilegious  persons,  ravenous  catchers,  dooers,  counsellers, 
coadjutors,  male  or  female,  that  have  committed  this  theft  or  mis- 
This  is  not  chcefe,  or  have  usurped  any  part  therof  to  their  owne  use.    Let  their 

to  our  eni-  share  be  with  DatJian  and  Abiran,  whome  the  earth  swallowed  up 

praie'foT'°  ^^^  their  sinnes  and  pride,  and  let  them  have  part  with  yzifrt'flj' that 

them  that  betraied  Christ,  Amen  :  and  with  Po7itiiis  Pilat,  and  with  them  that 

hate  us ;  as  Said  to  the  Lord,  Depart  from  us,  we  will  not  understand  thy  waies  ; 

h^^'t'W'^^'  ^^^  their  children  be  made  orphanes.     Curssed  be  they  in  the  field,  in 

the  grove,  in  the  woods,  in  their  houses,  barnes,  chambers,  and  beds  ; 
and  curssed  be  they  in  the  court,  in  the  waie,  in  the  towne,  in  the 
castell,  in  the  water,  in  the  church,  in  the  churchyard,  in  the  tribunall 
place,  in  battell,  in  their  abode,  in  the  market  place,  in  their  talke,  in 
264.  silence,  in  eating,  in  watching,  in  sleeping,  in  drinking/  in  feeling,  in 
sitting,  in  kneeling,  in  standing  [,]  in  lieng,  in  idlenes,  in  all  their 
worke,  in  their  bodie  and  soule,  in  their  five  wits,  and  in  everie  place. 
Curssed  be  the  fruit  of  their  wombs,  and  curssed  be  the  fruit  of  their 
lands,  and  curssed  be  all  that  they  have.  Curssed  be  their  heads, 
their  mouthes,  their  nostrels,  their  noses,  their  lips,  their  jawes,  their 
teeth,  their  eies  and  eielids,  their  braines,  the  roofe  of  their  mouthes, 
their  toongs,  their  throtes,  their  breasts,  their  harts,  their  bellies,  their 
livers,  all  their  bowels,  and  their  stomach. 

Curssed  be  their  navels,  their  spleenes,  their  bladder.  Curssed 
be  their  thighs,  their  legs,  their  feete,  their  toes,  their  necks,  their 
shoulders.  Curssed  be  their  backs,  curssed  be  their  armes,  curssed  be 
their  elbowes,  curssed  be  their  hands,  and  their  fingers,  curssed  be 
both  the  nails  of  their  hands  and  feete  ;  curssed  be  their  ribbes  and 
their  genitals,  and  their  knees,  curssed  be  their  flesh,  curssed  be  their 
bones,  curssed  be  their  bloud,  curssed  be  the  skin  of  their  bodies, 
curssed  be  the  marrowe  in  their  bones,  curssed  be  they  from  the 
crowne  of  the  head,  to  the  sole  of  the  foote  :    and  whatsoever  is  be- 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap.  17. 


twixt  the  same,  be  it  accurssed,  that  is  to  saie,  their  five  senses  ;  to 
wit,  their  seeing,  their  hearing,  their  smelling,  their  tasting,  and  their 
feeling.  Curssed  be  they  in  the  holie  crosse,  in  the  passion  of  Christ, 
with  his  five  wounds,  with  the  efiusi/on  of  his  bloud,  and  by  the  milke 
of  the  virgine  Marie.  I  conjure  thee  Lucifer.,  with  all  thy  soldiers,  by 
the  *father,  the  son,  and  the  Holie-ghost,  with  the  humanitie  and 
nativitie  of  Christ,  with  the  vertue  of  all  saints,  that  thou  rest  not  day 
nor  night,  till  thou  bringest  them  to  destruction,  either  by  drowning 
or  hanging,  or  that  they  be  devoured  by  wild  beasts,  or  burnt,  or 
slaine  by  their  enimies,  or  hated  of  all  men  living.  And  as  our  Lord 
hath  given  authoritie  to  Peter  the  apostle,  and  his  successors,  whose 
place  we  occupie,  and  to  us  (though  unworthie)  that  whatsoever  we 
bind  on  earth,  shall  be  bound  in  heaven,  and  whatsoever  we  loose  on 
earth,  shall  be  loosed  in  heaven  :  so  we  accordinglie,  if  they  will  not 
amend,  doo  shut  from  them  the  gates  of  heaven,  and  denie  unto  them 
christian  buriall,  so  as  they  shall  be  buried  in  asses  leaze.  Further- 
more, curssed  be  the  ground  wherein  they  are  buried,  let  them  be 
confounded  in  the  last  daie  of  judgement,  let  them  have  no  con- 
versation among  christians,  nor  be/houseled*  at  the  houre  of  death  ; 
let  them  be  made  as  dust  before  the  face  of  the  wind  :  and  as  Lucifer 
was  expelled  out  of  heaven,  and  Adam  and  Eve  out  of  paradise  ;  so 
let  them  be  expelled  from  the  daie  light.  Also  let  them  be  joined  with 
those,  to  whome  the  Lord  saith  at  the  judgement  ;  Go  ye  curssed  into 
everlasting  fier,  which  is  prepared  for  the  divell  and  his  angels,  where 
the  worme  shall  not  die,  nor  the  fier  be  quenched.  And  as  the  candle, 
which  is  throwne  out  of  my  hand  here,  is  put  out  :  so  let  their  works 
and  their  soule  be  quenched  in  the  stench  of  hell  fier,  except  they 
restore  that  which  they  have  stolne,  by  such  a  daie  :  and  let  everie 
one  saie.  Amen.  After  this  must  be  soong  *Ln  media  vita  in  tnorfe 
sum  us,  &^c. 

This  terrible  cursse  with  bell,  booke,  and  candell  added  thereunto, 
must  needs  worke  woonders  :  howbeit  among  theeves  it  is  not  much 
weighed,  among  wise  and  true  men  it  is  not  well  liked,  to  them  that 
are  robbed  it  bringeth  small  releefe  :  the  preests  stomach  may  well 
be  eased,  but  the  goods  stolne  will  never  the  sooner  be  restored. 
Hereby  is  bewraied  both  the  malice  and  follie  of  popish  doctrine, 
whose  uncharitable  impietie  is  so  impudentlie  published,  and  in  such 
order  uttered,  as  everie  sentence  (if  oportunitie  served)  might  be 
prooved  both  hereticall  and  diabolicall.  But  I  will  answer  this  cruell 
cursse  with  another  cursse  farre  more  mild  and  civill,  performed  by 
as  honest  a  man  (I  dare  saie)  as  he  that  made  the  other,  whereof 
mention  was  latelie  made. 

So  it  was,  that  a  certeine  sir  Jo/m,*  with  some  of  his  companie,  once 


**Thus  they 
make  the 
holie  trini- 
tie  to  beare 
a  part   in 
their  exor- 
cisnie,  or 
else  it  is  no 
bargain  e. 



»  That  is,  In 
the  midst  of 
life  we  are 
in  deith, 

[*  i.e.  a  priest.] 


12.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

[»  Rom.] 

A  cursse 
for  theft. 

went  abroad  a  jetting,  and  in  a  moone  light  evening  robbed  a  millers 
weire,  and  stole  all  his  eeles.  The  poore  miller  made  his  mone  to  sir 
John  himselfe,  who  willed  him  to  be  quiet  ;  for  he  would  so  cursse 
the  theefe,  and  all  his  confederates,  with  bell,  booke,  and  candell, 
that  they  should  have  small  joy  of  their  fish.  And  therefore  the  next 
sundaie,  s\r  John  got  him  to  the  pulpit,  with  his  surplisse  on  his  backe, 
and  his  stole  about  his  necke,  and  pronounced  these  words  following 
in  the  audience  of  the  people. 

All yoit  that  have  siohie  the  millers  eeles^ 

Laiidate  Doniijuun  de  cadis, 
And  all  they  that  have  consented  thereto,* j 
192.  Benedicamtis  Domino.] 

266.    Lo  (saith  he)  there  is  sauce  for  your  eeles  my  maisters. 

\  Another  inchanttnent. 

CErteine  preests  use  the  hundred  and  eight  psalme  as  an  in- 
chantment  or  charme,  or  at  the  leastwise  saieng,  that  against 
whome  soever  they  pronounce  it,  they  cannot  live  one  whole  yeere  at 
the  uttermost. 

[*  =  seekers] 

tives from 
a  cording 
to  M.  Mai. 
&  otners. 

[«  Rom.] 

The    xviii    Chapter. 

^  A  charme  or  experiment  to  fitid  out  a  witch. 

N'  die  domi?iico  sotularia  juvetuan  axiaigia  seu  pingiiedine 

porci,  ut  moris  est,  pro  restaiiratione  Jieri  perii7ig7i7it  : 

and  when  she  is  once  come  into  the  church,  the  witch 

can  never  get  out,  untill  the  *seachers  for  hir  give  hir 

expresse  leave  to  depart. 

But  now  it  is  necessarie  to  shew  you  how  to  prevent  and  cure  all 
mischeefes  wrought  by  these  charmes  &  witchcrafts,  according  to  the 
opinion  of  M.  Mai.  and  others.  One  principall  waie  is  to  naile  a 
horsse  shoo  at  the  inside  of  the  outmost  threshhold  of  your  house,  and 
so  you  shall  be  sure  no  witch  shall  have  power  to  enter  thereinto. 
And  if  you  marke  it,  you  shall  find  that  rule  observed  in  manie 
countrie  houses.  -Jit-  Otherwise  :  Item  the  triumphant  title  to  be  written 
crossewise,  in  everie  corner  of  the  house,  thus  :  Jesus  ^  Nazarejiits 
>^rex^Judcio?'um  ►{<.  Memorandum*  you  may  joine  heerewithall,  the 
name  of  the  virgine  Marie,  or  of  the  foure  evangelists,  or  Verbiim  caro 
Jactum  est.  ik  Otherwise  :  Item  in  some  countries  they  naile  a 
woolves  head  on  the  doore.     -5>  Otherwise  :  Item  they  hang  Scilla 

of  Witchcraft. 

Chap    i8. 

21  7 

(which  is  either  a  loote,  or  rather  in  this  place  garhke)  in  the  roofe 
of  the  house,  for  to  keepe  awaie  witches  and  spirits  :  and  so  they  doo 
Alicium  also.  <:- Otherwise  :  Item  perfume  made  of  the  gall  of  a 
blake  dog,  and  his  bloud  besmeered  on  the  posts  and  walles  of  the 
house,  driveth  out  of  the  doores  both  devils  and  witches,  ^j:-  Other- 
wise :  The  house/  where  Herba  betonica  is  sowne,  is  free  from  all 
mischeefes.  ■iis-  Otherwise  :  It  is  not  unknowne  that  the  Romish 
church  allowed  and  used  the  smoke  of  sulphur,  to  drive  spirits  out  of 
their  houses  ;  as  they  did  frankincense  and  water  hallowed.  •^,^  Other- 
wise :  Apuleiiis  saith,  that  Mercurie  gave  to  Ulysses,  when  he  came 
neere  to  the  inchantresse  Circe,  an  hearbe  called  Verbasctem,  which  in 
English  is  called  Pullein,  or  Tapsus  barhahis,  or  Longwoort;  and 
that  preserved  him  from  the  inchantments.  -:;:-  Otherwise  :  Item 
Plinie  and  Homer  both  doo  sale,  that  the  herbe  called  Molie  is  an 
excellent  herbe  against  inchantments  ;  and  saie[,]  all  that  thereby 
Ulysses  escaped  Circes  hir  sorceries,  and  inchantments.  -:>  Other- 
wise also  diverse  waies  they  went  to  worke  in  this  case,  and 
some  used  this  defensative,  some  that  preservative  against  incan- 

And  heerein  you  shall  see,  not  onelie  how  the  religion  of  papists,  and 
infidels  agree  ;  but  also  how  their  ceremonies  and  their  opinions  are 
all  one  concerning  witches  and  spirits. 


For  thus  luriteth  Ovid  touching  that  matter  :* 

Terque  senem  Jiamma,  ter  aqtta,  ter  sulphure  lustrat . 
She  ptirijies  until  fier  thrise 

old  horie  headed  Aeson,l 
With  water  thrise,  and  sulphur  thrise, 
as  she  thought  meet  in  reason. 

A^aine,  the  same  Ovid  comineth  in  as  before  :  * 

Adveniat,  qucB  liistret  anus,  lecti'imque  locumque^ 
Deferat  &^  tremula  sitlphur  &^  ova  mariu. 

Let  some  old  woman  JiitJier  come., 
and  purge  both  bed  and  place, 

And  bring  in  trembling  hand  new  egs 
and  sulpJtur  in  like  case. 

[ -  //«/.] 

Ovid  de  Me- 

Etiglished  by 


By  Ab.  Fle- 

A  nd  Virgil  also  harpeth  upon  the  like  string  :  ** 
baccare  frontem 

Cingite,  ne  vati  noceat  mala  lingua  futuro  .•/ 

Virg.  in  Bu- 

F  F 



The  discoverie 

Englished  by  268. 



[•  ?of  or  in.l 

Olaus  Goth, 
lib.  de  gentib. 
lib.  3.  cap.  8. 

*  A  witches 
to  make 
haile  cease 
and  be  dis- 



[*  Rom.] 

L.  Vair 

lib.  de 
:.  cap. 

Of  berrie  beartjii^  baccar  bowze  \boughs\ 

a  wreath  or  garland  knit, 
And  round  about  his  head  and  browze 

see  decent  lie  it  sit ; 
That  of  an  evill  talking  tung 

Our  future  poet  be  not  stung. 

Furthermore,  was  it  not  in  times  of  tempests  the  papists  use,  *or 
superstition,  to  ring  their  belles  against  divels  ;  trusting  rather  to 
the  tonging  of  their  belles,  than  to  their  owne  crie  unto  God  with 
fasting  and  praier,  assigned  by  him  in  all  adversities  and  dangers : 
according  to  the  order  of  the  Thracian  preests,  which  would  rore  and 
crie,  with  all  the  noise  they  could  make,  in  those  tempests.  Olaus 
Gothus  saith,  that  his  countriemen  would  shoot  in  the  aire,  to  assist 
their  gods,  whome  they  thought  to  be  then  togither  by  the  eares  with 
others,  and  had  consecrated  arrowes,  called  Sagittcs  foviales,  even  as 
our  papists  had.  Also  in  steed  of  belles,  they  had  great  hammers, 
called  Afallei  Joviales,  to  make  a  noise  in  time  of  thunder.  In  some 
countries  they  runne  out  of  the  doores  in  time  of  tempest,  blessing 
themselves  with  a  cheese,  whereupon  there  was  a  crosse  made  with 
a  ropes  end  upon  ascension  daie.  Also  three  hailestones  to  be 
throwne  into  the  fier  in  a  tempest,  and  thereupon  to  be  said  three 
Pater  nosters,  and  three  Aves,  S.  Johns  gospell,  and  in  fine  fttgiat 
tempestas,  is  a  present  remedie.  Item,  to  hang  an  eg  laid  on  ascen- 
sion daie  in  the  roofe  of  the  house,  preserveth  the  same  from  all 
hurts.  *Item,  I  conjure  you  haile  and  wind  by  the  five  wounds  of 
Christ,  by  the  three  nailes  which  pearsed  his  hands  and  his  feete, 
and  by  the  foure  evangelists,  Mattheiv,  Afarke,  Luke,  andjohri,  that 
thou  come  downe  dissolved  into  water.  Item,  it  hath  beene  a  usuall 
matter,  to  carrie  out  in  tempests  the  sacraments  and  relikes,  &c. 
Item,  against  stormes,  and  mania  dumme  creatures,  the  popish 
church  useth  excommunication  as  a  principal!  charme.  And  now  to 
be  delivered  from  witches  themselves,  they  hang  in  their  entries  an 
hearbe  called  pentaphyllon,  cinquefole,  also  an  olive  branch,  also 
frankincense,  myrrh,  valerian,  verven,  palme,  antirchmon,  &c  :  also 
haythorne,  otherwise  white[t]horne  gathered  on  Male  daie  :  also  the 
smoke  of  a  lappoints  fethers  driveth  spirits/  awaie.  There  be 
innumerable  popish  exorcismes,  and  conjurations  for  hearbs  and 
other  things,  to  be  thereby  made  wholsome  both  for  the  bodies  and 
soules  of  men  and  beasts,  and  also  for/  contagion  of  weather. 
Memorandum,^  that  at  the  gathering  of  these  magicall  herbs,  the 
Credo  is  necessarie  to  be  said,  as  Vairus  afifirmeth  ;  and  also  the 
Pater  noster,  for  that  is  not  superstitious.     Also  Sprenger  saith,  that 

of  Witchcraft.  chap.  is.  219 

to  throw  up  a  blacke  chicken  in  the  aire,  will  make  all  tempests  to    ^«'-  MaUf. 

:,,  -iiiir  IT/-  1  1  t<^*'-   2-  QUCP.   I. 

cease  :  so  it  be  done  with  the  hand  of  a  witch.     If  a  soule  wander   cap.  15. 
in  the  likenesse  of  a  man  or  woman  by  night,  molesting  men,  with    Note  that 
bewailing  their  torments  in  purgatorie,  by  reason  of  tithes  forgotten,   y""  ''^^ 
&c  :  and  neither  masses  nor  conjurations  can  helpe  ;  the  exorcist  in    nie  spirit 
his  ceremoniall  apparell  must  go  to  the  toome  of  that  bodie,  and    bj^dEae, 
spurne  thereat,  with  his  foote,  saieng  ;   Vade  ad geJietuiatn,  Get  thee   '^""'^  ^°'^ 
packing  to  hell  :  and  by  and  by  the  soule  goeth  thither,  and  there 
remaineth  for  ever,     -^s-  Otherwise  :  There  be  masses  of  purpose  for 
this  matter,  to  unbewitch  the  bewitched.     -:>  Otherwise  :  You  must 
spet  into  the  pissepot,  where  you  have  made  water,     ■*i^  Otherwise  : 
Spet  into  the  shoo  of  your  right  foote,  before  you  put  it  on  :  and  that 
Vairus  saith   is  good  and  holsome  to  doo,  before  you  go  into  anie 
dangerous  place.      4^  Otherwise  :    That    neither   hunters    nor   their 
dogs  male  be  bewitched,  they  cleave  an  oken  branch,  and  both  they 
and  their  dogs  passe  over  it.     ^c-   Otherwise:  S.   Augustine  saith,   Aug.deci- 
that  to  pacifie  the  god  Liber.,  whereby  women  might  have  fruite  of  ^y,  cap!  12. 
the  seeds  they  sowe,  and  that  their  gardens  and  feelds  should  not  be 
bewitched  ;  some  cheefe  grave  matrone  used  to  put  a  crowne  upon 
his  genitall  member,  and  that  must  be  publikelie  done. 

To  spoile  a  theefe.,  a  witch.,  or  anie  other  eniinie,  and  to  be  deliv- 
ered from  the  evill. 

UPon  the  Sabboth  daie  before  sunrising,  cut  a  hazell  wand, 
saieng  :  I  cut  thee  O  bough  of  this  summers  growth,  in  the 
name  of  him  whome  I  meane  to  beate  or  maime.  Then  cover  the 
table,  and  sale  ^  hi  nomine  patris  4*  &^  filii  ^  <S^  spiritus  sancti  ^ 
ter.  And  striking  thereon  sale  as  foUoweth  (english  it  he  that  can) 
Drochs  myroch,  esetiaroth,  ^  beiu  ►{<  baroch  ^  ass  ►{<  maaroth  *I< : 
and  then  saie  ;  Holie  trinitie  punish  him  that  hath/  wrought  this  2^0. 
mischiefe,  &  take  it  away  by  thy  great  justice,  Esoti  ►{*  elio7i  ►{<  emaris^ 
ales,  age  ;  and  strike  the  carpet  with  your  wand. 

^  A  notable  charme  or  medicine  to  pull  out  an  arrowhead,  or 
anie  stich  thing  that  sticketh  in  the  flesh  or  bones,  and  can- 
not otherwise  be  had  out. 

SAie  three  severall  times  kneeling  ;  Oremus,  prcEceptis  salutaribus 
moniti.  Pater  noster,  ave  Maria.     Then  make  a  crosse  saieng  : 
The  Hebrew  knight  strake  our  Lord  Jesu  Christ,  and  I  beseech  thee,    The  H?- 


12.  Booke. 

The  discoverie 

brue  knight 
was  cano- 
nized a 
saint  to  wit, 
S.  Longinus. 

O  Lord  Jesu  Christ  ►J*  by  the  same  iron,  speare,  bloud  and  water, 
to  pull  out  this  iron  :  In  nomine  patris  4*  ^  filii  *^  ^  spiritus 
sancti  ►f* 

^  Charmes  against  a  quotidian  a^tee. 

Cut  an  apple  in  three  peeces,  and  write  upon  the  one  ;  The  father 
is  uncreated  :  upon  the  other  ;  The  father  is  incomprehensible: 
upon  the  third  ;  The  father  is  eternall.  -:>  Otherwise  :  Write  upon 
a  massecake  cut  in  three  peeces  ;  O  ague  to  be  worshipped  :  on  the 
second  ;  O  sicknesse  to  be  ascribed  to  health  and  joies  :  on  the  third  ; 
Pax  ^  tnax  ^  fax  ►f"  and  let  it  be  eaten  fasting.  -:^  Otherwise  : 
Paint  upon  three  like  peeces  of  a  massecake,  Pater  pax  ►!<  Adonai 
^  Jilius  vita  ►{<  sabbaoth  ^  spiritus  sanctus  ^  Tetragrammaton  ^ 
and  eate  it,  as  is  afore  said./ 

A  crossed 
with  other 


196  ^  For  all  maner  of  agues  interinittajit. 

Oine  two  little  stickes  togither  in  the  middest,  being  of  one 
length,  and  hang  it  about  your  necke  in  the  forme  of  a  crosse. 
4}e  Otherwise :  For  this  disease  the  Turkes  put  within  their  doublet 
a  ball  of  wood,  with  an  other  peece  of  wood,  and  strike  the  same, 
speaking  certeine  frivolous  words.  ^^  Otherwise  :  Certeine  monks 
hanged  scrolles  about  the  necks  of  such  as  were  sicke,  willing  them 
to  saie  certeine  praiers  at  each  fit,  and  at  the  third  fit  to  hope  well  : 
and  made  them  beleeve  that  they  should  thereby  receive  cure. 

For  bodie 
and  soule. 


S.  Barnard 
cheth  the 
divell  for 
all  his  sub- 

Periapts,  characters,  Sr'c :  for  agues,  ajid  to  cure  all  diseases, 
and  to  deliver  from  all  evill. 

THe  first  chapter  of  S.  foJins  gospell  in  small  letters  consecrated 
at  a  masse,  and  hanged  about  ones  necke,  is  an  in/comparable 
amulet  or  tablet,  which  delivereth  from  all  witchcrafts  and  divelish 
practises.  But  me  thinkes,  if  one  should